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© Crown Copyright 2005 Primary National Strategy Dennis Piper SEN Consultant: ‘Emotional Well-Being’ (social, emotional and behavioural needs) C0-Lead (Salford): TA/MMU National Award for SEN Coordination Associate Lecturer: Manchester Metropolitan University
© Crown copyright 2005 Objectives 1.To know the official definitions of Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties and understand the factors that create BESD 2.To reﬂect upon and deepen our own awareness / understanding about emotions and explore how and why adults’ emotions in the classroom impact significantly upon children’s emotions, behaviour, attendance and learning - Our responsibilities! 3.To develop strategies for managing our own and pupils’ emotions within the learning environment and to understand the concept and nature of ‘emotional intelligence’; 4.To understand how risk and resilience factors impact on children and young people’s emotional wellbeing and begin profiling/provision mapping around pupils’ emotional wellbeing needs; 5.To understand how emotions affect the ability to communicate.
© Crown copyright 2005 DEFINITIONS APPROACHES FACTS AND FIGURES RESPONSIBILITIES
© Crown copyright 2005 ______________________________________________________________ Structures What has influenced the patterns? (rules, lesson plans, curriculum) What are the relationships among the parts? ________________________________________________________ Mental Models What values, beliefs, and assumptions do you have about teaching? Events What’s happening? Patterns of Behaviour What’s been happening? What are the trends? What changes have occurred? THE ICEBERG MODEL The iceberg model is a thinking tool designed to help an individual or a group to discover the patterns of behaviour, supporting structures and mental models that underlie a particular event. WHAT IS SEEN WHAT IS GENERALLY UNSEEN Dennis Piper: Adapted from the Iceberg Model by M. Goodman (2002) LEVERAGE LEARNING
© Crown copyright 2005 Introduction to BESD In schools at times we may experience disruptive behaviour causing us ‘Negative’ Feelings. There are many factors that can lie behind behavioural difficulties: Social Emotional and Psychological Biological These difficulties present a significant barrier to teaching and learning. If you understand and respond to these underlying factors it can help you develop positive relationships with these pupils. This in turn can make teaching them easier.
© Crown copyright 2005 Many people, when they hear that a pupil has ‘behavioural difficulties’ instantly think that the pupil is disruptive. In fact BESD and disruptive behaviour are not the same thing. Disruptive behaviour is commonly exhibited by pupils with no BESD Pupils with BESD do not always exhibit disruptive behaviour BESD are a special educational need (SEN), defined as a ‘learning difficulty’ where children and young people demonstrate features of emotional and behavioural difficulties such as: Being withdrawn or isolated, disruptive and disturbing; Being hyperactive and lacking concentration; Having immature social skills; Presenting challenging behaviours arising from other complex special needs. (Source: SEN Code of Practice 2001) What are Behavioural Emotional and Social Difficulties?
© Crown copyright 2005 So……. How should we look at behaviour? A Difficulty? A Need? “F_ _ _ Off!” So……. How should we look at behaviour?
© Crown copyright 2005 So... what is Behaviour? “ Behaviour is a manifestation of how we feel.”
© Crown copyright 2005 Rationale for looking at Behaviour from an emotional wellbeing perspective Behaviour is a manifestation (i.e. outcome) of how we feel. How we feel is related to our level/s of anxiety. Therefore, behaviours are ‘anxiety-driven’. Anxiety is related to our emotional well-being. Emotional Wellbeing is a significant aspect of mental health. Child mental health involves ‘risk’ and resilience’ factors interacting within 3 domains - individual, family and environment. Thus, the primary focus for understanding behaviour should centre on ‘emotional well-being’ and ‘anxiety’ levels (Maslow, A.1954). Piper, D. (2013)
© Crown copyright 2005 What do we need in order to look at behaviour from an emotional wellbeing perspective?
© Crown copyright 2005 Empathy is without question an important ability. It allows us to tune into how someone else is feeling, or what they might be thinking. Empathy allows us to understand the intentions of others, predict their behaviour, and experience an emotion triggered by their emotion. In short, empathy allows us to interact effectively in the social world. It is also the “glue” of the social world, drawing us to help others and stopping us from hurting others. Simon Baron-Cohen (2004) Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry Cambridge University What is Empathy?
© Crown copyright 2005 Haim G. Ginott (originally Ginzburg) (1922–1973) was a school teacher, a child psychologist and psychotherapist and a parent educator. He pioneered techniques for conversing with children that are still taught today.
© Crown copyright 2005 Teaching and Reflecting on Emotions 6 important areas to explore 1. Label feelings 2. Recognize feelings 3. Acknowledge feelings 4. Manage feelings 5. Think about feelings and ……. 6. What you should do about them “Am I emotionally intelligent?”
© Crown copyright 2005 Creating an ‘Emotionally Supportive’ Learning Environment: a checklist 1.The classroom 2.Rewards 3.Relationships 4.Communication 5.Feedback 6.Learning 7.Confidence 8.Staff Support Activity: Individually, complete the checklist. What are you doing well for your class and what would you like to change? “Am I emotionally intelligent?”
© Crown copyright 2005 “ Anyone in contact with a child has an impact on that child’s mental health and psychological wellbeing. The challenge for all of us is to remember that, and to be able to respond if things start to go wrong”. Children and Young People in Mind; final report of the CAMHS Review 2008 “It’s Everyone’s Responsibility!”
© Crown copyright 2005 Who are the vulnerable? 850,000 children aged 5 – 16 years of age have a diagnosable mental health problem (ONS, 2008) Around 1 in 12 children and young people deliberately self harm (MHF, 2006) 3 children in every classroom have a diagnosable mental health problem (Green H, McGinnity A, Meltzer H et al., 2005) Nearly 80,000 children and young people suffer severe depression (ONS, 2004) 45% of children in care have a mental health disorder (Meltzer, Gatward and Corbin, 2003) In a Secondary School with a 1000 student population, at any one time: 100 will be suffering a significant mental illness 50 pupils will be seriously depressed pupils will have an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) 5-10 girls will be affected by eating disorders are bereaved of someone close BUT ….only 25% of children and young people with clinically significant mental health problems will be accessing the services they need. Source: Sir Aynsley-Green Website:
© Crown copyright Key Principles ~ Promoting emotional well-being 1.The more adults can be aware of and manage their own emotional responses to inappropriate behaviour, the more likely they are to be able to maintain a calm classroom. 2.Children’s behaviour is underpinned by the stage they have reached in social and emotional development, the level of skills they have in this area, and their emotional well-being whilst interacting with the social, emotional and physical environment. 3.There is a need to take active steps to develop children’s social, emotional and behavioural skills. 4.Positive relationships with children are the key to developing positive behaviour, self esteem, regular attendance and achievement. 5.We need to draw on / share each other’s experiences to enhance our understanding of self and others KEYPRINCIPLESKEYPRINCIPLES
© Crown copyright 2005 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (and Theory of Motivation) Self-actualization personal growth and fulfilment Esteem needs achievement, status, responsibility, reputation Belonging and Love needs family, affection, relationships, work group, etc. Safety needs protection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. Biological and Physiological needs Basic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sleep, etc.
© Crown copyright 2005 Are you ‘Child focussed’ or ‘Child centred’? What is the difference?
© Crown copyright because it is NOT the same as child focused. It starts from where children and young people are i.e. from their ‘lived experience’ - and looks out from there. It challenges us to ‘actively’ listen (with our eyes and ears); then reflect on, and act upon what we hear. It requires us to build services around Children and Young People’s needs i.e. ‘inclusive practice’. It challenges us to understand behaviour as communication and to remain curious about what is being communicated rather than leaping to conclusions. Why is a ‘Child-Centred’ Model more effective for understanding ‘emotional wellbeing’?
© Crown copyright 2005 Education Education Social Health Care Housing Housing ‘Child Focused’ ‘Child Centred’ Are you ‘Child-focused’ or ‘Child-centred’?
© Crown copyright 2005 What are children and young people saying to us? “We feel judged.” “We need to talk about how we feel inside.” “Teachers need to notice when we are distressed at school.” “We need help early on not when it’s too late.”
© Crown copyright 2005 RISK AND RESILIENCE: HOW IT AFFECTS MENTAL HEALTH AND EMOTIONAL WELLBEING Resilience Factors Risk Factors Resilience Factors MENTALHEALTHMENTALHEALTH EmotionalWellbeing
© Crown copyright 2005 What are the Risk and Resilience Factors when looking at emotional wellbeing and mental health? 1. A range of factors in children’s early lives have been consistently associated with increased risk of mental health problems in adolescence and adulthood (MHF, 1999, p7). 2. The greater the number of risks, and the more severe the risks, the greater the likelihood of the child developing a mental health problem. 3. If a child has only one risk factor in their life, their risk of developing a mental health problem has been defined as being 1-2%. 4. However, with three risk factors the likelihood increases to 8%; and with four or more risk factors the likelihood of the child developing a mental health problem is increased to 20% (MHF, 1999, p7). 5. Evidence suggests that children’s emotional well-being can be improved if the number of risk factors is reduced, and the number of protective factors is increased. However, some individuals are more resilient than others. There are children who, against all odds survive intact and develop into competent, confident and caring adults despite prolonged and negative experiences. An important key to promoting children’s mental health is, therefore, a greater understanding of those protective factors that enable these children to be resilient. (Mental Health Foundation, 1999, p.9).
© Crown copyright 2005 What should we aim for? (1)To reduce risk and increase resilience factors via child-centred approaches and needs-led provision / interventions, including ‘quality first teaching’ delivered within optimal learning / therapeutic ‘settings’; (2)To produce better outcomes for children within the 5 ECM outcomes. (DfE Green Paper, 2003), (Children Act - change for children 2004); (3)To demonstrate measurable academic progression. (Ofsted Inspection Framework 2012);
© Crown copyright 2005 Where are the risk and resilience factors located? There is a broad agreement that factors that can promote childhood resilience are located in the following domains. 1.The physical and emotional attributes of the child; 2.The child’s family; 3.The immediate environment in which the child lives.
© Crown copyright 2005 Affection Schools with strong academic and non- academic opportunities Access to sport and leisure amenities Wider support networks High standard of living Community/Environmental Protective factors Community/Environmental Risk factors Good housing Unemployment Discrimination Disaster Homelessness Socio- economic disadvantage Family Protective factors Family Risk factors Parental conflict Family breakdown Inconsistent or unclear discipline Hostile and rejecting relationships Failure to adapt to a child’s changing needs Physical, sexual and/or emotional abuse Severe parental mental health problems Parental criminality or substance addiction Death and loss, including loss of friendships At least one good parent- child relationship Affection Supervision Authoritative discipline Support for education Supportive parental relationship/absence of severe discord Individual Risk factors Individual Protective factors Gender (female) Good communication skills Believing in control Humour Religious faith Capacity to reflect Higher intelligence Learning difficulty or disability Academic failure Low self-esteem Specific developmental delay Communication problems Genetic influences Low IQ Difficult temperament Physical illness, especially if chronic and/or neurological Substance misuse Adapted: Mental Health Foundation 1999 © Dennis Piper: ‘Emotional Well-Being: Profiling and Provision Mapping for Children and Young People Based On Risk and Resilience (Protective) Factors - A Process Model.’
© Crown copyright 2005 (1) Identified M/F and Year e.g. 5, 7 9,11: (2) Identified ‘Protective’ (Resilience) Factor/s (use diagram): (3) Identified ‘Risk’ Factor/s (use diagram): (4) Observable Characteristics and Behaviour/s within School and the Classroom e.g. on/off task, interaction with peers/staff, social, interpersonal and communication skills: (5) Skills, Strategies, Ideas or Plans required to address identified concern/s or ‘risk/s’: EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING ‘RISK AND RESILIENCE FACTORS’ SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ACTIVITY: USING THE RISK AND PROTECTIVE DIAGRAM, PLEASE COMPLETE THE TABLE BELOW AND DISCUSS THESE ISSUES WITHIN YOUR GROUP
© Crown copyright 2005 Activity Individually: 1.Think of a pupil. 2.Look at the risk and resilience factors sheet. 3.What are the risk and protective factors? Is this EWB profiling helpful?
© Crown copyright 2005 Emotions, Speech, Language, Communication and the Brain!! C F I O D A U S F M K A F
© Crown copyright 2005
© The Salford “TENSION MODEL” - for recognising, predicting and responding appropriately to a pupil’s emotional levels and presenting (i.e. observable) behavioural difficulties. ATTACKING STATE Pupil Behaviour: Loss of self-control with a need to attack something or someone i.e. frenzied. Has a great deal of strength/energy to expend – very difficult to talk to/manage. AGGRESSIVE STATE Pupil Behaviour: Extremely tense, confrontational and irrational (severe physically challenging actions). AGITATED STATE Pupil Behaviour: Increasing tension and physically unsettled. Clearly challenging staff authority and/or control e.g. jumping on chair/throwing things/banging window/ shouting loudly. THRESHOLD BETWEEN RATIONAL AND IRRATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ANXIOUS STATE Pupil Behaviour: Beginning to feel uncomfortable and tense. Avoiding contact, fussing more than usual, sitting away form others and difficulty in concentration/remaining ‘on task’. CONTROLLED STATE Pupil Behaviour: Generally calm/compliant but can be ‘giddy’ or ‘boisterous at times. Staff Response: To prevent injury or harm to the person themselves; to prevent injury or harm to other people-appropriate physical restraint; to remove from premises with support – inter-agency meeting (follow up). Staff Response: To use non-verbal signals (non provocative body posture). Physical proximity to pupil is crucial i.e. safe distance if pupil ‘hits out’ (2 staff minimum present); to try and ‘let the fire burn out’ without increasing pupil tension; to encourage pupil to adopt slow breathing actions (speaking in a calm, clear voice); to move other pupils to a ‘safe’ place – quickly/calmly/orderly (2 staff to supervise); to increase language (verbal strategies) during ‘lulls’ and as the pupil calms to Agitated/Anxious states. Staff Response: To prevent other pupils being interfered with/provoked – move other pupils to a ‘safe’ place (if necessary) and in orderly fashion; to deploy 1 member of staff for observation/physical and emotional support; to deploy 1 member of staff for talking to pupil – “please do it for me” (personalise); to clearly remind pupil of rules/behavioural boundaries – calmly and clearly; to avoid being further provoked – remain calm. Think before saying/doing anything; to stand in a relaxed manner but not too near pupil – proximity to pupil is crucial!; to allow pupil to make a choice or face the consequences – ‘self- management’; to allow pupil time to follow instructions, if possible – ‘time out’ facility available; to ensure that consequences can be enforced – are they pragmatic/relevant/realistic?; to allow pupil to ‘save face’ – if they do it and swear the outcome has still been achieved (specific praise for ‘positives’ and ignore ‘negatives’ if possible. Staff Response: To reassure pupil that they can be supported - “we do care about you”; to suggest talking about problem - “we can try to make things better”; to tell pupil that you are aware they are unhappy (stay near if pupil doesn’t respond); to reassure pupil that you are available if they wish to talk – ‘library area’ available. Staff Response: To harness, maintain and develop pupil’s positive attitude to staff/others/work; to give specific and general praise regularly (celebrate achievements) – ‘circle time’; to remind pupil (if behaving ‘silly) of rules/boundaries in a clear and calm manner. Baseline DOWN UP DOWN UP DOWN
© Crown copyright 2005 The ‘Anger Mountain’ ~ also known as the ‘assault cycle ’ 2. ESCALATION PHASE 3. CRISIS PHASE 4. RECOVERY PHASE 5. DEPRESSION PHASE Possible additional assaults Strength of Emotion/Anger/Tension/Anxiety Be aware of body language; Communication limited; Stressed behaviour gives clues. Remove trigger Give alternative activity Visual Reminder Exercise May need to: Remove from room – may need to be quieter/darker Defuse Give space Summon help Protect Safe place Safe person Go for a walk Child/Young person needs calm reassurance No blame Use Social Stories What to do when... Rehearsal of situations Agree visual reminders Where to go/who will help Teach strategies for relieving or controlling anxiety TIME KEEP CALM BASELINE 1. TRIGGER PHASE KEEP TALKING (USING LANUAGE OF EMOTIONS)
© Crown copyright 2005 Thoughts, Emotions And The Brain
© Crown copyright 2005 Thinking part of brain Emotional part of brain How feelings affect our thoughts How I interpret my feelings How I feel
© Crown copyright 2005 THREAT T HREAT Our Response To Threat Fight or Flight?
© Crown copyright 2005 “He’s annoying me” … Feeling Irritable Feeling Irritable
© Crown copyright 2005 Feeling more irritable “He’s really getting on my nerves!” …
© Crown copyright 2005 Interprets everything negatively “I know he hates me!” …
© Crown copyright 2005 Overwhelmed by emotions!! “I’ve had enough of him!”
© Crown copyright 2005 Calming down ‘ emotional rescue’ Therapeutic Techniques: Relaxation Exercise Distraction CBT Mindfulness
© Crown copyright 2005 © R educing A nxiety M anagement P lan [RAMP] PUPIL’S NAME: DATE OF BIRTH: CONTEXT: IN-CLASS [ ] PLAYGROUND [ ] DINNER TIME [ ] TRANSPORT [ ] STATUS: AT HOME [ ] WITH RELATIVES [ ] IN PUBLIC CARE [ ] ACCOMMODATED [ ] FOSTERED [ ] PRIORITY CONCERNS: _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ MEDICAL CONDITIONS: ____________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________
© Crown copyright 2005 © R educing A nxiety M anagement P lan PUPIL BEHAVIOUR:STAFF STRATEGIES: PUPIL BEHAVIOUR:STAFF STRATEGIES: PUPIL BEHAVIOUR:STAFF STRATEGIES: PUPIL BEHAVIOUR:STAFF STRATEGIES: PUPIL BEHAVIOUR:STAFF STRATEGIES: LEVEL (5): ATTACKING/DISTRESSED STATE LEVEL (4): AGGRESSIVE/HIGHLY STRESSED STATE LEVEL (3): AGITATED STATE LEVEL (2): ANXIOUS STATE LEVEL (1): CONTROLLED STATE (Threshold between Rational / Irrational Behaviour) CONTEXT CODES: (C) = CLASS (P) = PLAYGROUND (D) = DINNER TIME (T) = TRANSPORT (Baseline)
© Crown copyright 2005 Activity Individually/Collectively: 1.Look at the Reducing Anxiety Management Plan (RAMP) 2.Plan for your chosen child in EACH context. DOES THIS TYPE OF PLAN HELP?
© Crown copyright 2005 Provision Mapping for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Needs ~ The 3 ‘waves’ model Additional highly personalised Interventions e.g. 1:1 support Small-group intervention for children who need additional help in developing skills, and for their families Quality first teaching of social, emotional and behavioural skills to all children; an effective and positive ‘whole-school’ ethos or ‘educational setting’; policies, good practice and ‘learning frameworks’ for promoting emotional health and wellbeing. Wave 1 Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave 2 Wave 3 Wave 3
© Crown copyright 2005 SCHOOL: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NAME: ___________________________ YEAR: ______SEN CoP: __________START DATE: ____________________ REVIEW DATE: ___________________ WAVE    (SETTINGS/CURRICULUM/INTE RVENTIONS RISK FACTORS (HEALTH AND SAFETY) RESPONSE (PREVENTATIVE STRATEGIES) REWARD (POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT) SUCCESS CRITERIA (MEASURABLE OUTCOMES) © 3-WAVE PROVISION MAP CURRICULUM.INTERVENTIONSRISK ASSESSMNENTS AND PREVENTATIVE MEASURESIMPACT (REFER TO REDUCING ANXIETY MANAGEMENT PLAN)
© Crown copyright 2005 How Do I Know If I Am Emotionally Intelligent In My Work? QUESTION: WHAT IT MEANS: Do I have self-knowledge?Do I know enough about myself? Am I open?Can I share feelings/thoughts? Am I warm?Have I a friendly/caring manner? How accepting am I?Do I accept others and myself? Do I show support?Do I advocate for the child? Am I flexible?Can I creatively re-frame situations? Do I appreciate children?Am I ‘child-centred’? Am I empathic?Can I identify feelings? Do I show respect?Can I be unbiased? Am I accountable?Do I allow ‘learning from mistakes’? Do I set and move towards goals?Do I see the ‘Bigger picture’?
© Crown copyright 2005 Acknowledgements and References: Baron-Cohen, Simon: ‘Zero Degrees of Empathy: A New Theory of Human Cruelty’, Allen Lane Publisher, 2011 Brennan, Sarah: An Integrated Approach to Mental Health - The Role of Schools in the 21st Century, Young Minds, ENSEC Conference, Manchester University, June 2011 Buchanan, A. & Ten Brinke, J.A, 1998: ‘Key Risk and Resilience Factors for Emotional and Behavioural Problems’, The Mental Health Foundation, 1999 Children and Young People in Mind; Final report of the CAMHS Review, 2008 Green-Aynsley, Al: Why listening to the voices and views of children and young people should be the basis for promoting their social and emotional competence, ENSEC Conference, Manchester University, June 2011 Risk and Resilience and Emotional Wellbeing: Mental Health Foundation, 1999 Smith, Rachel: Promoting Children's Emotional Health, Research Review, Policy, Research and Influencing Unit, 2002 The National Strategies Inclusion Development Programme: BESD Focus, DCSF, 2010 Weare, Katherine, Nind, Melanie: Mental Health Promotion and Problem Prevention in Schools - What does the evidence say and what are the messages for Europe? University of Southampton, ENSEC Conference, Manchester University, June 2011 Young Minds: The Voice for Young People’s Mental Health and Wellbeing
© Crown copyright 2005 Acknowledgements and References continued: Websites: Young Minds Anysley-Green Consulting European Network for Social and Emotional Competence
© Crown copyright 2005 Contact Details Dennis Piper SEN Consultant Associate Lecturer (MMU) © PowerPoint design by Dennis Piper 2013 © Salford City Council, Children's Services Directorate, Inclusive Learning Services, 2013.
© Crown Copyright 2005 Primary National Strategy The importance of emotions in the classroom.
© Crown Copyright 2004 Primary National Strategy The importance of emotions in the classroom.
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