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Participatory Citizenship in Europe Europe for Citizens Programme Study 2011-12.

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Presentation on theme: "Participatory Citizenship in Europe Europe for Citizens Programme Study 2011-12."— Presentation transcript:

1 Participatory Citizenship in Europe Europe for Citizens Programme Study

2 Team Project leader: Bryony Hoskins, University of Southampton Co-leader: David Kerr, Citizenship Foundation The consortium partners: Denmark: Aarhus University France: European Institute for Education and Social Policy (EIESP) Germany: University of Giessen Italy: Roma Tre University Slovenia: University of Ljubljana Netherlands: University of Humanistics Studies UK: LLAKES, Institute of Education, National Foundation of Education Research, University of Southampton.

3 Aims and objectives  Map the concepts, policies, practices and level of Participatory Citizenship across Europe  Identify barriers and facilitators to encourage more citizen engagement in Europe  Inform the development of European policy and funding programmes in particular the:  the 2013 European Year of Citizens  Europe for Citizens Programme  2014 European Parliament elections

4 Methods  Review of literature  27 EU country fiches compiled by experts  Interviews with pan-European networks  Analysis of existing international surveys, including IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) and European Social Survey (ESS)

5 Reports  Contextual – Concepts and definition  Analytic – maps current state of play on policy and engagement in Europe  Good Practice – identifies key features of effective practice  Study Summary and Policy Recommendation - identifies an EC policy strategy on Participatory Citizenship  Reports located on Europe for Citizens website: programme/studies/index_en.htm

6 Definition of Participatory Citizenship ‘Participation in civil society, community and/or political life, characterized by mutual respect and non-violence and in accordance with human rights and democracy’.  Definition broadly blends the practices of different models of citizenship across Europe  All actions must be underpinned by the values of human rights and democracy

7 Different forms of citizenship found in Europe Liberal communitarian model Local level volunteering and civic duty to support community Civic republican model National level participation in politics Critical/ cosmopolitan model Promotion of Social Justice and Human Rights

8 Citizenship models in national policy Critical citizenship model - eastern europe - but never top priority anywhere Civic republican legacy (a focus on common values or political participation) General shift towards the liberal communitarian model with mostly right wing governments voted in recent elections emphasising small state and more volunteering and charity

9 ‘state of play’ before the crisis A gap between older and newer democracies for adult participation is still found and not decreased in last 10 years EVS 2008: ‘If there were to be a general election tomorrow would you vote? EVS 2008: Have you taken a political action by signing a petition.

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11 ‘state of play’ before the crisis ICCS 2009: Intention to vote in a general election when an adult ICCS 2009:‘Have you been involved in an environmental organisation?’ Young people from former communist countries highest increase in last 10 year whilst older and wealthy democracies continue to have less enthusiastic youngsters

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13 Policy Trends and Barriers Economic crises and austerity Shift until before 2012 towards more centre right govenments across Europe

14 Trajectory of policy Shift before 2012 towards centre right across Europe (smaller role of the state) European countries civic republican traditions but their has been a shift towards liberal communitarian polices (from political engagement to volunteering and community) In the context of austerity this has on some occasions seen the replacement of paid jobs by volunteers

15 Context of Austerity Active Citizenship not considered a high priority Cuts both govenment and private sector Cuts at all levels Cuts for support to ‘hard to reach groups’ Challenge sustainability of policies and practice that previously supported participation and engagement of citizens in decision making Uncertainty

16 Changes in civil society Civil society focused on fundraising to keep themselves afloat Change of focus of citizenship projects towards economic dimension Citizenship curricular: financial capability, Entrepreneurship, social innovation Greater focus on volunteering and less on political literacy Social Movements: Protests against cuts, ‘occupy’

17 Risks Cut at the time when they are most needed Periods of economic downturn previously lead to focus on own survival, less tolerant towards difference, more open to populist parties What can be seen so far… Countries are looking inwards towards local or national concerns Rise in some European countries of extremist and nationalistic groups Golden Dawn True Finns

18 Effective strategies  Participatory Citizenship is primarily a learnt activity  Learning in all it diverse forms (from discussing politics with friends to formal education) relates to Participatory Citizenship  Learning improves quality of Participatory Citizenship (enhancing civic competences: knowledge, skills, attitudes & values)

19 Overcoming barriers to engagement  Different levels of learning and wealth increase inequalities in engagement Strategies towards targeting disadvantaged youth:  Schools  Vocational Education & Training  Youth work targeted at hard to reach groups  In economic crises unemployed youth benefit from being engaged in decision making in their local communities

20 Situated learning: successful learning approach Learning in a real life civic context: e.g. influencing decisions that have real consequences and influence on the lives of young people: how their school is run, school budgets and decisions regarding their local community This approach helps to develop self-efficacy (the belief that you can make a difference)

21 Situated learning project: ‘A Penny for Democracy’ from Sweden  Opportunity to participate democratically in economic governance of part of school budget Key success factors:  involved in developing proposals for funding  responsible for decisions on funding and these decisions were taken in a democratic way  could see the visible consequences of their decisions through the projects being realised

22 Other key success factors for projects  Collaboration between different types of partners can pool resources and experiences and spark innovation  Strategic and sustainable funding enables NGOs to focus on Participatory Citizenship and not on their own survival  Use of new technology can engage more (ensuring that citizens have the competence, confidence and access to use them)

23 European Union strategy  balanced in promoting both political participation as well as voluntary and community action in civil society  targeted in recognising and responding to the impact of the economic crisis at national and local level in member states  sufficiently flexible and long-term to encourage and promote collaborative working between EU institutions, member states and EU citizens

24 European Year of Citizens 2013 A bottom-up approach with citizens involved in constructing and developing the programme and activities Opportunity for the EU institutions to listen to Citizens Provide momentum for new Europe for Citizens Programme and EP elections Increase profile of Participatory Citizenship as a policy priority Needs sufficient funding to turn aims into reality for citizens Respond to the needs and interests of European citizens

25 Europe for Citizens Programme  Build flexibility into the Programme so as to respond to changing contexts In today's economic crisis:  Place more emphasis on the actions of civic participation over remembrance and identity  focus on sustainability & longer term funding for those involved in Programme actions and projects

26 EU 2020 Smart Sustainable & Inclusive Growth  Balance in policy emphasis between Participatory Citizenship, social cohesion & economic competitiveness so that values & practices of democracy flourish  Long term challenges of competitiveness & climate change should be grounded in active involvement of and participation of citizens in order to safeguard future of democracy in Europe

27 Reports available on Europe for Citizens website: about-the-europe-for-citizens- programme/studies/index_en.htmabout-the-europe-for-citizens- programme/studies/index_en.htm Contact details: Bryony Hoskins, University of Southampton David Kerr, Citizenship Foundation

28 Effects of Austerity on Active Citizenship in Europe 6 th December Houses of Parliament with reception


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