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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Chapter 23, part 1 The Respiratory System

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-1 The Respiratory System: An Introduction

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Describe the primary functions of the respiratory system Identify the organs of the respiratory system and describe their functions Define and compare the processes of external and internal respiration

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Learning Objectives Summarize the physical principles governing the movement of air into the lungs and the diffusion of gases into the blood Explain the important structural features of the respiratory membrane Describe how oxygen and carbon dioxide are picked up, transported and released in the blood

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas exchange between air and circulating blood Moving air from the exchange surface of the lungs Protection of respiratory surfaces Production of sound Provision for olfactory sensations Functions of the respiratory system

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Upper respiratory system Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx Lower respiratory system Larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli Organization of the respiratory system

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.1 Figure 23.1 The Components of the Respiratory System

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Conducting passageways carrying air to and from the alveoli Upper respiratory passages filter and humidify incoming air Lower passageways include delicate conduction passages and alveolar exchange surfaces The Respiratory tract

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Respiratory epithelium and underlying connective tissue Respiratory membrane, supported by lamina propria, changes along tract Lines conducting portion of respiratory tract Protected from contamination by respiratory defense system Respiratory Mucosa

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.2 Figure 23.2 The Respiratory Epithelium of the Nasal Cavity and Conducting System

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-2 The Upper Respiratory System

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings External nares Nasal cavity Vestibule Superior, middle and inferior meatuses Hard and soft palates Internal nares Nasal mucosa The nose and nasal cavity consists of:

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.3a, b Figure 23.3 The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and Pharynx

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.3c Figure 23.3 The Nose, Nasal Cavity, and Pharynx

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Shared by the digestive and respiratory systems Divided into three sections: Nasopharynx – superior portion Oropharynx – continuous with the oral cavity Laryngopharynx – between the hyoid bone and the esophagus The pharynx

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-3 The Larynx

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Air passes through the glottis on the way to the lungs Larynx protects the glottis Cartilages of the larynx Three large cartilages Thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis Paired cartilages Arytenoids, corniculate, and cuneiform The larynx

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Inelastic vestibular folds Delicate vocal folds Folds of the larynx

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.4 The Anatomy of the Larynx Figure 23.4

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Air passing through the glottis vibrates the vocal folds producing sound waves Pitch depends on conditions of vocal folds Diameter Length Tension Sound production

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.5 The Glottis Figure 23.5a, b

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Muscles of the neck and pharynx position and stabilize the larynx When swallowing,these muscles Elevate the larynx Bend the epiglottis over the glottis Intrinsic muscles control tension on the vocal folds and open the glottis The laryngeal musculature

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-4 The Trachea and Primary Bronchi

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Extends from the sixth cervical vertebra to the fifth thoracic vertebra A tough, flexible tube running from the larynx to the bronchi Held open by C-shaped tracheal cartilages in submucosa Mucosa is similar to the nasopharynx The trachea

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.6 The Anatomy of the Trachea Figure 23.6a, b

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.6 The Anatomy of the Trachea Figure 23.6c

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Trachea branches in the mediastinum into right and left bronchi Bronchi enter the lungs at the hilus Root = the connective tissue mass including: Bronchus Pulmonary vessels Nerves The primary bronchi

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-5 The Lungs

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lobes of the lung are separated by fissures Right lung has three lobes Left lung has two lobes Concavity on medial surface = cardiac notch Lobes and surfaces of the lungs

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.7 The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs Figure 23.7

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.7 The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs Figure 23.7

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.7 The Gross Anatomy of the Lungs Figure 23.7

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.8 Figure 23.8 The Relationship between the Lungs and the Heart

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings System of tubes formed from the primary bronchi and their branches Primary bronchi branch into secondary or lobar bronchi Secondary bronchus goes to each lobe of the lungs Secondary bronchi branch into tertiary bronchi Tertiary bronchi supply air to a single bronchopulmonary segment Cartilage in walls decrease and smooth muscle increase with branching The bronchial tree

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.10a Figure The Bronchi and Lobules of the Lung

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.10b Figure The Bronchi and Lobules of the Lung

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ultimately branch into terminal bronchioles Delivers air to a single pulmonary lobule Terminal bronchiole becomes respiratory bronchioles Connective tissue of root branches to form interlobar septa The bronchioles

38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Respiratory bronchioles end in ducts and sacs Respiratory exchange surfaces connected to circulatory system via pulmonary circuit Alveolar ducts and alveoli Animation: Lungs Flythrough PLAY

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure The Bronchioles

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Simple squamous epithelium Endothelial cell lining an adjacent capillary Fused basal laminae Respiratory Membrane

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Septal cells Scattered in respiratory membrane Produce surfactant Alveolar Macrophage Patrol epithelium and engulf foreign particles Cells of the respiratory membrane include Animation: Respiratory Structures PLAY

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.12a-c Figure Alveolar Organization

43 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Conducting portions Receive blood from external carotids, thyrocervical, bronchial arteries Respiratory exchange surfaces receive blood from the arteries of the pulmonary circuit are the source of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) Pulmonary veins return blood to the left atrium The blood supply to the lungs

44 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Each lung covered by one pleura Pleura – serous membranes lining the pleural cavity Parietal - attaches to the walls of the pleural cavity Visceral - adheres to the surface of the lungs Pleural fluid – fills and lubricates the space between the pleura The pleural cavities and pleural membranes

45 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-6 An Overview of Respiratory Physiology

46 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Internal respiration Exchange of gases between interstitial fluid and cells External respiration Exchange of gases between interstitial fluid and the external environment The steps of external respiration include: Pulmonary ventilation Gas diffusion Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide Respiratory physiology is a series of integrated processes

47 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure An Overview of Key Steps in Respiration

48 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-7 Pulmonary Ventilation

49 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The physical movement of air into and out of the lungs Pulmonary Ventilation

50 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Movement of air depends upon Boyle’s Law Pressure and volume inverse relationship Volume depends on movement of diaphragm and ribs Pressure and airflow to the lungs Compliance – an indication of the expandability of the lungs Air movement

51 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.14a, b Figure Respiratory Pressure and Volume Relationships

52 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Relationship between intrapulmonary pressure and atmospheric pressure determines direction of air flow Intrapleural pressure maintains pull on lungs Pressure in the space between parietal and visceral pleura Pressure changes during inhalation and exhalation

53 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Mechanisms of Pulmonary Ventilation

54 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.15a-d Figure Mechanisms of Pulmonary Ventilation

55 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Single cycle of inhalation and exhalation Amount of air moved in one cycle = tidal volume Respiratory cycle Animation: Pulmonary Ventilation PLAY

56 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Pressure Changes during Inhalation and Exhalation

57 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Quiet breathing (eupnea) Diaphragm and external and internal intercostals muscles Forced breathing (hyperpnea) Accessory muscles Mechanisms of breathing

58 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.17a-d Figure The Respiratory Muscles

59 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Alveolar volume Amount of air reaching the alveoli each minute Tidal Volume (V T ) Amount of air inhaled or exhaled with each breath Vital capacity Tidal volume plus expiratory and inspiratory reserve volumes Residual volume Air left in lungs after maximum exhalation Respiratory volumes

60 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Respiratory Volumes and Capacities

61 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-8 Gas Exchange

62 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Daltons Law and partial pressure Individual gases in a mixture exert pressure proportional to their abundance Diffusion between liquid and gases (Henry’s law) The amount of gas in solution is directly proportional to their partial pressure The gas laws

63 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Henry’s Law and the Relationship between Solubility and Pressure

64 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.19a-c Figure Henry’s Law and the Relationship between Solubility and Pressure

65 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Gas exchange across respiratory membrane is efficient due to: Differences in partial pressure Small diffusion distance Lipid-soluble gases Large surface area of all alveoli Coordination of blood flow and airflow Diffusion and respiratory function

66 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Chapter 23, part 4 The Respiratory System

67 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-9 Gas Pickup and Delivery

68 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Reactions are completely reversible Blood in peripheral capillaries delivers O 2 and absorbs CO 2

69 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Animation: Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration PLAY Figure An Overview of Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration Figure 23.20a, b

70 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Carried mainly by RBCs, bound to hemoglobin The amount of oxygen hemoglobin can carried is dependent upon: P O2 pH temperature BPG Fetal hemoglobin has a higher O 2 affinity than adult hemoglobin Oxygen transport

71 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Saturation Curve

72 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Saturation Curve

73 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.22a, b Figure The Effect of pH and Temperature on Hemoglobin Saturation

74 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure A Functional Comparison of Fetal and Adult Hemoglobin

75 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 7% dissolved in plasma 70% carried as carbonic acid buffer system 23% bound to hemoglobin carbaminohemoglobin Plasma transport Carbon dioxide transport

76 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood

77 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood

78 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Driven by differences in partial pressure Oxygen enters blood at lungs and leaves at tissues Carbon dioxide enters at tissues and leaves at lungs Summary of gas transport Animation: Gas Exchange and Gas Transport PLAY

79 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.25a, b Figure A Summary of the Primary Gas Transport Mechanisms

80 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The primary functions of the respiratory system The organs of the respiratory system and their functions The processes of external and internal respiration The physical principles governing the movement of air into the lungs and the diffusion of gases into the blood The important structural features of the respiratory membrane How oxygen and carbon dioxide are picked up, transported and released in the blood You should now be familiar with:


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