Presentation on theme: "Radiological and Environmental Management Purdue University with information from ANSI Z136.1 - 2007 Laser Safety Training: Online Segment."— Presentation transcript:
Radiological and Environmental Management Purdue University with information from ANSI Z Laser Safety Training: Online Segment
1Fundamentals of laser operation 2Bioeffects of laser radiation on the eye and skin 3Significance of specular and diffuse reflections 4Non-beam hazards of lasers 5Laser and laser system classifications 6Control measures 7Laser Safety Project Information 8Facility and personnel responsibilities 9Medical surveillance practices 10Required training 11Consequences of Non-Compliance 12Emergency Procedures Modules
Fundamentals of Laser Theory and Operation Laser Definition Laser Components Laser Characteristics Module 1
LASER: an acronym for Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation Laser System: a laser and its associated electrical, mechanical, and optical components. UV lamps, light boxes are NOT lasers What is a laser?
1. Optical Cavity: resonator that provides the necessary geometry Resonator encapsulated by a fully-reflective mirror on one end and a partially-reflective mirror on the other. Laser Components
2. Lasing Medium: causes amplification of a certain incident light at a particular wavelength. Solid-state Gas Dye Semi-conductor Atoms at “ground-state” awaiting stimulus from energy source. Laser Components (2)
3. Pumping System: imparts energy to the atoms or molecules of the laser medium. Optical pumping Collision pumping Chemical pumping Energy delivered to medium, causing excitation of atoms and the release of photons. Laser Components (3)
Provides laser pulses of an extremely short time duration. Q-Switch
Laser Characteristics Monochromatic: either a single wavelength or a relatively small range of wavelengths. VS.
Laser Characteristics 2 Monochromatic: either a single wavelength or a relatively small range of wavelengths. Directional: “parallel light beam” - small divergence over distance, unless purposely diverged (e.g. diffusing lenses). VS.
Laser Characteristics 3 Monochromatic: either a single wavelength or a relatively small range of wavelengths. Directional: “parallel light beam” - small divergence over distance, unless purposely diverged (e.g. diffusing lenses). Coherent: a “fixed phase” relationship exists within the wavelength – in step. VS.
Bioeffects of Laser Radiation on the Eye and Skin Criteria for Eye and Skin Exposure Eye Tissues Mechanisms of Eye Injury Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength Special Considerations for Ocular Exposure Mechanisms of Dermal Injury Module 2
ANSI Z Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Maximum Permissible Exposure (MPE) limits are below known hazardous levels. Exposures at the MPE limit may be uncomfortable. MPEs are normalized relative to the limiting aperture area – we assume the limiting aperture area is 7mm for the pupil size of a dark-adapted eye in most cases. Irradiance is affected by the Radiant Exposure and the Exposure Duration Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin
Eye Tissues - Macula Macula: devoid of blood vessels; area of eye most responsible for color vision. Fovea: center of macula; area of eye of clearest vision/focusing.
Eye Tissues – Optic Nerve Optic Nerve: transmits electrical impulses from the retina to the brain; fibers enter eye at the Optic Disk.
Eye Tissues – Retina Retina: innermost coat of outside of eye, responsible for vision.
Eye Tissues – Vitreous Body Vitreous Body: transparent, colorless, gelatinous material which fills the eyeball chamber.
Eye Tissues - Pupil Pupil: opening in the center of the iris; pupil size determines amount of light entering eye.
Eye Tissues - Iris Iris: pigmented muscle that dilates and constricts, depending on ambient light.
Eye Tissues - Cornea Cornea: transparent, layered window of eye; provides 2/3 of eye’s focusing power.
ANSI Z Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Thermal Potential effects: charring, edema, hemorrhage Photochemical (blue light and UV) Potential effects: production of toxins and biochemical changes which may cause inflammation, lesions and lens opacities Photoacoustic (short intense pulses) Potential effects: explosive forces due to expanding gases Mechanisms of Eye Injury
ANSI Z Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength TARGET: Cornea Far IR (IRC): 3000 nm – 1 mm Mid IR (IRB): 1400 nm – 3000 nm Mid UV (UVB): 280 nm – 315 nm Far UV (UVC): 100 nm – 280 nm EFFECT: Mid IR and Far IR: Thermal Mid UV and Far UV: Acute inflammation and conjunctivitis, fluorescence of lens, corneal and lenticular opacities (“clouding”) cataractogenesis (peaks at 300 nm)
ANSI Z Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength (Retina) TARGET: Retina Near IR (IRA) : 700 nm – 1400 nm Visible Light: 400 nm – 700 nm EFFECT: Thermal burns, hemorrhage, scotoma (“blind spot”), photoretinitis (“blue light damage”)
ANSI Z Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Eye Hazard vs. Wavelength (Lens) TARGET: Lens Near UV (UVA): 315 nm – 400 nm EFFECT: Development of cataracts
ANSI Z Section 8: Criteria for Exposures of Eye and Skin Lower MPE limits may be required when normal protective mechanisms such as eye movement and pupil constriction are hindered. Inform your LPI if you think that you have a condition that may impact your susceptibility to the laser beam.LPI For example, individuals who have had pupil dilation performed will not have the natural defenses of the constricting iris which could limit that amount of radiation entering their eye. Also, advanced age of an individual may reduce the ability of the iris to contract. Special Considerations for Ocular Exposures
Mechanisms of Dermal Injury 2 Thermal (from direct beam or specular reflection) for Near UV, Visible, and IR wavelengths Potential effects: mild reddening (erythema) to blistering Severity is dependent upon exposure dose rate, exposure dose, and conduction of heat away from the site of absorption
Photochemical (from scatter of beam, specular or diffuse reflection) for Mid UV and Far UV wavelengths Potential effects: erythema to blistering, possibly carcinogenic Effects are dependent upon wavelength and exposure dose Mechanisms of Dermal Injury
Significance of Specular and Diffuse Reflections Specular Reflection Diffuse Reflection Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection Important Notes Module 3
Mirror-like Reflection Reflected wavelength is near same shape and intensity as direct beam Obeys the Law of Reflection: Angle of Reflection = Angle of Incidence Occurs when wavelength of laser beam is greater than the irregularities of the surface the beam hits Specular Reflection
Reflected wavelength is blurred and weaker than direct beam Obeys Lambert’s Law or the Cosine Law of Reflection Occurs when wavelength of laser beam is smaller than the irregularities of the surface the beam hits Diffuse Reflection
Specular Specular vs. Diffuse Reflection Diffuse
Avoid having objects that may produce a specular reflection in or near laser beam (e.g. jewelry, tools, etc.), unless deliberately used as part of laser system (e.g. mirrors) Surfaces that appear dull and pitted to our eyes may be a specular surface to beams of larger wavelengths Important Notes
Non-Beam Hazards of Lasers General Information Physical Agents Chemical Agents Biological Agents Human Use Module 4
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Include physical, chemical, and biological agents, as well as human use issues. May occur when: material is exposed to a laser beam. laser-related materials are released into the atmosphere. Individuals contact system components. Written SOPs shall address non-beam hazards, as well as beam hazards. General Information
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Electrical Hazards Potential Hazards Shock: risk from contact with energized electrical conductors, power supplies, and other devices operating at potentials or 50 volts and above. (note: 600 volts and higher are considered to be High Voltage) Resistive Heating: routinely check equipment for decay. Electric Spark Ignition of Flammable Materials: malfunction can lead to fire; sparks may be ignition source. Potential effects: “tingle”, startle, serious injury, death. Electrical Hazard Control Measures: comply with OSHA, NFPA 70, and state and local regulations. Must have: Fire extinguishers designed for electrical fires. Panic Button or Emergency Shutdown Switch. Physical Agents
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Collateral and Plasma Radiation Ionizing Radiation: x-rays from electronic components of laser system (e.g. voltages exceeding 15 kV) and laser-metal induced plasmas. Non-Ionizing Radiation: UV and Visible: suitably shielded so as not to exceed limits specified by the ACGIH TLVs. Electromagnetic Fields (EMF): MPEs set by IEEE C95 Plasma: UV and blue light Physical Agents (2)
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Fire Hazards Use flame retardant materials wherever possible. Possible affected material: beam enclosures, barriers, unprotected wire insulation, and plastic tubing. Obtain appropriate fire protection information from manufacturer. Explosion Hazards Possible causes: component (high-pressure arc lamps, filament lamps, and capacitor banks) disintegration, laser target and elements of the optical train may shatter, chemical laser reactants or other laser gases, ignition of dust collected in ventilation systems serving laser processes. Required preventative measures: proper and timely maintenance of system, protective housing enclosure surrounding internal components, enclosure (or equivalent protection) of laser target and susceptible elements of optical train. Physical Agents (3)
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Mechanical Hazards Associated with Robotics Potential hazards: damage to protective housing and beam delivery system, misalignment of beam, pinning/pinching of personnel. Protective measures: may include surface interlock mats, interlocked light curtains, non- rigid walls and barriers. Consult REM for further information. Noise: Certain lasers (e.g. pulsed excimers), and/or work environment may require noise control. Consult REM for further information. Physical Agents (4)
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Laser Generated Air Contaminants (LGACs) Primary Factors: target material, cover gas, and the beam irradiance. Lower limit of occurrence appears at an irradiance level of approximately 107 W/cm2. Possible carcinogenic toxic, and noxious airborne contaminants (list in Appendix F, ANSI Z136.1 – 2007). LSO must ensure industrial hygiene characterizations of exposure to LGACs are conducted properly and refer to Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) supplied by the manufacturer. If necessary, LSO may require additional control methods. Chemical Agents
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Compressed Gases E.g.: chlorine, fluorine, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen fluoride. All compressed gases with a Hazardous Material Information System (HMIS) or NFPA Diamond with a health, flammability, or reactivity rating of 3 or 4 shall be properly contained (i.e in an approved and appropriately exhausted gas cabinet that is alarmed with sensors to indicate potential leakage conditions). SOPs shall be developed for safely handling compressed gases. Sample of associated safety problems: Free-standing cylinder not isolated from personnel. Failure to protect open cylinders (i.e. regulator disconnected) from atmosphere and contaminants. No remote shutoff valve or provisions for purging gas before disconnect or reconnect. Labeled hazardous gas cylinders not maintained in appropriate exhausted enclosures. Gases of different hazards (toxic, corrosive, flammable, oxidizer, inert, high pressure, and cryogenic) not stored separately in accordance with OSHA and Compressed Gas Association requirements. Chemical Agents (2)
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Laser Dyes and Solvents Fluorescent compounds which, when in solution with certain solvents, form a lasing medium for dye lasers. Some are highly toxic or carcinogenic. Dye handling must employ special care (see Purdue University Chemical Hygiene Plan) Purdue University Chemical Hygiene Plan Dye lasers containing 100 ml or greater of flammable liquids shall be in conformance with NFPA 30 and 45, and the NEC Article 500. All dyes shall be prepared in a laboratory fume hood. Dye pumps and reservoirs should be placed in secondary containment vessels to minimize leakage and spills in conformance with NFPA 115. Assist Gases May be used to produce an inert atmosphere, remove material from beam-interaction site, and minimize deposition on components. May appear in some types of LGACs and spectral distribution of plasma radiation. Chemical Agents (3)
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Control Measures: Engineering controls preferred Exhaust Ventilation avoid recirculation of LGACs. use enclosing hoods, if possible. designed in accordance with ACGIH and ANSI Z9.2. Respiratory Protection for brief exposures or interim control measure. If used, must comply with 29 CFR (OSHA). Process Isolation physical barriers, master-slave manipulators, or remote control apparatus. certain applications (e.g. biomedical applications) require disinfection/sterilization of equipment after use. Sensors and Alarms Shall be installed in hazardous gas cabinets and other locations as appropriate (including exhaust ventilation ducts). Should be used for toxic and corrosive chemical agents (e.g. halogens), and be able to detect the hazardous gas in a mixture of emitted gases. Must be properly shielded to minimize susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Chemical Agents (4)
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards LGACs: may be generated when a high- powered lasers interacts with biological tissue. Infectious Materials: may survive beam irradiation and become airborne. Consult ANSI Z136.3, Appendix F. Biological Agents
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Ergonomics E.g.: workstation layout, worker-machine interface, handling techniques, area illumination, visual distractions. Limited Work Space There must be sufficient room for personnel to turn around an maneuver freely, without trip/fall hazards (e.g. wires or cables on floor). Work Patterns Unusual or long hours may affect worker alertness. Human Factors
ANSI Z Section 7: Non-Beam Hazards Disposal Laser Disposal: donation, remove all means or activation and disposed, destruction Laser Waste Disposal: waste disposal shall conform with Purdue University disposal requirements (see REM’s Hazardous Material Management webpage)REM’s Hazardous Material Management webpage Chillers May be employed to reduce heat load produced by lasers. Chiller types: conductivity-cooled, air-cooled, or cooled with a closed loop chiller. If using chilled water, filter the incoming water to ensure that minerals and particulate matter are removed to minimize damage to equipment. Human Factors (2)
Laser and Laser System Classifications Module 5
ANSI Z Section 1: General Class 1: exempt from control measures or other surveillance, considered incapable of producing damaging radiation levels during operation. Former Class IIa lasers are considered to be in this category. Class 1M: exempt from any control measures other than to prevent potentially hazardous optically aided viewing, considered incapable of producing hazardous exposure conditions during normal operation unless the beam is viewed with an optical instrument. Laser Classifications
ANSI Z Section 1: General Both Class 2 and Class 2M laser emit only in the visible spectrum (400 – 700 nm wavelengths). In the visible spectrum, the human aversion response (a reflex action of blinking and looking away from a strong optical stimulus) occurs when the eye becomes exposed; the response time occurs within 0.25 seconds. Class 2 lasers are considered harmless for accidental viewing based on the power level and protection of the human aversion response. Class 2M lasers are considered potentially hazardous if viewed with certain optical aids. For instance, a focusing lens may produce a magnified intensity to which the eye could be exposed. The Laser Safety Officer should evaluate a Class 2M laser or laser system to determine what hazard controls may be necessary for the safe use of the laser. Laser Classifications (2)
ANSI Z Section 1: General Class 3 (medium power): may be hazardous for direct or specular reflections (normally not a diffuse reflection or fire hazard). 2 subclasses. Class 3R: potentially hazardous under some direct and specular reflection viewing conditions (if eye is focused and stable, highly improbable). Not a fire or diffuse reflection hazard. Class 3B: viewing hazard under direct or specular reflection conditions, normally not a diffuse reflection or fire hazard Laser Classifications (3)
ANSI Z Section 1: General Class 4 (high power): Hazard to eye or skin from the direct beam, and May be a diffuse reflection or fire hazard May also be a source of laser generated air contaminants (LGACs) and hazardous plasma radiation. For lasers not classified by manufacturer, or where class level may change because of alteration of engineering control measures, the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) may classify Laser classifications are in Arabic Numerals; Roman Numerals are no longer accepted. Laser Classifications (4)
Engineering Controls Administrative & Procedural Controls Special Considerations Protective Equipment Area Warning Signs & Equipment Labels Control Measures General Rules Accident Trends Operation, Maintenance, and Service Unattended Use Laser Modification Module 6
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Use minimum laser radiation required for the application. Maintain beam height at a level other that the position of the user’s eye standing or sitting. Prefer engineering controls, however must have administrative and procedural controls. General Rules
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Reported incidents related to lasers are most often associated with: Unanticipated eye exposure during alignment Misaligned optics and upwardly directed beams Available eye protection not used Equipment malfunction Improper methods of handling high voltage Intentional exposure of unprotected personnel Operators unfamiliar with laser equipment Lack of protection for non-beam hazards Accident Trends
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Reported incidents related to lasers are most often associated with (cont’d): Improper restoration of equipment following service Eyewear worn not appropriate for laser in use Unanticipated eye/skin exposure during laser usage Inhalation of laser generated air contaminants and/or viewing laser generated plasmas Fires resulting from the ignition of materials Eye or skin injury of photochemical origin Failure to follow SOPs Accident Trends (2)
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Lasers are classified under conditions of intended use. Maintenance and Service functions should be delineated in the service manuals of the laser. Consult with manufacturer for special use conditions/service of laser. Consult REM Laser Section for guidance on service procedures.REM Laser Section Operation, Maintenance, and Service
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Operate lasers under direct supervision or control of an authorized user – operator shall maintain visual surveillance of conditions for safe use and terminate laser operation in the event of malfunction or other unsafe condition. Unattended operation may ONLY be allowed under LSO- approved control measures are in place; control measures MUST provide adequate protection so that unprotected spectators shall not receive eye or skin exposures that exceed the MPE limits. Service Personnel Emergency Personnel Administrative/Other Personnel Students/General Public Unattended Use
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures LSO may reclassify a modified laser. May necessitate recertification, reclassification, and compliance reporting under Federal Laser Product Performance Standard (FLPPS). Laser Modification
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Protective Housing – Require interlocks and appropriate labels. Service Access Panels – Shall only be removed by service personnel; interlocked or removal tool and warning label required. Key Control – Master switch that can initiate and terminate system operation shall be operated by a key or coded access. The key (or code) shall only be accessible to authorized personnel. Viewing Windows, Display Screens, and Collecting Optics – shall incorporate suitable means to maintain the exposure to below MPE. Beam Paths –separate requirements for fully open, limited open, and enclosed. Engineering Controls
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Remote Interlock Connector – Class 3B should and Class 4 shall have this control to eliminate accessible radiation to below the MPE Beam Stop or Attenuator - Class 3B should and Class 4 shall have this permanently attached control to eliminate accessible radiation to below the MPE when laser output is not required. Warning Area Warning Signs and Activation Warnings - Class 3B and Class 4 areas shall be posted with the appropriate signage, both for beam and non-beam hazards. Activation Warning Devices - Class 3B should and Class 4 shall use this control during activation or startup. Engineering Controls (2)
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Indoor Laser Controlled Area – Analysis shall be performed by the LSO Requirements for Class 4 more strict than Class 3B. Emergency Conditions – For emergencies, there shall be a clearly marked “Emergency Stop” available for deactivating the laser or reducing output to below the MPE. Entryway Controls – Class 4 laser areas shall have one of the following Non-Defeatable: for deactivation of laser or reducing output to below MPE in the event of unexpected entry into laser controlled area. Defeatable: only if clearly evident that there is no laser radiation hazard at the point of entry. Procedural: only when safety latches or interlocks are not feasible or are inappropriate (e.g. Surgery). Engineering Controls (3)
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Outdoor control measures - Lasers are not to be used outdoors without evaluation and approval by LSO. Temporary Laser Controlled Areas – in case of service or other conditions where housing, panels are removed and MPE is exceeded Controlled Operation Equipment Labels – in accordance with FLPPS or IEC Housing, Control Panel (if separated from housing by more than 2 meters), and Long Distance Beam Conduit (at intervals of 3 meters) Engineering Controls (4)
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) – shall be written and maintained with the laser(s) for reference regarding operation and alignment, maintenance and service, emergency for personnel injury and fire, and all applicable non-beam hazards (including electrical safety). Output Emission Limitations – LSO may require if excessive power or radiant energy is deemed excessive. Education and Training – required, must cover topics required by ANSI, records must be maintained. Authorized Personnel – LPI authorizes, training and registration are conditions of authorization.LPI Administrative and Procedural Controls
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Alignment Procedures Alignment Procedures Spectators – Shall not be permitted unless LPI has approved, LPI Spectators are informed of the hazards by authorized users, and Appropriate protective measures are taken. Service Personnel – Only those with the education and safety training commensurate with the laser contained within protective housing. Typically, certified technicians from the manufacturer. Administrative and Procedural Controls (2)
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures General Public – Class 3B and 4 require a laser light show variance issued by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH), other requirements. Optical Fiber Transmission Systems – considered enclosed within cable, if disconnecting where MEP is exceeded, NHZ requirements implemented. Robotic Installations – working envelope included in NHZ. Special Considerations
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures General – enclosure of beam is the preferred method of control. Eyewear – Required within NHZ for Class 3B and 4 lasers Non-beam hazards may exist which require additional eye protection (ANSI Z87.1) LSO shall determine the OD for eyewear based on laser specifications. Shall be labeled with the OD and its corresponding wavelength. Shall be cleaned and inspected to ensure proper condition. Only use eyewear that is in proper working condition. Protective Equipment
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Window Protection – within NHZ shall be provided with an appropriate filter, barrier, or screen with reduces laser radiation to below all applicable MPE. Barriers and Curtains – material shall be selected to withstand direct and diffuse reflection of beam, must not support combustion or release toxic fumes upon laser exposure. Labeling of Protective Equipment – Shall be permanently labeled with: Eyewear – OD and corresponding wavelength. Protective Windows – OD and corresponding wavelength, exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded. Collecting Optics Filters – OD and corresponding wavelength, threshold limit (TL) and corresponding exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded. Barriers (unless integral part of laser system) – TL and corresponding exposure time, and conditions under which protection is afforded. Viewports and Films (unless integral part of laser system) – OD and corresponding spectral region which shall be provided by the manufacturer. Protective Equipment (2)
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Skin Protection - mostly applicable to Class 4 UV lasers LSO shall determine if skin protection is needed. best achieved through engineering controls Other Protective Equipment – respirators, local exhaust ventilation, fire extinguishers, and hearing protection may be required. Protective Equipment (3)
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Design – In accordance with ANSI Z535. Symbols – 2 accepted symbols: Laser Symbol Design: ANSI Z535: sunburst pattern IEC : equilateral triangle with sunburst pattern Safety Alert Symbol: equilateral triangle surrounding an exclamation mark – must conform with ANSI Z Signal-Words Danger: Class 3R, 3B, and 4; OD and corresponding wavelength must be on sign. Caution: Class 2 and 2M. Notice: Temporary laser controlled areas (e.g. service). Area Warning Signs and Equipment Labels
Area Warning Sign Example
ANSI Z Section 4: Control Measures Pertinent Sign Information – requirements: Appropriate signal word. Precautionary instructions or protective action. Laser type or emitted wavelength, pulse duration, and maximum output. Laser classification. Conspicuously displayed in best locations to warn onlookers. Pertinent Equipment Label Information – Different requirements for different classes, conspicuously displayed. Existing Signs – Signs and labels prepared in accordance with previous revisions are acceptable. Area Warning Signs and Equipment Labels (2)
Laser Safety Project Information Forms Personnel Responsibilities & Requirements Module 7
Forms must be completed and approved by LSO, LSC Form LU-1: Project Summary & Evaluation for Use of Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers and Laser Systems (New/Amend Project Form), with SOPs attached. Form LU-1SOPs Form LF-1: Laser Facility Approval Request (New Lab Application) Form LF-1 Form LS-1: Laser Registration Form LS-1 Form LU-2: Application to Use Class 3B and Class 4 Lasers and Laser Systems (New User Application) Form LU-2 Project Approval Process
Training must be completed by all restricted and unrestricted users. The LPI is not exempt.The LPI is not exempt LSO must perform an assessment of the facility. LPI will ensure all required engineering, administrative, and procedural control measures are in place. Project Approval Process (2)
Restricted Users Must always be under direct supervision of an authorized, unrestricted user May never work alone with the laser unit Not required to submit an LU-2 form or complete the classroom session Must receive unit specific training on the laser being used Must complete retraining every two years Restricted vs Unrestricted Users
Unrestricted Users Must submit an LU-2 form and complete the classroom session Must receive unit specific training on the laser being used Once all registration and training requirements are fulfilled, unrestricted users may work with the laser without supervision Must complete retraining every two years Restricted vs Unrestricted Users 2
New users can only be added to approved laser projects. New users must: Fulfill all training requirements Submit a completed LU-2 to the LSOLU-2 LU-2 forms are only required for unrestricted users Restricted users are not required to complete an LU-2 form, however, they must still gain approval from the LPI to use the laser system Comply with the requirements established for the laser safety project and the Laser Safety Manual.Laser Safety Manual New User Information
Facility and Personnel Responsibilities Laser Safety Program & Provisions Personnel Responsibilities & Requirements Module 8
ANSI Z Section 1: General Purdue University, as a facility utilizing Class 3B and Class 4 lasers, shall establish and maintain an adequate program for the control of laser hazards. Class 3B and Class 4 laser systems: overseen by Purdue University Laser Safety Program, all users must complete required training. Purdue University policy established by Executive Memorandum No. D-2No. D-2 Laser Safety Program
ANSI Z Section 1: General LSO has authority and responsibility to evaluate laser hazards, monitor and enforce compliance with required standards and regulations, and perform other specific duties and responsibilities. Education of authorized personnel in the safety use of lasers and laser systems. Application of adequate protective measures. Laser Safety Program Provisions
ANSI Z Section 1: General Incident investigation. Appropriate medical examination and surveillance. Formation of a Laser Safety Committee when the number, hazards, complexity, and/or diversity of laser activities warrants.Laser Safety Committee Laser Safety Program Provisions (2)
ANSI Z Section 1: General Establish the safe use of the laser or laser system that is used. Inform LSO of any fabrication, altering, or installation of a Class 3B or Class 4 laser or laser system. Comply with the requirements as set forth by the ANSI Standard Z136.1 (2007) and Purdue University Laser Safety Guidelines.Purdue University Laser Safety Guidelines Different expectations for different personnel types Laser Principal Investigator (LPI) Employees working with lasers Other personnel Personnel Responsibilities
ANSI Z Section 1: General Laser Principal Investigator (LPI) Issue appropriate instruction and training materials on laser hazards and their control to all personnel who may work with lasers that are operated within supervisor’s jurisdiction. Not permit the operation of a laser unless there is adequate control of laser hazards to employees, visitors, and the general public. Ensure all individuals working have submitted a completed LU-2 form, including LPI Ensure LU-1 (that must be submitted to LSO) has all authorized individuals listed. Subsequent users may be listed with all required information either as an LU-1 addendum, or by written documentation to LSO. Personnel Requirements
ANSI Z Section 1: General Laser Principal Investigator (LPI) – cont’d For any known or suspected accident relating to a laser under his/her authority, enact appropriate response plan, which includes notification of the LSO. If necessary, assist in obtaining appropriate medical attention for any employee involved in a laser accident. Not permit operation of a new or modified Class 3B or Class 4 laser under his/her authority without LSO approval. Shall submit plans for Class 3B and Class 4 laser installations/modifications of installations to the LSO for review. Shall be familiar with the Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) for each Class 3B and Class 4 laser under his/her authority, and ensure that that they are provided to all users of such lasers. Personnel Requirements 2
ANSI Z Section 1: General Employees working with lasers Not energize or work with or near a laser unless authorized to do so by the laser’s supervisor. Comply with Purdue University Laser Safety Guidelines, LSO and LPI safety rules and procedures. Inform his/her LPI of any known or suspected accident involving a laser under their LPI’s jurisdiction. If the LPI is not available, notify the LSO. Personnel Requirements 3
Medical Surveillance Practices General Information Module 9
ANSI Z Section 6: Medical Examinations Medical surveillance must be performed as soon as possible, but no later than 48 hours of a suspected or actual laser- induced injury. Medical surveillance is encouraged for personnel using Class 3B and 4 lasers; surveillance may be ophthalmologic and/or dermatologic Dependent upon employee category (i.e. incidental personnel or laser personnel), the surveillance may be visual acuity or baseline as determined by ocular history. Frequency – should be performed prior to participation in laser work; shall be performed following suspected laser injury; periodic examinations are not required. General Information 2
Required Training General Information Module 10
ANSI Z Section 5: Education and Training Required for any employee routinely working with (unrestricted users) or potentially exposed to (restricted and unrestricted users) Class 3B or Class 4 laser radiation. Refresher training (online) is required at 2 year intervals. Trainer Qualifications – LSO or individual with training skills and knowledge including knowledge of lasers, laser safety concepts, and laser safety standards. LSO – multiple requirements; specialized training. User Training – Where appropriate, shall include CPR training and safety procedures for applicable non-beam hazards. Training records must be maintained by LSO regarding trainee information, date, and topics covered. General Information 3
Consequences of Non-Compliance General Information Module 11
The LSO has the authority to suspend, restrict, or terminate the operation of a laser system if the LSO deems that controls are not adequate. LPIs, authorized users, and/or associated personnel found in non-compliance of the Purdue Laser Safety Program and/or applicable governmental regulations may be subject to review by the Laser Safety Committee, at a minimum. Penalties for non-compliance shall be determined by the Laser Safety Committee and/or other applicable bodies of authority. General Information 4
Emergency Procedures Personnel Injury Fire Module 12
PERSONNEL INJURY Turn off the laser system with the “Emergency Button” or power switch. If injured personnel require medical assistance, don appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE, i.e. gloves), and provide minimum assistance, as needed. Ensure someone remains with the victim until medical personnel arrive. Contact medical personnel (call 911). Inform them of the accident and that lasers are involved. Contact REM ( ). Complete incident report. Incidents/Emergencies - Injury
FIRE Sound fire alarm. Contact fire department (call 911). Inform them of the incident. If fire has gone out, call the Purdue University Fire Department (PUFD) at the non-emergency number ( ) Turn off the laser system with the “Emergency Button” or power switch. Evacuate area. Contact REM ( ). Complete incident report. Incidents/Emergencies - Fire
Zach Tribbett, Laser Safety Officer Jerry Gibbs, Laser Training and Authorization Information Other Radiation Safety Staff: Contact Information
The link to the examination is included on the next slide. Once you have completed the test, you will receive an indicating whether or not you have passed. Unrestricted users: If you pass, and have indicated that you wish to become an unrestricted user, the confirmation you receive will include a link to the online registration for the classroom session. Restricted users: If you pass, and have indicated that you wish to become a restricted user, you will receive a confirmation detailing the responsibilities of a restricted user. An will also be sent to your LPI notifying them that you wish to join their project. The will only be sent if you pass. They will not be notified of a failed exam. Test and Classroom Session
Test Complete the test indicated below. You must have a minimum score of 75% to pass. Your results will be sent to you through , and, if you have passed, will be the documentation you would use to prove certification for renewal.