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SUGAR UP QUESTIONS Or Review to Chapter 6 Honors BiologyTest.

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Presentation on theme: "SUGAR UP QUESTIONS Or Review to Chapter 6 Honors BiologyTest."— Presentation transcript:

1 SUGAR UP QUESTIONS Or Review to Chapter 6 Honors BiologyTest

2 Respiratory System 1. nostril 2. nasal cavity 3. Pharynx 4. Epiglottis (flap) 5. Larynx (voice box) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

3 Respiratory System (cont) 6. Esophagus (to stomach) 7. Trachea 8. R. lung 9. Pleura (lining) 6. 7. 8. 9.

4 Respiratory System (cont) 10. bronchi 11. bronchioles 12. diaphragm 10. 11. 12.

5 Respiratory System (cont) 13. alveoli 14. pulmonary artery 15. capillary bed 16. alveolar duct 17. alveolus 13. 14. 15. 16. From the heart To the heart: pulmonary vein

6 Respiratory System What is another name for the trachea? Where is it? Windpipe and located below epiglottis

7 Where is the L. pulmonary artery? R. Pulmonary vein L. pulmonary artery is 3 R. pulmonary vein is 4

8 Label and describe what is going on here: Answer next slide

9

10 What electron carriers are at “D” and at “E”?

11 “D” = NADH “E” = FADH 2 + NADH

12 What waste gas leaves at “H”?

13 H = Carbon Dioxide

14 What processes are at A, B, C?

15 A (glycolysis) B (Krebs cycle) C (ETC and chemiosmosis)

16 What is at “I” “F” “G”? __I

17 “I” = 2 ATP, “F”= 2 ATP, “G” = 34 ATP?

18 18. Which process is the anaerobic one in yeast? A. glycolysis B. Krebs Cycle C. Chemiosmosis D. ETC E. alcoholic fermentation F. lactic acid fermentation ANSWER: alcoholic fermentation

19 19.Which is the movement of H+ ions across ATP synthase? A. glycolysis B. Krebs Cycle C. Chemiosmosis D. ETC E. alcoholic fermentation F. lactic acid fermentation ANSWER: chemiosmosis

20 20. Which is the splitting of glucose into two 3-carbon compounds? A. glycolysis B. Krebs Cycle C. Chemiosmosis D. ETC E. alcoholic fermentation F. lactic acid fermentation ANSWER: glycolysis

21 21. Which is also called the citric acid cycle? A. glycolysis B. Krebs Cycle C. Chemiosmosis D. ETC E. alcoholic fermentation F. lactic acid fermentation G. TCA cycle ANSWER: Krebs cycle and TCA

22 22. Which is the movement of electrons from high energy to low? A. glycolysis B. Krebs Cycle C. Chemiosmosis D. ETC E. alcoholic fermentation F. lactic acid fermentation ANSWER: ETC

23 23. Which is the anaerobic process in animals’ muscles? A. glycolysis B. Krebs Cycle C. Chemiosmosis D. ETC E. alcoholic fermentation F. lactic acid fermentation ANSWER: lactic acid fermentation

24 24. How many carbons are in each pyruvic acid molecule? 2 3 6 34 38 40 ANSWER: 3

25 25. How many ATP’s are formed when one molecule of glucose break down (net) in glycolysis only? 2 3 6 34 38 40 ANSWER: 2 (net)

26 26. What is the number of FADH 2 formed per pyruvate molecule in glycolysis? 0 1 2 3 4 6 ANSWER 0

27 27. How many ATP’s are formed during the ETC and chemiosmosis? 2 3 6 34 38 40 ANSWER: 34

28 28. How many net ATP’s are formed from the breakdown of one glucose molecule TOTAL from cellular respiration (Krebs + ETC/chemiosmosis) and glycolysis? 2 3 6 34 38 40 ANSWER: 38

29 29. How many ATP’s are needed to get the glucose in glycolysis to start breaking down? 2 3 6 34 38 40 ANSWER: 2

30 30. How many ATP are made in the Energy Payoff Phase of Glycolysis? 1 2 3 4 ANSWER: 4

31 HEY!!!!! 1 NADH = __________ ATP 1 FADH 2 = _________ ATP 3 2

32 31. Where does FERMENTATION occur? A. Cytoplasm B. Matrix C. Inner membrane of mitochondrion D. Intermembrane space of mitochondrion ANSWER: cytoplasm (fermentation and glycolysis)

33 32. Where does Krebs CYCLE occur? A. Cytoplasm B. Matrix C. Inner membrane of mitochondrion D. Intermembrane space of mitochondrion ANSWER: matrix

34 33. Where does ETC occur? A. Cytoplasm B. Matrix C. Inner membrane of mitochondrion D. Intermembrane space of mitochondrion ANSWER: inner membrane

35 34. Where do H+ ions collect before they pass through the ATP synthase? A. Cytoplasm B. Matrix C. Inner membrane of mitochondrion D. Intermembrane space of mitochondrion ANSWER: intermembrane space

36 35. Where is the ATP synthase located?? A. Cytoplasm B. Matrix C. Inner membrane of mitochondrion D. Intermembrane space of mitochondrion ANSWER: inner membrane

37 36. How is the ETC different than burning glucose with a flame?  ETC breaks down glucose gradually A flame burns glucose all at once  34% of energy captured (ETC), rest is lost as heat

38 37. Which electron carrier(s) (is) are in glycolysis? FADH NADH NADH Which electron carriers are in Krebs cycle? BOTH NADH and FADH 2

39 38. What is the final electron acceptor of the ETC? A. oxygen B. NAD+ C. FAD D. Jimin Leeeeee ANSWER: oxygen

40 39. Where do each of these come from to form water in cellular respiration? H+ NADH and FADH 2 Oxygen Breathing in Electrons NADH and FADH 2 (released to ETC)

41 41.What is the difference? Between calorie and Calorie? calorie = heat it takes to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius Calorie = 1000 calories Calorie = 1 kcal

42 So… 50 calories 0.05 Calories 0.05 kcal 1 Calorie = 1000 calories = 1 kcal 1 calorie =.001 Calorie =.001 kcal 1 Calorie = 1000 calories

43 42. What is another name for… The Krebs Cycle? A. Calvin Cycle B. Lactic Acid Cycle C. Citric Acid Cycle D. Pyruvic Acid Cycle E. TCA cycle ANSWER: C + E

44 43. Which enzyme… Grooms pyruvic acid so it can enter the Krebs cycle? A. Lactase B. Coenzyme A C. Coenzyme K D. Protease ANSWER: B

45 43. What is cut off… Pyruvic acid so it can enter the Krebs cycle? A. oxygen B. nitrogen C. hydroxide D. carbon dioxide ANSWER: D

46 44. What is formed at the end of glycolysis (3-C molecule)? Carbon dioxide Pyruvate G3P NADH ANSWER: pyruvate (pyruvic acid)

47 45. What is the product at the end of ETC/chemiosmosis with H+ and with oxygen? Pyruvic acid ATP Water Carbon dioxide ANSWER: water

48 46. What product forms with ethanol (ethyl alcohol) in yeast fermentation? ATP Water Carbon dioxide Ethanol ANSWER: carbon dioxide

49 47. What product forms at the end of anaerobic fermentation in muscles of animals? Carbon dioxide Water Pyruvic acid Lactic acid Ethanol ANSWER: lactic acid

50 48. What is an intermediate formed at the end of the Energy Investment Phase of glycolysis? Pyruvate G3P OAA Citric acid ANSWER: G3P

51 49. What forms as a waste product in yeast + glucose if oxygen is not present ? ethanol

52 50. ADP HOW DIFFERENT IS ATP? ANSWER: ATP has one more phosphate attached ATP stores more energy

53 51.NAD+ HOW DIFFERENT IS NADH? Answer: NADH Picked up electrons and hydrogen.

54 52. FAD How different is FADH 2 ? ANSWER: FADH 2 has picked up electrons and 2 hydrogen.

55 53. Glucose How different is pyruvic acid? ANSWER: Glucose is 6-C and pyruvic acid is 3-C made from glucose splitting.

56 Is it ANAEROBIC OR AEROBIC? Glycolysis Krebs cycle Chemiosmosis Fermentation ETC Anaerobic Aerobic Anaerobic Aerobic

57 54. What is the difference between anaerobic and aerobic? A. with oxygen B. without oxygen ANSWER: anaerobic is without oxygen Aerobic is with oxygen

58 55. What causes the electrons to flow down the ETC? e- are passed from one protein to another from high energy to lower pulled by the final oxygen acceptor (the escaped energy is used to move the H+ across the inner membrane of the mitochondrion)

59 55. What is the final electron acceptor? OXYGEN

60 56. What is the respiratory system disorder? Involuntary muscles of the air tubes constrict making breathing difficult Asthma Spasmic contractions of the diaphragm causing the snapping of the glottis hiccups

61 56. What is the respiratory system disorder? Infection of overuse of the vocal cords causing loss of sound. Laryngitis Chronic expansion of the alveoli so they cannot spring back. emphysema

62 56. What is the respiratory system disorder? Infection of the lining of the air tubes causing soreness, swelling the irritation for a raspy cough. bronchitis A sore throat. Its an inflammation or infection of the lining of the throat. pharyngitis

63 56. What is the respiratory system disorder? An infection of the lung air sacs and alveoli- they fill with fluids and breathing is labored. pneumonia An infection of the membranes surrounding the lungs, painful to breathe. pleurisy

64 57. What is the formula for cellular respiration? C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H2O + ATP

65 What is the equation for cellular respiration? C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + ATP

66 58. What is the difference between substrate-level phosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation? See the next slide

67 2 Ways to Make ATP Substrate-Level Phosphorylation (without a membrane; it occurs in the cytoplasm or matrix of mitochondrion with help of an enzyme) Oxidative Phosphorylation diffusion of particles through a membrane produces ATP -loses e-

68 59. How is pyruvate “cut and groomed” to enter the Krebs cycle? Cut = remove carbon as carbon dioxide Groomed is acetyl group is attached to Coenzyme A

69 60. Fill in the total number formed in the Krebs cycle for 2 pyruvates: ATP NADH FADH 2 CO 2 2 6 2 4

70 61. CONTRAST SLOW TWITCH MUSCLES Thin fibers Many mitochondrion Aerobic Many myoglobin Dark Meat Long Distance runs FAST TWITCH MUSCLES Thick fibers Few Mitochondrion Anaerobic Few myoglobin Light Meat Sprinters, weight lifting

71 62. WHAT IS AT EACH AREA? A. B. C. D. E. folds

72 Intermembrane space (Fold)

73 63. In the following equation, what is oxidized and what is reduced?

74 ANSWER Lose e- and lose H Gain e- and gain H LEO goes GER

75 64. What is OAA? Oxaloacetate combines with acetyl group to form citric acid OAA

76 65. What causes ATP synthase to produce ATP? As the H+ ions that collected in the intermembrane space pass through the ATP synthase, it moves and causes the P to join ADP to form ATP

77 66.Match the poisons Cyanide Oligomycin DNP rotenone Blocks ETC to kill insects and fish in ponds-Blocks first protein in ETC Blocks fourth protein in ETC; used in Tylenol tampering Antibiotic blocks H+ passage Quickens metabolic rate- energy all lost as heat

78 66.Match the poisons Cyanide Oligomycin DNP rotenone ANSWERS Blocks fourth protein in ETC; used in Tylenol tampering Antibiotic blocks H+ passage Quickens metabolic rate- energy all lost as heat Blocks first protein in ETC and Blocks ETC to kill insects and fish in ponds

79 67. How does pyruvate change in Alcoholic fermentation Gives off carbon dioxide Regenerates NADH to NAD+ Forms alcohol (ethanol) Lactic acid fermentation Forms lactic acid DOES NOT FORM carbon dioxide Does regenerate NADH to NAD+

80 68. How are these different? Obligate anaerobes Organisms that require anaerobic conditions (NO OXYGEN) Facultative anaerobes Organisms that can live in or not live in aerobic conditions

81 69. What is the smallest rotary motor known? ATP synthase What runs it? Proton concentration (H+) gradient from the intermembrane space WHAT DOES IT MAKE? ATP

82 70. Which process… Means “sugar breaking?” A. glycolysis B. Krebs cycle C. ETC D. chemiosmosis ANSWER: A

83 71. What process… Regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue? A. Krebs cycle B. fermentation C. glycolysis D. chemiosmosis ANSWER: B

84 72. See question 64

85 73. In a redox reaction how do you know if a molecule has been oxidized? Reduced? Oxidized = loss of electrons = loss of H+ Reduced = gain of electrons = gain of H+

86 74-77 What is at “A” and “C”?

87 “A” = ETC “C” = ATP Synthase

88 Where do the H+ ions collect?

89 H+ ions collect at “B” H+

90 Where is the Krebs Cycle? H+

91 “D” has the Krebs Cycle H+ KREBS CYCLE

92 When electrons are passed in the ETC, what direction does the energy flow? Low to high High to low Even throughout ANSWER: High to low

93 What is phosphorylation? Addition of a phosphate Addition of a hydrogen Addition of an oxygen ANSWER: Addition of a phosphate Like ADP + P = ATP Adding P to glucose to break into pyruvic acid

94 78. Which is inhalation?

95 Which is inhalation? Contract Vol. increase Relax Volume decrease

96 Which is the diaphragm relaxing?

97

98 EXTENDED RESPONSE HINTS 1. NAD+ to NADH and back to NAD+ Example: glycolysis, Kreb cycle, ETC Show when it forms NAD+ to NADH and then loses them at the ETC (LEO goes GER)

99 ETC and ATP synthase Team 2. H+/e- source from NADH and FADH 2

100 EXTENDED RESPONSE HINTS 3. Pulmonary arteries Normal arteries Carry deoxygenated carry oxygenated Pulmonary veins Normal veins Carry oxygenated carry deoxygenated Arteries always away from the heart Veins always to the heart LUNGS Heart to body

101 3

102 EXTENDED RESPONSE HINTS #4 Anaerobic respiration Aerobic resp. Does not requires O 2 Requires oxygen Occurs in cytoplasm Occurs in mitoch. Only needs enzymes Needs membranes act as ETC, ATP synthase Only makes 2 ATP makes 34 + 2 ATP

103 Just a bunch more of Great questions

104 Where does it take place? 1. cellular respiration 2. Krebs cycle 3. lactic acid fermentation 4. alcoholic fermentation 5. gives off CO 2 as a waste product CHOICES: C = cytoplasm M = mitochondrion IM = inner membrane IMS = inter membrane space MX = matrix

105 Where does it take place? 1. cellular respiration 2. Krebs cycle 3. lactic acid fermentation 4. alcoholic fermentation 5. gives off CO 2 as a waste product M MX C MX

106 Where does it take place? ETC Glycolysis Citric acid cycle NADH and FADH 2 (gives up e-) H+ ions collect when NADH and FADH 2 give up e- CHOICES: C = cytoplasm M = mitochondrion IM = inner membrane IMS = inter membrane space MX = matrix

107 Where does it take place? ETC Glycolysis Citric acid cycle NADH and FADH 2 (gives up e-) H+ ions collect when NADH and FADH 2 give up e- IM C MX MX to IM IMS

108 What number? 2 3 4 6 34 38 ATP to start glycolysis? ANSWER: 2 Total ATP made from glycolysis to pyruvic acid? ANSWER: 4

109 What number? 2 3 4 6 34 38 Net ATP made from glucose to pyruvic acid? ANSWER: 2 ATP from Krebs cycle? ANSWER: 2

110 What number? 2 3 4 6 34 38 ATP from ETC and chemiosmosis? ANSWER: 34 Total ATP from one glucose broken down (glycolysis + Krebs cycle + ETC/chemiosmosis) ? ANSWER:38

111 What number? 2 3 4 6 34 38 Number of carbons in glucose? ANSWER: 6 Number of carbons in pyruvic acid? ANSWER: 3

112 What molecule is it? That grooms pyruvic acid to enter the Krebs cycle? ANSWER: coenzyme A

113 What molecule is it? That is the final (ultimate) electron acceptor? ANSWER: oxygen

114 What molecule is it? That forms when pyruvic acid breaks down in muscles (anaerobically)? ANSWER: lactic acid

115 What 2 molecules… That form when pyruvic acid breaks down in yeasts (anaerobically)? ANSWER: carbon dioxide and ethanol (ethyl alcohol)

116 What molecule is it? An electron carrier formed from glycolysis? ANSWER:NAD+ to NADH

117 What molecule is it? 2 electron carriers formed in the Krebs cycle? ANSWER: NADH and FADH 2

118 What molecule… Forms after H+ ions go through ATP synthase? ANSWER: ATP

119 What molecule is it? That is formed after H+ ions join with oxygen? ANSWER: H 2 O

120 What molecule is it? That forms as a one-carbon waste product in the Krebs cycle? ANSWER: carbon dioxide

121 What molecule is it? That is a 6-carbon molecule that forms temporarily in the Krebs cycle (2-C acetyl CoA and a 4-C compound)? ANSWER: citric acid

122 Which is the form in each that is filled carrying e-? NAD+ or NADH? FADH 2 or FAD? ANSWER: NADH and FADH 2

123 As e- go down the ETC, do they do it…? Gradually (step by step) OR Quickly (all at once)? ANSWER: gradually

124 Pyruvic acid gets “cut and groomed” by what and to go where? ANSWER: BY Coenzyme A to go into the Krebs cycle

125 What is chemiosmosis? The diffusion of _____________ from ______ concentration to ___________ concentration across a ________________. ANSWER: H+ ions, High to Low, membrane

126 Where do the H+ ions collect after the NADH and FADH 2 dropped them off and they got pulled to here? ANSWER: Intermembrane Space


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