Presentation on theme: "An initiative by Dr. Sudip Basu. What is Reproduction Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproductionsexual reproduction resulting in the conception."— Presentation transcript:
What is Reproduction Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproductionsexual reproduction resulting in the conception of a child, typically involvingconception of a child sexual intercourse between a man and a woman.sexual intercourse During sexual intercourse, the interaction between the male andmale female reproductive systems results in fertilization of the woman'sfemale reproductive systemsfertilization ovum by the man's sperm, which after a gestation period is followedovumspermgestation period by childbirth.childbirth The fertilization of the ovum may nowadays be achieved by artificial insemination methods, which do not involve sexual intercourseartificial insemination
Male Reproductive Organs The male reproductive system contains two main divisions: the testes where sperm are produced, and the penis.testespenis In humans, both of these organs are outside the abdominal cavity.abdominal cavity Having the testes outside the abdomen facilitates temperature regulation of the sperm, which require specific temperatures to survive about 2-3 °C less than the normal body temperature i.e. 37°C.
Female Reproductive Organs The female reproductive system likewise contains two main divisions: the vagina and uterus, which act as the receptacle for semen, and thevaginauterus ovaries, which produce the female's ova.ovaries The vagina is attached to the uterus through the cervix, while the uteruscervix is attached to the ovaries via the Fallopian tubes. At certain intervals, theFallopian tubes ovaries release an ovum, which passes through the fallopian tube into the uterus.
Reproductive Cycle Menstrual cycle is the cycle of changes that occurs in the uterus anduterus ovary for the purpose of sexual reproduction. ovarysexual reproduction In humans, the length of a menstrual cycle varies from 25 to 35 days ( 28 days, average). Each cycle can be divided into three phases based on events in the ovary (ovarian cycle) or in the uterus (uterine cycle). The ovarian cycle consists of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phasefollicular phaseovulationluteal phase The uterine cycle is divided into menstruation, proliferative phase and secretory phase.menstruation Contd……
Reproductive Cycle (contd…) By convention, menstrual cycles are counted from the first day of menstrual bleeding. Stimulated by gradually increasing amounts of estrogen in the follicular phase, discharges of blood (menses) slow then stop, and the lining of the uterus thickens.estrogenlininguterus Follicles in the ovary begin developing under the influence of a complex interplay of hormones.ovary One or occasionally two become dominant (non-dominant follicles atrophy and die). Approximately mid-cycle, 24–36 hours after the Luteinizing Hormone (LH) surges, the dominant follicle releases an ovum, or egg in an event called ovulation.Luteinizing Hormone (LH)ovum, or egg After ovulation, the egg only lives for 24 hours or less without fertilization.The remains of the dominant follicle in the ovary become a corpus luteum; this body has a primary function of producing large amounts of progesterone.corpus luteumprogesterone Under the influence of progesterone, the endometrium (uterine lining) changes to prepare for potential implantation of an embryo to establish a pregnancy.implantation pregnancy
Fertile Days…. The most fertile period (the time with the highest likelihood of pregnancy resulting from sexual intercourse) covers the time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation.sexual intercourse In a 28 ‑ day cycle with a 14 ‑ day leuteal phase, this corresponds to the second and the beginning of the third week. A variety of methods have been developed to help individual women estimate the relatively fertile and the relatively infertile days in the cycle; these systems are called fertility awareness.fertility awareness
When things go wrong Infertility is one of the major health problems affecting human race in modern days. One in every ten couple faces some problem in their reproductive life. Approximately ten million couple in lndia suffers from childlessness Such is the extent of the problem World Health Organization has been forced to declare infertility as a disease and has urged all the countries to take active measures to prevent and manage infertility.
Why do things go wrong? Chemotherapy Defect or obstruction in the reproductive system) Disease (e.g. STD. Hormone dysfunction Infection (e.g., prostatitis,prostatitis Injury (e.g. testicular trauma). Medications Metabolic disorders. Retrograde ejaculation Retrograde ejaculation Systemic disease Testicular cancer Testicular cancer Varicocele Varicocele Failure to Ovulate Hormonal Dysfunction Blocked Fallopian Tube Abnormal Uterus Abdominal Diseases Poly Cystic Ovary Ectopic Pregnancy Congenital Diseases Previous Surgeries Congenital Diseases Endometriosis Infection Premature Menopause Male factorsFemale factors