Presentation on theme: "Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Unit 3: Pronunciation – Phonetics and Phonology."— Presentation transcript:
Topics in Chinese Linguistics: Introduction to Chinese Unit 3: Pronunciation – Phonetics and Phonology
What is Phonetics and Phonology? Phonetics: Study of sounds of human languages. Sounds of human languages have physiological and physical characteristics. Phonology: Study of sound system of a specific language. Chinese phonology, English phonology – a phonological system of a specific language. It is social.
Physical characteristics Sound wave Frequency or pitch Intensity or volume Length or time Can be measured by instruments and can be “seen” ( spectrograph, computer)
Tones of Mandarin Chinese
How human sounds are classified Place of articulation Lip Tongue Teeth, alveolar Palate velum Uvula Nasal cavity Manner of articulation Stop Fricative Affricate Nasal Aspiration Voiced/voiceless
Chinese Consonants in Pinyin
Chinese Vowels in Pinyin
Chinese tones Names of tones 陰平 / 陽平 / 上聲 / 去聲 Yin Ping, Yang Ping, Shang Sheng, Qu Sheng high level, high rising, falling-rising, high falling
Notations Musical notes Tone markers: ā á ǎ à Numerical notation: 55, 35, 214, 51
Segmental vs supra-segmental Segmental: consonants, vowels, diphthongs a, o, i, b, d, g, p, t, k, ao, ai, ei… Supra-segmental: stress, tone, intonation
Phones and phonemes Phoneme – Smallest phonological unit which makes distinctions in meaning in a specific language Phone – Each individual sound Allophone – Sounds which are distinct but similar and do not make distinctions in meaning
Comparison of English and Chinese consonants peakspeakbeak [p’][p][b] /p/ /b/ pa 怕 ba 爸 ? [p’][p] /p’//p/ [p’][p][b]
Letters vs phonemic notations English lettersIPA teacher, good /ti:t /, /gud/ PinyinIPA lǎoshī, hǎo /lau /, /hau/
Phonological features of Chinese Chinese language is syllabic. Chinese is tonal. A syllable has maximum of four sounds. A syllable has no more than two consonants or there are no consonant clusters such as sp, sl, cl, scr. Number of syllables is limited.
Chinese Phonology How were Chinese characters represented in ancient times BoPoMoFo Pinyin and other notation systems Historical phonological change
读若 ‘read as’ method (pronounced as, using homophone characters) ‘ 珝 ’, 讀若 ‘ 許 ’ ‘ 倚 ’ ，讀若 ‘ 以 ’ ‘ 誕 ’, 音 ‘ 但 ’ Problems: 1. Impossible to find a character of the same pronunciation. Then the character of similar pronunciation is used which is not accurate. 2. The homophone characters are rare characters. Their pronunciation is not popular and known to all.
Fǎqiē method 反切 Select two characters. Combine the initial of the first character with the final (with tone) of the second character. Example: “ 土 ”(tǔ) 他魯切 formula: tǔ= t(ā)+(l)ǔ “ 冬 ”(dōng) 都宗切 formula: dōng=d(ū)+(z)ōng
Zhuyin fuhao 注音符号 (1913, ROC) 土 t + ǔ ㄊ (t) ㄨ (u) 天 t + i+ ā n ㄊ (t) ㄧ (i) ㄣ (ān) 窗 chuāng ch + u + ā ng ㄔㄨㄤ
Hanyu Pinyin (1956, PRC) 土 tǔ 天 tiān 窗 chuāng
Other systems Wade-Gile 威妥瑪 (1912) GR Gwoyeu Romatzyh 國語羅馬字 (1928) Latinxua Sinwenz 拉丁化新文字 (1930) Yale 耶魯 (1948)
Various notations of 謝 Zhuyin ㄒ一ㄝ Pinyinxie Wade-Gilehsieh GRshieh Yalesye Tongyongsie
Review questions 1. Is the distinction of consonants and vowels as same that of initials and finals? 2. How to classify the sounds? What are initials, finals, medials, main vowel and syllabic ending in Chinese phonology? 2. Are b, d, g in Pinyin voiced sounds? 3. What makes tones different? The change of pitch? Itensity or Duration? 4. In what way the four tones are represented? 5. How many sounds at most does a syllable have in Putonghua? 6. What is tone sandhi? Can you give some examples? 7. What is the major difference between Pinyin and BoPoMoFo? 8. Which is better? Pinyin or BoPoMoFo? 9. In the old times, how did people to represent the sounds of characters? 10. Why some old poems do not rhyme when it is read in modern Chinese?