Presentation on theme: "Objectives To know the official definitions of Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties and understand the factors that create BESD To reﬂect upon."— Presentation transcript:
0 ‘Emotional Well-being’ ‘The Importance OfUnderstanding EmotionsIn The Classroom’NQTs 12th October 2013Dennis PiperSEN Consultant: ‘Emotional Well-Being’ (social, emotional and behavioural needs)C0-Lead (Salford): TA/MMU National Award for SEN CoordinationAssociate Lecturer: Manchester Metropolitan University
1 ObjectivesTo know the official definitions of Behavioural, Emotional and Social Difficulties and understand the factors that create BESDTo reﬂect upon and deepen our own awareness / understanding about emotions and explore how and why adults’ emotions in the classroom impact significantly upon children’s emotions, behaviour, attendance and learning - Our responsibilities!To develop strategies for managing our own and pupils’ emotions within the learning environment and to understand the concept and nature of ‘emotional intelligence’;To understand how risk and resilience factors impact on children and young people’s emotional wellbeing and begin profiling/provision mapping around pupils’ emotional wellbeing needs;To understand how emotions affect the ability to communicate.
2 DEFINITIONS APPROACHES FACTS AND FIGURESRESPONSIBILITIES
3 WHAT IS GENERALLY UNSEEN LEARNING THE ICEBERG MODELThe iceberg model is a thinking tool designed to help an individual or a group to discover the patterns of behaviour, supporting structures and mental models that underlie a particular event.______________________________________________________________ StructuresWhat has influenced the patterns?(rules, lesson plans, curriculum)What are the relationships among the parts?________________________________________________________ Mental ModelsWhat values, beliefs, and assumptions do you have about teaching?WHAT IS SEENEventsWhat’s happening?WHAT IS GENERALLY UNSEENPatterns of BehaviourWhat’s been happening?What are the trends?What changes have occurred?LEARNINGLEVERAGEDennis Piper: Adapted from the Iceberg Model by M. Goodman (2002)
4 Introduction to BESDIn schools at times we may experience disruptive behaviour causing us‘Negative’ Feelings.There are many factors that can lie behind behavioural difficulties:SocialEmotional and PsychologicalBiologicalThese difficulties present a significant barrier to teaching and learning.If you understand and respond to these underlying factors it can help you develop positive relationships with these pupils.This in turn can make teaching them easier.
5 What are Behavioural Emotional and Social Difficulties? Many people, when they hear that a pupil has ‘behavioural difficulties’ instantly think that the pupil is disruptive.In fact BESD and disruptive behaviour are not the same thing.Disruptive behaviour is commonly exhibited by pupils with no BESDPupils with BESD do not always exhibit disruptive behaviourBESD are a special educational need (SEN), defined as a ‘learning difficulty’ where children and young people demonstrate features of emotional and behavioural difficulties such as:Being withdrawn or isolated, disruptive and disturbing;Being hyperactive and lacking concentration;Having immature social skills;Presenting challenging behaviours arising from other complex special needs.(Source: SEN Code of Practice 2001)
6 A Difficulty? A Need? So……. How should we look at behaviour? So……. “F_ _ _ Off!”“F_ _ _ Off!”
7 manifestation of how we feel.” “Behaviour is a So ... what is Behaviour?“Behaviour is amanifestation ofhow we feel.”
8 Rationale for looking at Behaviour from an emotional wellbeing perspective Behaviour is a manifestation (i.e. outcome) of how we feel. How we feel is related to our level/s of anxiety. Therefore, behaviours are ‘anxiety-driven’. Anxiety is related to our emotional well-being. Emotional Wellbeing is a significant aspect of mental health. Child mental health involves ‘risk’ and resilience’ factors interacting within 3 domains - individual, family and environment. Thus, the primary focus for understanding behaviour should centre on ‘emotional well-being’ and ‘anxiety’ levels (Maslow, A.1954).Piper, D. (2013)
9 What do we need in order to look at behaviour from an emotional wellbeing perspective?
10 Professor of Psychology and Psychiatry What is Empathy?Empathy is without question an important ability. It allows us to tune into how someone else is feeling, or what they might be thinking. Empathy allows us to understand the intentions of others, predict their behaviour, and experience an emotion triggered by their emotion. In short, empathy allows us to interact effectively in the social world. It is also the “glue” of the social world, drawing us to help others and stopping us from hurting others.Simon Baron-Cohen (2004)Professor of Psychology and PsychiatryCambridge University
11 psychotherapist and a parent educator. Haim G. Ginott (originally Ginzburg) (1922–1973) was a school teacher, a child psychologist andpsychotherapist and a parent educator.He pioneered techniques for conversing with children that are still taught today.
12 Teaching and Reflecting on Emotions 6 important areas to explore “Am I emotionally intelligent?”1. Label feelings2. Recognize feelings3. Acknowledge feelings4. Manage feelings5. Think about feelingsand …….6. What you should do about them
13 Creating an ‘Emotionally Supportive’ Learning Environment: a checklist Activity: Individually, complete the checklist.What are you doing well for your class and what would you like to change?“Am I emotionally intelligent?”The classroomRewardsRelationshipsCommunicationFeedbackLearningConfidenceStaff Support
14 “It’s Everyone’s Responsibility!” “Anyone in contact with a child has an impact on that child’s mental health and psychological wellbeing.The challenge for all of us is to remember that, and to be able to respond if things start to go wrong”.Children and Young People in Mind; final report of the CAMHS Review 2008
15 Who are the vulnerable?850,000 children aged 5 – 16 years of age have a diagnosable mental health problem (ONS, 2008)Around 1 in 12 children and young people deliberately self harm (MHF, 2006)3 children in every classroom have a diagnosable mental health problem(Green H, McGinnity A, Meltzer H et al., 2005)Nearly 80,000 children and young people suffer severe depression (ONS, 2004)45% of children in care have a mental health disorder (Meltzer, Gatward and Corbin, 2003)In a Secondary School with a 1000 student population, at any one time:100 will be suffering a significant mental illness50 pupils will be seriously depressed10-20 pupils will have an obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)5-10 girls will be affected by eating disorders35-60 are bereaved of someone closeBUT ….only 25% of children and young people with clinically significant mental health problems will be accessing the services they need.Source: Sir Aynsley-GreenWebsite:
16 5 Key Principles ~ Promoting emotional well-being The more adults can be aware of and manage their own emotional responses to inappropriate behaviour, the more likely they are to be able to maintain a calm classroom.Children’s behaviour is underpinned by the stage they have reached in social and emotional development, the level of skills they have in this area, and their emotional well-being whilst interacting with the social, emotional and physical environment.There is a need to take active steps to develop children’s social, emotional and behavioural skills.4. Positive relationships with children are the key to developing positive behaviour, self esteem, regular attendance and achievement.5. We need to draw on / share each other’s experiences to enhance our understanding of self and others.123KEYPRINCLS45
17 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (and Theory of Motivation) Self-actualizationpersonal growth and fulfilmentEsteem needsachievement, status, responsibility, reputationBelonging and Love needsfamily, affection, relationships, work group, etc.Safety needsprotection, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc.Biological and Physiological needsBasic life needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sleep, etc.
18 Are you ‘Child focussed’ or ‘Child centred’?What is the difference?
19 . . .because it is NOT the same as child focused. Why is a ‘Child-Centred’ Model more effective for understanding ‘emotional wellbeing’?. . .because it is NOT the same as child focused.It starts from where children and young people are i.e. from their ‘lived experience’ - and looks out from there.It challenges us to ‘actively’ listen (with our eyes and ears); then reflect on, and act upon what we hear.It requires us to build services around Children and Young People’s needs i.e. ‘inclusive practice’.It challenges us to understand behaviour as communication and to remain curious about what is being communicated rather than leaping to conclusions.
20 Are you ‘Child-focused’ or ‘Child-centred’? Education EducationSocial Health Social HealthCare CareHousing Housing‘Child Focused’ ‘Child Centred’
21 What are children and young people saying to us? “We feel judged.”“We need to talk about how we feel inside.”“Teachers need to notice when we are distressed at school.”“We need help early on not when it’s too late.”
22 HOW IT AFFECTS MENTAL HEALTH AND RISK AND RESILIENCE:HOW IT AFFECTS MENTAL HEALTH ANDEMOTIONAL WELLBEINGEmotionalWellbeingMENTALHRisk FactorsResilience FactorsResilience Factors
23 What are the Risk and Resilience Factors when looking at emotional wellbeing and mental health? 1. A range of factors in children’s early lives have been consistently associated with increased risk of mental health problems in adolescence and adulthood (MHF, 1999, p7).2. The greater the number of risks, and the more severe the risks, the greater the likelihood of the child developing a mental health problem.3. If a child has only one risk factor in their life, their risk of developing a mental healthproblem has been defined as being 1-2%.4. However, with three risk factors the likelihood increases to 8%; and with four or more risk factors the likelihood of the child developing a mental health problem is increased to20% (MHF, 1999, p7).5. Evidence suggests that children’s emotional well-being can be improved if the number of risk factors is reduced, and the number of protective factors is increased.However, some individuals are more resilient than others. There are children who, against all odds survive intact and develop into competent, confident and caring adults despite prolonged and negative experiences.An important key to promoting children’s mental health is,therefore, a greater understanding of those protective factorsthat enable these children to be resilient.(Mental Health Foundation, 1999, p.9).
24 What should we aim for?To reduce risk and increase resilience factors via child-centred approaches and needs-led provision / interventions, including ‘quality first teaching’ delivered within optimal learning / therapeutic ‘settings’;(2) To produce better outcomes for children within the 5 ECM outcomes.(DfE Green Paper, 2003), (Children Act - change for children 2004);(3) To demonstrate measurable academic progression.(Ofsted Inspection Framework 2012);
25 Where are the risk and resilience factors located? There is a broad agreement that factors that can promotechildhood resilience are located in the following domains.The physical and emotional attributes of the child;The child’s family;The immediate environment in which the child lives.
27 ‘RISK AND RESILIENCE FACTORS’ EMOTIONAL WELL-BEING‘RISK AND RESILIENCE FACTORS’SCHOOL: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ACTIVITY: USING THE RISK AND PROTECTIVE DIAGRAM, PLEASE COMPLETE THE TABLE BELOW AND DISCUSS THESE ISSUES WITHIN YOUR GROUP(1) Identified M/F and Year e.g. 5, 7 9,11:(2)Identified‘Protective’ (Resilience) Factor/s(use diagram):(3)‘Risk’ Factor/s(4)Observable Characteristics and Behaviour/s within School and the Classroom e.g. on/off task, interaction with peers/staff, social, interpersonal and communication skills:(5)Skills, Strategies, Ideas or Plans required to address identified concern/s or ‘risk/s’:
28 Is this EWB profiling helpful? ActivityIndividually:Think of a pupil.Look at the risk and resilience factors sheet.What are the risk and protective factors?Is this EWB profiling helpful?
29 Emotions, Speech, Language, Communication and the Brain!! C F I O D A U S FM K A FEmotions,Speech, Language,Communicationand theBrain!!
32 Strength of Emotion/Anger/Tension/Anxiety Possible additional assaults The ‘Anger Mountain’ ~ also known as the ‘assault cycle’TIME3. CRISIS PHASEStrength of Emotion/Anger/Tension/Anxiety4. RECOVERY PHASEPossible additional assaults2. ESCALATION PHASE5. DEPRESSION PHASE1. TRIGGER PHASEBASELINEBe aware of body language; Communication limited; Stressed behaviour gives clues.Remove triggerGive alternative activityVisual ReminderExerciseMay need to:Remove from room – may need to be quieter/darkerDefuseGive spaceSummon helpProtectSafe placeSafe personGo for a walkChild/Young person needscalm reassuranceNo blameUse Social StoriesWhat to do when ...Rehearsal of situationsAgree visual remindersWhere to go/who will helpTeach strategies for relieving or controlling anxietyACTIONSKEEP TALKING (USING LANUAGE OF EMOTIONS)KEEP CALM
43 Activity Individually/Collectively: Look at the Reducing Anxiety Management Plan (RAMP)Plan for your chosen child in EACH context.DOES THIS TYPE OF PLAN HELP?
44 Provision Mapping for Social, Emotional and Behavioural Needs ~ The 3 ‘waves’ model Additional highlypersonalisedInterventions e.g. 1:1 supportWave 3Wave 2Small-group intervention forchildren who need additional helpin developing skills, and for their familiesWave 1Quality first teaching of social, emotional and behavioural skills to all children; an effective and positive ‘whole-school’ ethos or ‘educational setting’; policies, good practice and ‘learning frameworks’ for promoting emotional health and wellbeing.
46 How Do I Know If I Am Emotionally Intelligent In My Work? QUESTION: WHAT IT MEANS:Do I have self-knowledge? Do I know enough about myself?Am I open? Can I share feelings/thoughts?Am I warm? Have I a friendly/caring manner?How accepting am I? Do I accept others and myself?Do I show support? Do I advocate for the child?Am I flexible? Can I creatively re-frame situations?Do I appreciate children? Am I ‘child-centred’?Am I empathic? Can I identify feelings?Do I show respect? Can I be unbiased?Am I accountable? Do I allow ‘learning from mistakes’?Do I set and move towards goals? Do I see the ‘Bigger picture’?
47 Acknowledgements and References: Baron-Cohen, Simon: ‘Zero Degrees of Empathy: A New Theory of Human Cruelty’, Allen Lane Publisher, 2011Brennan, Sarah: An Integrated Approach to Mental Health - The Role of Schools in the 21st Century, Young Minds, ENSEC Conference, Manchester University, June 2011Buchanan, A. & Ten Brinke, J.A, 1998: ‘Key Risk and Resilience Factors for Emotional and Behavioural Problems’, The Mental Health Foundation, 1999Children and Young People in Mind; Final report of the CAMHS Review, 2008Green-Aynsley, Al: Why listening to the voices and views of children and young people should be the basis for promoting their social and emotional competence, ENSEC Conference, Manchester University, June 2011Risk and Resilience and Emotional Wellbeing: Mental Health Foundation, 1999Smith, Rachel: Promoting Children's Emotional Health, Research Review, Policy, Research and Influencing Unit, 2002The National Strategies Inclusion Development Programme: BESD Focus, DCSF, 2010Weare, Katherine, Nind, Melanie: Mental Health Promotion and Problem Prevention in Schools - What does the evidence say and what are the messages for Europe? University of Southampton, ENSEC Conference, Manchester University, June 2011Young Minds: The Voice for Young People’s Mental Health and Wellbeing
48 Acknowledgements and References continued: Websites:Young MindsAnysley-Green ConsultingEuropean Network for Social and Emotional Competence
49 PowerPoint design by Dennis Piper 2013 Contact DetailsDennis PiperSEN ConsultantAssociate Lecturer (MMU)PowerPoint design by Dennis Piper 2013Salford City Council, Children's Services Directorate, Inclusive Learning Services, 2013.