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Chapter 1: The Human Body

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1 Chapter 1: The Human Body

2 Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy – structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Physiology – function of body, how body works and carries out life sustaining activities

3 Anatomy and Physiology Topics
Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy – large body structures, ex. Heart, lungs, kidney Regional Anatomy – all structures in a particular region Systemic Anatomy – body structures, studied system by system Surface Anatomy – internal structures as they relate to overlying skin surface Microscopic Anatomy – structures that can not be seen with the naked eye Cytology – cells of body Histology – study of tissues Developmental Anatomy – structural changes Embryology – development before birth

4 Topics of Physiology Operation of specific organs
Ex. Renal physiology – kidney function and urine production Neurophysiology – workings of NS Cellular molecular level

5 Levels of Organization
Chemical Level – simplest level, atoms combine to form molecules (proteins & water) Cellular Level – cells – simplest unit of living things Tissue Level – groups of similar cells that have a common function 4 basic tissue types – epithelium, muscle, nervous, and connective Organ level – structure composed of at least 2 tissue types – complex functions Organ System level – organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose Organismal level – organism sum total of all structural levels working together


7 Different Systems of the Body

8 (a) Integumentary System Forms the external body covering, and
Hair Skin Nails (a) Integumentary System Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands. Figure 1.3a

9 Protects and supports body organs,
Bones Joint (b) Skeletal System Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals. Figure 1.3b

10 Allows manipulation of the environment,
Skeletal muscles (c) Muscular System Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Main- tains posture, and produces heat. Figure 1.3c

11 As the fast-acting control system of
Brain Nerves Spinal cord (d) Nervous System As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands. Figure 1.3d

12 Glands secrete hormones that regulate
Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis Ovary (e) Endocrine System Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells. Figure 1.3e

13 (f) Cardiovascular System
Heart Blood vessels (f) Cardiovascular System Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood. Figure 1.3f

14 (g) Lymphatic System/Immunity Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels
Red bone marrow Thymus Lymphatic vessels Thoracic duct Spleen Lymph nodes (g) Lymphatic System/Immunity Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body. Figure 1.3g

15 (h) Respiratory System Keeps blood constantly supplied with
Nasal cavity Pharynx Bronchus Larynx Trachea Lung (h) Respiratory System Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs. Figure 1.3h

16 Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for
Oral cavity Esophagus Liver Stomach Small intestine Large intestine Rectum Anus (i) Digestive System Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces. Figure 1.3i

17 Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the
Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra (j) Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood. Figure 1.3j

18 (k) Male Reproductive System (l) Female Reproductive System
Mammary glands (in breasts) Prostate gland Ovary Penis Testis Ductus deferens Scrotum Uterine tube Uterus Vagina (k) Male Reproductive System (l) Female Reproductive System Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn. Figure 1.3k-l

19 Maintaining Life Maintaining Boundaries –
Internal environment separate from external environment Cells surrounded by membrane Body surrounded by integument system (skin) Protects from drying out, bacteria, damaging affects of the heat, sunlight, and chemicals

20 Maintaining Life 2. Movement – Activities promoted by muscular system
Skeletal system – framework that muscles pull on Substances propelled through body – urine, food, etc. Contractility – cells ability to move by shortening

21 Maintaining Life 3. Responsiveness – Irritability
Ability to sense changes (stimuli) in environment Mainly – nervous system

22 Maintaining Life 4. Digestion –
Breaking down of ingested food foodstuffs Nutrients delivered by blood

23 Maintaining Life 5. Metabolism – Chemical reactions
Catabolism – breaking down substances into simpler substances Anabolism – synthesizing complex substances from simpler substances

24 Maintaining Life 6. Excretion - Process of removing wastes
Digestive system – undigested food Respiratory system - carbon dioxide Urinary system – nitrogenous wastes

25 Maintaining Life 7. Reproduction – Cellular – cell division Organism –
egg + sperm  fertilized egg

26 Maintaining Life 8. Growth – Increase in size of body part or organism
Increase in the number of cells

27 Survival Needs Nutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, fat, mineral/vitamins Oxygen – oxidative reactions – require oxygen Water – 60-90% of organism, watery environment required for chemical reactions Normal Body Temperature – 37 C (98.6 F) Lower – reactions slow down and wills top Higher – reactions speed up and proteins denature 5. Atmospheric Pressure – force air exerts on surface, breathing and gas exchange depend on pressure

28 Homeostasis Communication essential
Maintained by nervous and endocrine system Variable – factor or event being regulated Receptor – sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes – stimuli Sends info to control center – afferent pathway Control Center – determines set point and appropriate response Output (efferent pathway) to effector Effector – means for response, reduces (negative feedbacks) shuts off or enhances (positive feedback)


30 Negative Feedback Mechanism
Prevents sudden change in body Regulates things like heart, BP, breathing rate, blood gas levels, etc.

31 Positive Feedback Mechanism
Result or response enhances original stimulus Response accelerated Result in same direction as original response Cascades Ex. Oxytocin – labor – contractions stimulate more contractions


33 Homeostatic Imbalance
Most diverse – result from imbalance As age – control less efficient Increase risk of illness

34 Anatomical Language Anatomical Position –
body erect w feet slightly apart Standing at attention Right and left – of person or cadaver NOT of observer

35 Directional Terms Explain one body structure in relation to another
Superior (cranial) – toward the head end (above) Anterior (caudal) – away from head (below)

36 Directional Terms Ventral (anterior) – toward
front of body, in front of Dorsal (posterior) – toward back of body, behind

37 Directional Terms Medial – toward midline, inner side Lateral –
away from midline, outer side Intermediate – between a more medial or more lateral structure

38 Directional Terms Proximal – closer to point of origin
of body part or point of attachment to body trunk Distal – further from point of origin or point of attachment Superficial (external) – toward or at the surface of the body Deep (internal) – away from body surface

39 Regional Terms Axial – main axis – head neck, trunk
Appendicular – appendages or limbs

40 Planes Sagittal Plane – vertical plane, divides the body into right and left Median Plane – midsagittal plane – sagittal plane exactly at midline Parasagittal plane – set off from midline

41 Planes Frontal Planes – vertically divide body into anterior and posterior Also called coronal plane

42 Planes Transverse (horizontal) Plane – horizontally left to right, divides into superior and inferior parts (cross section)

43 Planes Oblique Section – cuts made diagonally between horizontal and vertical planes

44 Body Cavities Dorsal Body cavity – protects NS organs 2 subdivisions –
Cranial cavity – skull Vertebral or spinal cavity – with in vertebrae

45 Body Cavities 2. Ventral Body Cavity – thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity Houses internal organs – viscera

46 Ventral Body Cavity Thoracic cavity – pleural cavities (2 – lungs)
Medial mediastinum – contains pericardial cavity – heart, esophagus, etc. Abdominopelvic cavity – 2 parts Abdominal cavity – stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, etc. Pelvic cavity – bony pelvis, urinary bladder, some repo organs, rectum Abdominal cavity – most susceptible to injury – no bony covering, only muscle


48 Membranes Serosa or Serous Membrane – think double layered
Covers ventral body cavity Parietal Serosa – lines cavity walls Visceral Serosa – covers organs Serous fluids – lubricating fluid secreted by membranes

49 Abdominopelvic Cavity
Can also be divided into quadrants RUQ – right upper LUQ – left upper RLQ – right lower LLQ – left lower

50 Abdominopelvic Cavity
Can also be divided into regions

51 Other Body Cavities Oral and digestive cavity – continuous mouth to anus, oral – mouth – teeth and tongue Nasal Cavity – within and posterior to nose Orbital Cavity – houses eyes Middle Ear Cavities – medial to eardrums, tiny bones that transmit sounds Synovial Cavity – joint cavities

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