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Audio lab Understanding the soundscape concept: the role of sound recognition and source identification David Chesmore Audio Systems Laboratory Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Audio lab Understanding the soundscape concept: the role of sound recognition and source identification David Chesmore Audio Systems Laboratory Department."— Presentation transcript:


2 Audio lab Understanding the soundscape concept: the role of sound recognition and source identification David Chesmore Audio Systems Laboratory Department of Electronics University of York

3 Audio lab Overview of Presentation Role of soundscape analysis Instrument for Soundscape Recognition, Identification and Evaluation (ISRIE) Soundscape description language Applications Conclusions

4 Audio lab Role of Soundscape Analysis Potential applications: identifying relevant sound elements in a soundscape (e.g. high intensity sounds) determining positive and negative sounds biodiversity studies tranquil areas preserving important soundscapes planning and noise abatement studies

5 Audio lab Soundscape Analysis Options Manual Advantage: subjective Disadvantages: time consuming, limited resources, subjective, very large storage requirements Automatic Advantages: objective (once trained), continuous analysis possible, much reduced data storage requirements Disadvantage: reliability of sound element classification

6 Audio lab How to Automatically Classify Sounds? Major issues to address: separation and localisation of sounds in the soundscape (especially with multiple simultaneous sounds) classification of sounds depends on feature overlap, number of elements Number of elements, localisation, etc depends on application

7 Audio lab Instrument for Soundscape Recognition, Identification and Evaluation (ISRIE) ISRIE is a collaborative project between York, Southampton and Newcastle Universities 1 of 3 projects arising from EPSRC Noisy Futures Sandpit York - sound separation + sound classification Southampton - applications + interface with users Newcastle - sound localisation + arrays

8 Audio lab Aim of ISRIE Aim is to produce an instrument capable of automatically identifying sounds in a soundscape by: separating sounds in 3-d localising sounds from the 3-d field classification of sound in a restricted range of categories

9 Audio lab Outline of ISRIE Localisation + Separation Classification (alt, az) Location Duration, SPL, L EQ Category Sensor ISRIE

10 Audio lab Sound Separation - Sensor B-format microphone as sensor –Provides 3D directional information –A coincident microphone array reduces convolutive separation problems to instantaneous. –More compact and practical than multi-microphone solutions. Outputs W – omni-directional component X – fig-8 response along x-axis Y – fig-8 response along y-axis Z – fig-8 response along z-axis

11 Audio lab Overview of Separation Method Use Coincident Microphone array Transform into Time-Frequency Domain Find Direction Of Arrival (DOA) vector for each Time- Frequency point. Filter sources based on known or estimated positions in 3D space

12 Audio lab Assumptions Approximately W-Disjoint Orthogonal Sparse in time-frequency domain, i.e. the power in any time-frequency window is attributed to one source. Sound sources are geographically spaced (sparse) Noise sources have unique Direction of Arrival (DOA).

13 Audio lab The Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) Efficient filterbank structure Approximately shift invariant

14 STFT separation

15 DT-CWT separation

16 Audio lab Separation results - speech 3 Male speakers Recorded in anechoic chamber ISVR. Mixed to virtual B-format, known locations spaced around microphone Performance Measure SpeakerSIR original (dB) SIR separated (dB) SIR gain (dB) PSRM (dB)

17 Audio lab Source Estimation and Tracking Examples used known source locations. In many deployment scenarios, this is acceptable. More versatility could be provided by finding source locations and tracking Two approaches considered 3D histogram approach Clustering using plastic self organising map

18 Audio lab Results 2 Speakers – Directional Geodesic Histogram Position of peaks at (0,0) and (10,20) degrees Blur between peaks due to 2 sources only approximating the assumptions

19 Audio lab Signal Classification What features? TDSC Which classifier? ANN – MLP, LVQ Which Sounds?

20 ISRIE Sound Categories

21 Audio lab Time-Domain Signal Coding Purely time-domain technique Successfully used for: Species recognition birds, crickets, bats, wood-boring insects Heart sound recognition Current applications Environmental sound Vehicle recognition

22 Audio lab Time-Domain Signal Coding Time Epoch

23 Audio lab MultiscaleTDSC (MTDSC) New method of D-S data presentation Replaces S-matrix, A-matrix or D-matrix Multiscale Made from groups of epochs in powers of 2 (512, 256, etc) Inspired by Wavelets

24 Audio lab MTDSC Level 1S 1(1) S 1(2) S 1(3) S 1(4) S 1(5) S 1(6) S 1(7) S 1(8) 2S 2(1) S 2(2) S 2(3) S 2(4) 3S 3(1) S 3(2) 4S4S4 1 Frame (epochs) Value in frame n=4

25 Audio lab MTDSC Example Logarithmic Chirp – 100Hz - 24kHz Epoch frame length 2 m

26 Audio lab MTDSC (cont) Currently use shape but will investigate: epoch duration (zero-crossings interval) only epoch duration and shape epoch duration, shape and energy Also use mean, can also use varience, higher order statistics for larger values of m (e.g. 9)

27 Audio lab MTDSC Results (1) MTDSC data generation & stacking 3 output LVQ network Audio Winning output determines result Overall network accuracy: 76% Some categories better than others –Road, Rail – 93%

28 Audio lab MTDSC Results (2) 3 different Japanese cicada species used for biodiversity studies (2 common, 1 rare) in northern Japan 21 test files from field recordings including 1 with -6dB SNR Backpropagation MLP classifier 20 out of 21 test files correctly classified ~ 95% accuracy

29 Audio lab Practical ISRIE Localisation + Separation Classification (alt, az) Location Duration, SPL, L EQ Category Sensor ISRIE Approx location required sound category User Supplied Data

30 Audio lab Restricting Location   Cone of acceptance Automatic rejection of signals target

31 Audio lab Further Automated Analysis At present, ISRIE only provides a classified sound element in a small range of categories Can we create a soundscape description language (SDL)? Needs to be flexible enough to accomodate manually and automatically generated soundscapes Take inspiration from speech recognition, natural language, bioacoustics (e.g. automated ID of insects, birds, bats, cetaceans)

32 Audio lab sonotag =  (L, ,d,t,D,a,c,p,G) whereL = label  = direction of sound d = estimated distance to sound t = onset time D = duration a = received sound pressure level c = classification (a = automatic, m = manual) p = level of confidence in classification G = geotag = G(ll,lo,al) ll = lat, lo = longitude, al = altitude Other possibilities exist

33 Audio lab Example of Monaural Sonotags 18s recording of O. viridulus at nature reserve in Yorkshire in 2003  (O. viridulus, ,1,11:45,2,50,a,0.99,(53.914,-0.845,10))  (O. viridulus, ,1,11:50,1.5,50,a,0.99,(53.914,-0.845,10))  (plane, ,100,11:52.5,5,35,a,0.96,(53.914,-0.845,10))  (Bird1, ,100,12:02,5,41,a,0.99,(53.914,-0.845,10))

34 Audio lab Example of 3-D Sonotags  (speaker2,0,0,1.5,14:00,5,43,a,0.96,(53.9,-0.9,10))  (speaker1,10,20,2,14:00,5,42,a,0.92,(53.9,-0.9,10)) Treat separated sounds as monaural recordings for classification

35 Audio lab Applications (1) BS 4142 assessments PPG 24 assessments Noise nuisance applications Other acoustic consultancy problems Soundscape recordings Future noise policy

36 Audio lab Applications (2) Biodiversity assessment, endangered species monitoring Alien invasive species (e.g. Cane Toad in Australia) Anthropomorphic noise effects on animals Habitat fragmentation Tranquility studies

37 Audio lab Conclusions ISRIE has been shown to be successful in separating and classifying urban sounds much work still to be done, especially in classification Automated soundscape description is possible but a flexible and formal framework is needed

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