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English as a Lingua Franca Dr Alessia CogoUniversity of Southampton.

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Presentation on theme: "English as a Lingua Franca Dr Alessia CogoUniversity of Southampton."— Presentation transcript:

1 English as a Lingua Franca Dr Alessia CogoUniversity of Southampton

2 In this session  We conceptualize the spread of English in the world (Kachru’s model)  We explore the phenomenon of English as a Lingua Franca


4 Kachru’s model  Kachru (1992: 356)  Most useful and influential model  World Englishes divided into three concentric circles: 1 Inner Circle: ENL countries, ‘norm-providing’ 2 Outer Circle: ESL countries, ‘norm-developing’ 3 Expanding Circle: EFL countries, ‘norm- dependent’

5 Speakers of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) It has been estimated (conservatively) that there are as many as 2 billion speakers of English as a second language or lingua franca worldwide today. (Crystal, 2008)

6 What is ELF?  ELF constitutes a common means of communication for speakers of different first languages.  ELF is currently the most common use of English world-wide. Millions of speakers from diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds use ELF on a daily basis, routinely and successfully, in their professional, academic and personal lives. 

7 ELF speakers  Gnutzmann (2000:358) ‘when used as a lingua franca English is no longer founded on the linguistic and sociocultural norms of native English speakers and their respective countries and cultures’  ELF speakers are multilingual speakers and they draw on their multilingual repertoire in ELF communication  Therefore it is the multilingual context which is key for understanding and researching ELF.

8 ELF speakers  ELF speakers = multilingual speakers  intercultural speakers: ‘one might consider their performance as a “third way”, a crossing of borders, as a sign of a hybrid culture in operation’ (House 2007:17)  ‘third spaces offer opportunities to be creative’ (Kelly 2009:15)  Symbolic competence: “Social actors in multilingual settings […] seem to display a particularly acute ability to play with various linguistic codes and with the various spatial and temporal resonances of these codes” (Kramsch & Whiteside 2008:664).

9 ELF: what it is  ELF as a useful medium of communication  ELF is not dependent on the norms of the inner circle countries  ELF is not necessarily geographically located

10 ACTIVITY  Discuss your experience of English as a Lingua Franca.  Have you ever experienced communication with other non-native speakers of English? Where? Who were the people involved?  What have you noticed about the way they speak?

11 ELF: pronunciation  Different accents used in ELF  general attitude of acceptance of difference  phenomenon of ACCOMMODATION

12 ELF: lexico-grammar  use of third person present tense -0  interchangeability of the relative pronouns who and which  interchangeability of definite and indefinite articles  Different use of prepositions eg. Study about / discuss about

13 ELF: pragmatics  Increase expliciteness  Use of translation strategies  Use of multilingual resources  Use of repetition and paraphrasing

14 Resources:  Reading to get you started…  Cogo, A. 2010. Strategic use and perceptions of English as a Lingua Franca. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics. 46/3: 295-312. Available online at Versitas.  Seidlhofer, B. 2005. “English as a lingua franca.” ELT Journal 59: 4, 339-340. Freely available online on ELTJ website.  Others :  Jenkins, J. 2007. English as a Lingua Franca: Attitudes and Identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Seidlhofer, B. 2011. Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  Mauranen, A.; Ranta, E. (Eds.). 2009. English as a lingua franca: Studies and findings. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

15 Resources:  Archibald, A.; Cogo, A.; Jenkins, J. (Eds.). 2011. Latest trends in ELF research. Newcastle on Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.  Jenkins, J., Cogo, A. and Dewey, M. 2011. Review of developments in research into English as a lingua franca. Language Teaching, 44.3, 281–315

16 Websites:  ELFA website. ml.  CGE website  VOICE website.

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