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© Boardworks Ltd 2009 1 of 35 Coastal Management Coasts.

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1 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 1 of 35 Coastal Management Coasts

2 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 2 of 35 Content s Teacher’s notes included in the Notes Page Flash activity (these activities are not editable) Web addresses Printable activity Extension activity Icons: Living at the coast Uses of the coast Managing the coast Sustainable management

3 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 3 of 35 Key questions: Living at the coast Living at the coast How many people live at the coast? Why do people live at the coast? Why do people live in Bournemouth? By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions:

4 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 4 of 35 Two thirds of the world’s largest cities are located on coasts and these are developing at a faster rate than those inland. Coastalization Living at the coast About 10% of earth’s inhabited environment is located in the world’s coastal zone – a relatively low percentage. However, 60% of the global population live within 60 km of the coast. Urbanization is the movement of people and their activities to urban areas. What do you think the process of people moving to, and developing, the coast is called?

5 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 5 of 35 Why do people live at the coast?

6 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 6 of 35 Coastalization in Bournemouth Bournemouth is located in Dorset in south-west England. Its population has grown to over 163,000 (2007) and it has the highest population density of anywhere in the south-west. Its birth rate is lower than its death rate so its population growth is due to inward migration. What attracts people to Bournemouth? pleasant climate high environmental quality accessibility – two hours from London by train industry and employment numerous amenities.

7 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 7 of 35 By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions: Key questions: Uses of the coast Uses of the coast What is the coast used for? What sort of conflicts can arise at the coast? How has tourism caused conflict on the Jurassic Coast? How has industry caused conflict in Southampton?

8 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 8 of 35 The coast is used for many different things, including: Uses of the coast industry settlement recreation tourism fishing conservation energy.

9 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 9 of 35 Coastal conflict

10 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 10 of 35 Coastal conflict: Jurassic Coast

11 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 11 of 35 Tourism is big business. It is Dorset’s biggest employer (over 30% of the population work in related employment) and is vital to the economy. Tourist troubles Studland Beach is visited by 1.5 million people each year who come to walk, sunbathe, swim and play. On a summer bank holiday 35,000 people can flock there, causing congestion. What are the impacts? congestion litter trampling of habitats noise. conflict between beach users

12 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 12 of 35 What else is in competition for the land? Coastal conflict: industry The sheltered, deepwater channels of the Test and Itchen estuary form one of the UK’s best natural harbours in Southampton. It is an ideal location for industry; notable examples include Fawley oil refinery and Southampton docks. Urban development: Hythe and Fawley are examples of new growth squeezed into the area. Sailing and recreation: Space is needed for boat yards and mooring. Sewage disposal: This is linked to new housing and development.

13 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 13 of 35 Oil at sea

14 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 14 of 35 Key questions: Managing the coast By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions: Managing the coast Why are coastlines managed? What types of coastal defence are there? What are hard and soft engineering and what are their advantages and disadvantages? How does geology affect erosion? What management strategies have been employed at Swanage and Holderness?

15 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 15 of 35 Can you think of any examples of areas of the UK that are very vulnerable to coastal erosion? The loss of coastal land through erosion is a significant problem. Why does it matter? Managing the coast Coasts are managed to protect against flooding and to protect against coastal erosion. erosion can increase the flood risk damage to or loss of man- made features and amenities (socio-economic impact) loss of natural scenery and landforms.

16 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 16 of 35 Types of coastal defence

17 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 17 of 35 Hard and soft engineering

18 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 18 of 35 Aims of hard engineering strategies

19 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 19 of 35 Pros and cons of hard engineering

20 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 20 of 35 Soft engineering strategies

21 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 21 of 35 Strategies on Swanage Beach Swanage Beach in Dorset employs a variety of hard engineering strategies. Why is it important to manage the beach at Swanage? clay vale – easily eroded cliffs tourist resource vital to local economy settlement, agriculture and communication routes to protect aesthetic value. What strategies can you identify in the images and are there any problems with them?

22 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 22 of 35 What is under threat? Holderness at risk The Holderness coastline in Yorkshire, from Flamborough Head to Spurn Point, has the fastest eroding coastline in Europe. On average, 2 m are lost each year, but a single storm in 1967 caused a 10 m retreat in Barmston. Since Roman times, 4 km of the coast has been lost, taking with it 29 villages. Skipsea, Hornsea and Withernsea coastal resorts; other villages and individual properties; coastal roads; the gas pipeline terminal at Easington; valuable and fertile arable farmland; the Spurn Head coastguard and lifeboat station.

23 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 23 of 35 Factors affecting erosion in Yorkshire

24 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 24 of 35 Most of the Yorkshire coast near Holderness is boulder clay, a mix of fine clays, sand and boulders. It is sometimes called glacial till, as it was deposited after the last Ice Age. How has geology influenced erosion? Boulder clay has little resistance to weathering and erosion; both marine and sub-aerial processes. The shallow sloping cliffs are prone to slumping when wet.

25 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 25 of 35 Going in hard at Holderness

26 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 26 of 35 Zoning works in conjunction with managed retreat along stretches of the shore. Residents are encouraged to relocate to protected areas and are given financial help to move from the shore. Soft engineering at Holderness Beach nourishment has been adopted at Hornsea and Mappleton. The sediment is dredged and pumped from off- shore to replace that lost through longshore drift. Coastal zoning identifies areas where protection costs would exceed possible benefits, and planning permission is refused for development in these areas.

27 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 27 of 35 Key questions: Sustainable managemen t By the end of this chapter you should have considered these key themes and questions: Sustainable management What is integrated coastal management? What are Shoreline Management Plans and how are they put into action? What is cost-benefit analysis? How has Freiston Shore been managed? What has happened in Happisburgh?

28 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 28 of 35 Why do you think this approach is beneficial? Each cell is broken into smaller sub-cells and SMPs devise plans that apply to the whole stretch of coast within a cell, rather than the previous isolated approach. Integrated coastal management In the past, coastal management has been the job of local councils. There is now a move towards integrated coastal management which recognises the eleven sediment cells around the coast of England and Wales as the basis for Shoreline Management Plans (SMPs).

29 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 29 of 35 Shoreline Management Plans Shoreline Management Plans involve detailed consultation with local interest groups, so that solutions can be found which are tailored to that particular sub-cell and community needs. SMPs consider four options. Do you know what they are? Do nothing: Existing defences are allowed to collapse. Hold the line: Use hard engineering to maintain the coastline. Advance the line: bring the coastline forward by building out to sea. Retreat the line: Allow the coast to erode back to a certain line. Managed retreat at Freiston Shore

30 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 30 of 35 The SMP process

31 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 31 of 35 Why is cost-benefit analysis difficult in reality? Cost-benefit analysis Cost-benefit analysis is evaluating the social and economic costs of a plan against the social and economic benefits. What costs and benefits would be considered for a sea wall proposal? designmaterialstransport construction Costs: maintenance. value of land and features saved savings in relocating people savings in employment and tourism preservation. Benefits:

32 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 32 of 35 Retreating the line in Lincolnshire

33 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 33 of 35 However, it has not been considered economically viable or environmentally desirable to maintain hard engineering. Unhappy in Happisburgh A policy of no active intervention at Happisburgh, north Norfolk has been adopted after the revetments built in 1958 were broken up in a storm in 1990. As much as 5–8m a year is lost to the sea here due to easily eroded, low, sand and clay cliffs. This decision has been highly controversial, and the local community has set up a pressure group called the Coastal Concern Action Group (CCAG).

34 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 34 of 35 Summary quiz

35 © Boardworks Ltd 2009 35 of 35 Glossary

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