Presentation on theme: "ORTHODONTICS AN OVERVIEW. Orthodontics is a branch of dentistry concerned with prevention, interception and correction of malocclusion. The word orthodontics."— Presentation transcript:
ORTHODONTICS AN OVERVIEW
Orthodontics is a branch of dentistry concerned with prevention, interception and correction of malocclusion. The word orthodontics is derived from the Greek words orthos meaning correct and odontos meaning teeth.
Protruding, irregular, or maloccluded teeth can cause three types of problems for the patient: Discrimination because of facial appearance; Problems with oral function, including difficulties in jaw movement, TM joint dysfunction (TMD), and problems with mastication, swallowing, or speech. Greater susceptibility to trauma, periodontal disease, or tooth decay.
Psychosocial Problems: Well-aligned teeth and a pleasing smile carry positive status at all social levels and ages, whereas irregular or protruding teeth could carry negative status. Children anticipating orthodontic treatment typically expect an improvement in their social and psychological well-being and see an improvement in function as a secondary advantage of treatment.
Appearance can and does make a difference in teachers’ expectations and therefore in student progress in school. For adults chances for employability, and in competition for a mate. There is no doubt that social responses conditioned by the appearance of the face and teeth can severely affect an individual's whole adaptation to life.
Who Seeks Treatment? Not all patients with malocclusion, even those with extreme deviations from the normal, seek orthodontic treatment. Some do not recognize that they have a problem; others feel that they need treatment but cannot afford it or cannot obtain it. Orthodontic treatment can be carried out at any time during a patient's life.
Diagnosis and treatment planning: Diagnosis in orthodontics, as in other disciplines of dentistry and medicine, requires the collection of an adequate database of information about the patient which includes: extra oral and intra oral examination, study models, photographs. radiographs
From that database, a comprehensive but clearly stated list of the patient's problems. Once a patient's orthodontic problems have been identified and prioritized, issues must be faced in determining the optimal treatment plan:
the timing of treatment, the complexity of the treatment that would be required, the predictability of success with a given treatment approach the patient's (and parents') goals and desires.
ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES: 1 ) Myofunctional appliances: These are loose fitting or passive appliances which are used for growth modification procedures that are aimed at treating jaw discrepancies, and therefore aiding in normal development. Treatment is started at an early age, and cannot be used in adult patients in whom growth has ceased.
2) Mechanical appliances: These orthodontic appliances are devices by means of which mild pressure may be applied to a tooth or group of teeth and their supporting structures so as to bring about necessary changes within the bone which will allow tooth movement.
Removable appliances: These can be inserted and removed from the oral cavity by the patient at will. They are used to treat minor malocclusions. They are relatively cheaper than fixed appliances.
Fixed appliances: They are very versatile and can be used to treat most malocclusions including complicated ones. Multiple tooth movements are possible simultaneously. However they are far more expensive than removable appliances.
Fixed orthodontic appliances are the appliances that are commonly used to treat malocclusions in the orthodontic section. This is due to the patient’s needs and the type of malocclusion the patients present with. The treatment takes an average of eighteen months to twenty four months.