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The Respiratory System

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1 The Respiratory System
Chapter 23, part 1 The Respiratory System

2 SECTION 23-1 The Respiratory System: An Introduction

3 Learning Objectives Describe the primary functions of the respiratory system Identify the organs of the respiratory system and describe their functions Define and compare the processes of external and internal respiration

4 Learning Objectives Summarize the physical principles governing the movement of air into the lungs and the diffusion of gases into the blood Explain the important structural features of the respiratory membrane Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are picked up, transported and released in the blood

5 Functions of the respiratory system
Gas exchange between air and circulating blood Moving air from the exchange surface of the lungs Protection of respiratory surfaces Production of sound Provision for olfactory sensations

6 Organization of the respiratory system
Upper respiratory system Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx Lower respiratory system Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli

7 Figure 23.1 The Components of the Respiratory System

8 The Respiratory tract Conducting passageways carrying air to and from the alveoli Upper respiratory passages filter and humidify incoming air Lower passageways include delicate conduction passages and alveolar exchange surfaces

9 Respiratory Mucosa Respiratory epithelium and underlying connective tissue Respiratory membrane, supported by lamina propria, changes along tract Lines conducting portion of respiratory tract Protected from contamination by respiratory defense system

10 Figure 23.2 The Respiratory Epithelium of the Nasal Cavity and Conducting System

11 SECTION 23-2 The Upper Respiratory System

12 The nose and nasal cavity consists of:
External nares Nasal cavity Vestibule Superior, middle and inferior meatuses Hard and soft palates Internal nares Nasal mucosa

13 Figure 23.3 The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and Pharynx
Figure 23.3a, b

14 Figure 23.3 The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and Pharynx
Figure 23.3c

15 The pharynx Shared by the digestive and respiratory systems
Divided into three sections: Nasopharynx – superior portion Oropharynx – continuous with the oral cavity Laryngopharynx – between the hyoid bone and the esophagus

16 SECTION The Larynx

17 The larynx Air passes through the glottis on the way to the lungs
Larynx protects the glottis Cartilages of the larynx Three large cartilages Thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis Paired cartilages Arytenoids, corniculate, and cuneiform

18 Folds of the larynx Inelastic vestibular folds Delicate vocal folds

19 Figure 23.4 The Anatomy of the Larynx

20 Sound production Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds producing sound waves Pitch depends on conditions of vocal folds Diameter Length Tension

21 Figure The Glottis Figure 23.5a, b

22 The laryngeal musculature
Muscles of the neck and pharynx position and stabilize the larynx When swallowing,these muscles Elevate the larynx Bend the epiglottis over the glottis Intrinsic muscles control tension on the vocal folds and open the glottis

23 SECTION 23-4 The Trachea and Primary Bronchi

24 The trachea Extends from the sixth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra A tough, flexible tube running from the larynx to the bronchi Held open by C-shaped tracheal cartilages in submucosa Mucosa is similar to the nasopharynx

25 Figure 23.6 The Anatomy of the Trachea
Figure 23.6a, b

26 Figure 23.6 The Anatomy of the Trachea
Figure 23.6c

27 The primary bronchi Trachea branches in the mediastinum into right and left bronchi Bronchi enter the lungs at the hilus Root = the connective tissue mass including: Bronchus Pulmonary vessels Nerves

28 SECTION The Lungs

29 Lobes and surfaces of the lungs
Lobes of the lung are separated by fissures Right lung has three lobes Left lung has two lobes Concavity on medial surface = cardiac notch

30 Figure 23.7 The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs

31 Figure 23.7 The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs

32 Figure 23.7 The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs

33 Figure 23.8 The Relationship between the Lungs and the Heart

34 The bronchial tree System of tubes formed from the primary bronchi and their branches Primary bronchi branch into secondary or lobar bronchi Secondary bronchus goes to each lobe of the lungs Secondary bronchi branch into tertiary bronchi Tertiary bronchi supply air to a single bronchopulmonary segment Cartilage in walls decrease and smooth muscle increase with branching

35 Figure 23.10 The Bronchi and Lobules of the Lung
Figure 23.10a

36 Figure 23.10 The Bronchi and Lobules of the Lung
Figure 23.10b

37 The bronchioles Ultimately branch into terminal bronchioles
Delivers air to a single pulmonary lobule Terminal bronchiole becomes respiratory bronchioles Connective tissue of root branches to form interlobar septa

38 Alveolar ducts and alveoli
Respiratory bronchioles end in ducts and sacs Respiratory exchange surfaces connected to circulatory system via pulmonary circuit PLAY Animation: Lungs Flythrough

39 Figure 23.11 The Bronchioles

40 Respiratory Membrane Simple squamous epithelium
Endothelial cell lining an adjacent capillary Fused basal laminae

41 Cells of the respiratory membrane include
Septal cells Scattered in respiratory membrane Produce surfactant Alveolar Macrophage Patrol epithelium and engulf foreign particles PLAY Animation: Respiratory Structures

42 Figure 23.12 Alveolar Organization
Figure 23.12a-c

43 The blood supply to the lungs
Conducting portions Receive blood from external carotids, thyrocervical, bronchial arteries Respiratory exchange surfaces receive blood from the arteries of the pulmonary circuit are the source of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Pulmonary veins return blood to the left atrium

44 The pleural cavities and pleural membranes
Each lung covered by one pleura Pleura – serous membranes lining the pleural cavity Parietal - attaches to the walls of the pleural cavity Visceral - adheres to the surface of the lungs Pleural fluid – fills and lubricates the space between the pleura

45 SECTION 23-6 An Overview of Respiratory Physiology

46 Respiratory physiology is a series of integrated processes
Internal respiration Exchange of gases between interstitial fluid and cells External respiration Exchange of gases between interstitial fluid and the external environment The steps of external respiration include: Pulmonary ventilation Gas diffusion Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide

47 Figure 23.13 An Overview of Key Steps in Respiration

48 SECTION 23-7 Pulmonary Ventilation

49 Pulmonary Ventilation
The physical movement of air into and out of the lungs

50 Air movement Movement of air depends upon Boyle’s Law
Pressure and volume inverse relationship Volume depends on movement of diaphragm and ribs Pressure and airflow to the lungs Compliance – an indication of the expandability of the lungs

51 Figure 23.14 Respiratory Pressure and Volume Relationships
Figure 23.14a, b

52 Pressure changes during inhalation and exhalation
Relationship between intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure determines direction of air flow Intrapleural pressure maintains pull on lungs Pressure in the space between parietal and visceral pleura

53 Figure 23.15 Mechanisms of Pulmonary Ventilation

54 Figure 23.15 Mechanisms of Pulmonary Ventilation
Figure 23.15a-d

55 Respiratory cycle Single cycle of inhalation and exhalation
Amount of air moved in one cycle = tidal volume PLAY Animation: Pulmonary Ventilation

56 Figure 23.16 Pressure Changes during Inhalation and Exhalation

57 Mechanisms of breathing
Quiet breathing (eupnea) Diaphragm and external and internal intercostals muscles Forced breathing (hyperpnea) Accessory muscles

58 Figure 23.17 The Respiratory Muscles
Figure 23.17a-d

59 Respiratory volumes Alveolar volume
Amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute Tidal Volume (VT) Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath Vital capacity Tidal volume plus expiratory and inspiratory reserve volumes Residual volume Air left in lungs after maximum exhalation

60 Figure 23.18 Respiratory Volumes and Capacities

61 SECTION Gas Exchange

62 The gas laws Daltons Law and partial pressure
Individual gases in a mixture exert pressure proportional to their abundance Diffusion between liquid and gases (Henry’s law) The amount of gas in solution is directly proportional to their partial pressure

63 Figure 23.19 Henry’s Law and the Relationship between Solubility and Pressure

64 Figure 23.19 Henry’s Law and the Relationship between Solubility and Pressure
Figure 23.19a-c

65 Diffusion and respiratory function
Gas exchange across respiratory membrane is efficient due to: Differences in partial pressure Small diffusion distance Lipid-soluble gases Large surface area of all alveoli Coordination of blood flow and airflow

66 The Respiratory System
Chapter 23, part 4 The Respiratory System

67 SECTION 23-9 Gas Pickup and Delivery

68 Blood in peripheral capillaries delivers O2 and absorbs CO2
Reactions are completely reversible

69 Figure 23.20 An Overview of Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration
PLAY Animation: Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration Figure 23.20a, b

70 Oxygen transport Carried mainly by RBCs, bound to hemoglobin
The amount of oxygen hemoglobin can carried is dependent upon: PO2 pH temperature BPG Fetal hemoglobin has a higher O2 affinity than adult hemoglobin

71 Figure 23.21 The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Saturation Curve

72 Figure 23.21 The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Saturation Curve

73 Figure 23.22 The Effect of pH and Temperature on Hemoglobin Saturation
Figure 23.22a, b

74 Figure 23.23 A Functional Comparison of Fetal and Adult Hemoglobin

75 Carbon dioxide transport
7% dissolved in plasma 70% carried as carbonic acid buffer system 23% bound to hemoglobin carbaminohemoglobin Plasma transport

76 Figure 23.24 Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood

77 Figure 23.24 Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood

78 Summary of gas transport
Driven by differences in partial pressure Oxygen enters blood at lungs and leaves at tissues Carbon dioxide enters at tissues and leaves at lungs PLAY Animation: Gas Exchange and Gas Transport

79 Figure 23.25 A Summary of the Primary Gas Transport Mechanisms
Figure 23.25a, b

80 You should now be familiar with:
The primary functions of the respiratory system The organs of the respiratory system and their functions The processes of external and internal respiration The physical principles governing the movement of air into the lungs and the diffusion of gases into the blood The important structural features of the respiratory membrane How oxygen and carbon dioxide are picked up, transported and released in the blood


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