Presentation on theme: "Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese"— Presentation transcript:
1 Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Unit 3: Pronunciation – Phonetics and Phonology
2 What is Phonetics and Phonology? Phonetics: Study of sounds of human languages. Sounds of human languages have physiological and physical characteristics.Phonology: Study of sound system of a specific language. Chinese phonology, English phonology – a phonological system of a specific language. It is social.
3 Physical characteristics Sound waveFrequency or pitchIntensity or volumeLength or timeCan be measured by instruments and can be “seen” (spectrograph, computer)
14 Phones and phonemes Phoneme Phone Allophone Smallest phonological unit which makes distinctions in meaning in a specific languagePhoneEach individual soundAllophoneSounds which are distinct but similar and do not make distinctions in meaning
15 Comparison of English and Chinese consonants [b]peakspeakbeak[p’][p][b]/p//b/pa 怕ba 爸?[p’][p]/p’//p/
16 Letters vs phonemic notations English lettersIPAteacher, good/ti:t/, /gud/PinyinIPAlǎoshī, hǎo/lau/, /hau/
17 Phonological features of Chinese Chinese language is syllabic.Chinese is tonal.A syllable has maximum of four sounds.A syllable has no more than two consonants or there are no consonant clusters such as sp, sl, cl, scr.Number of syllables is limited.
18 tiān Syllable structure Tone Initial Final Medial Main vowel Syllabic ending声调，声母，韵母，韵头，韵腹，韵尾
19 Tone Sandhi (Tone change) nǐhǎo=>níhǎo3+3=>2+31=>2 _/ yī: kuài=> yí kuài1=>4 elsewhere yī zhāng=>yì zhānyī tiáo=>yì tiáoyī jiǎo=>yì jiǎo
20 Chinese PhonologyHow were Chinese characters represented in ancient timesBoPoMoFoPinyin and other notation systemsHistorical phonological change
21 读若 ‘read as’ method (pronounced as, using homophone characters) ‘珝’, 讀若‘許’‘倚’，讀若‘以’‘ 誕’,音‘但’Problems:1. Impossible to find a character of the same pronunciation. Then the character of similar pronunciation is used which is not accurate.2. The homophone characters are rare characters. Their pronunciation is not popular and known to all.
22 Fǎqiē method 反切Select two characters. Combine the initial of the first character with the final (with tone) of the second character.Example:“土”(tǔ) 他魯切 formula: tǔ= t(ā)+(l)ǔ“冬”(dōng) 都宗切 formula: dōng=d(ū)+(z)ōng
23 Zhuyin fuhao 注音符号 (1913, ROC) 土 t + ǔ ㄊ(t) ㄨ(u)天 t + i+ ān ㄊ(t) ㄧ(i) ㄣ(ān)窗 chuāng ch + u + āng ㄔㄨㄤ
28 Review questions1. Is the distinction of consonants and vowels as same that of initials and finals?2. How to classify the sounds? What are initials, finals, medials, main vowel and syllabic ending inChinese phonology?2. Are b, d, g in Pinyin voiced sounds?3. What makes tones different? The change of pitch? Itensity or Duration?4. In what way the four tones are represented?5. How many sounds at most does a syllable have in Putonghua?6. What is tone sandhi? Can you give some examples?7. What is the major difference between Pinyin and BoPoMoFo?8. Which is better? Pinyin or BoPoMoFo?9. In the old times, how did people to represent the sounds of characters?10. Why some old poems do not rhyme when it is read in modern Chinese?