Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1: The Human Body. Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy – structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Physiology – function of body,"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 1: The Human Body
Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy – structure of body parts and their relationships to one another Physiology – function of body, how body works and carries out life sustaining activities
Anatomy and Physiology Topics Gross or Macroscopic Anatomy – large body structures, ex. Heart, lungs, kidney Regional Anatomy – all structures in a particular region Systemic Anatomy – body structures, studied system by system Surface Anatomy – internal structures as they relate to overlying skin surface Microscopic Anatomy – structures that can not be seen with the naked eye – Cytology – cells of body – Histology – study of tissues Developmental Anatomy – structural changes – Embryology – development before birth
Topics of Physiology Operation of specific organs – Ex. Renal physiology – kidney function and urine production – Neurophysiology – workings of NS Cellular molecular level
Levels of Organization Chemical Level – simplest level, atoms combine to form molecules (proteins & water) Cellular Level – cells – simplest unit of living things Tissue Level – groups of similar cells that have a common function – 4 basic tissue types – epithelium, muscle, nervous, and connective Organ level – structure composed of at least 2 tissue types – complex functions Organ System level – organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose Organismal level – organism sum total of all structural levels working together
Different Systems of the Body
Figure 1.3a Nails Skin Hair (a) Integumentary System Forms the external body covering, and protects deeper tissues from injury. Synthesizes vitamin D, and houses cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors and sweat and oil glands.
Figure 1.3b Bones Joint (b) Skeletal System Protects and supports body organs, and provides a framework the muscles use to cause movement. Blood cells are formed within bones. Bones store minerals.
Figure 1.3c Skeletal muscles (c) Muscular System Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression. Main- tains posture, and produces heat.
Figure 1.3d Brain Nerves Spinal cord (d) Nervous System As the fast-acting control system of the body, it responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands.
Figure 1.3e Pineal gland Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Thymus Adrenal gland Pancreas Testis Ovary (e) Endocrine System Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells.
Figure 1.3f (f) Cardiovascular System Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc. The heart pumps blood. Heart Blood vessels
Figure 1.3g Lymphatic vessels Red bone marrow Thoracic duct Thymus Spleen Lymph nodes (g) Lymphatic System/Immunity Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood. Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream. Houses white blood cells (lymphocytes) involved in immunity. The immune response mounts the attack against foreign substances within the body.
Figure 1.3h Nasal cavity Bronchus Pharynx Larynx Trachea Lung (h) Respiratory System Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs.
Figure 1.3i Liver Oral cavity Esophagus Large intestine Stomach Small intestine Rectum Anus (i) Digestive System Breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells. Indigestible foodstuffs are eliminated as feces.
Figure 1.3j Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Urethra (j) Urinary System Eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body. Regulates water, electrolyte and acid-base balance of the blood.
Figure 1.3k-l Prostate gland Ductus deferens Penis Testis Scrotum Ovary Uterine tube Mammary glands (in breasts) Uterus Vagina Overall function is production of offspring. Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone, and male ducts and glands aid in delivery of sperm to the female reproductive tract. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones. The remaining female structures serve as sites for fertilization and development of the fetus. Mammary glands of female breasts produce milk to nourish the newborn. (k) Male Reproductive System (l) Female Reproductive System
Maintaining Life 1.Maintaining Boundaries – -Internal environment separate from external environment -Cells surrounded by membrane -Body surrounded by integument system (skin) -Protects from drying out, bacteria, damaging affects of the heat, sunlight, and chemicals
Maintaining Life 2. Movement – -Activities promoted by muscular system -Skeletal system – framework that muscles pull on -Substances propelled through body – urine, food, etc. -Contractility – cells ability to move by shortening
Maintaining Life 3. Responsiveness – -Irritability -Ability to sense changes (stimuli) in environment -Mainly – nervous system
Maintaining Life 4. Digestion – -Breaking down of ingested food foodstuffs -Nutrients delivered by blood
Maintaining Life 5. Metabolism – -Chemical reactions -Catabolism – breaking down substances into simpler substances -Anabolism – synthesizing complex substances from simpler substances
Maintaining Life 6. Excretion - -Process of removing wastes -Digestive system – undigested food -Respiratory system - carbon dioxide -Urinary system – nitrogenous wastes
Maintaining Life 8. Growth – -Increase in size of body part or organism -Increase in the number of cells
Survival Needs 1.Nutrients – carbohydrates, proteins, fat, mineral/vitamins 2.Oxygen – oxidative reactions – require oxygen 3.Water – 60-90% of organism, watery environment required for chemical reactions 4.Normal Body Temperature – 37 C (98.6 F) -Lower – reactions slow down and wills top -Higher – reactions speed up and proteins denature 5. Atmospheric Pressure – force air exerts on surface, breathing and gas exchange depend on pressure
Homeostasis Communication essential Maintained by nervous and endocrine system Variable – factor or event being regulated Receptor – sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes – stimuli – Sends info to control center – afferent pathway Control Center – determines set point and appropriate response – Output (efferent pathway) to effector Effector – means for response, reduces (negative feedbacks) shuts off or enhances (positive feedback)
Negative Feedback Mechanism Prevents sudden change in body Regulates things like heart, BP, breathing rate, blood gas levels, etc.
Positive Feedback Mechanism Result or response enhances original stimulus Response accelerated Result in same direction as original response Cascades Ex. Oxytocin – labor – contractions stimulate more contractions
Homeostatic Imbalance Most diverse – result from imbalance As age – control less efficient Increase risk of illness
Anatomical Language Anatomical Position – body erect w feet slightly apart Standing at attention Right and left – of person or cadaver NOT of observer
Directional Terms Explain one body structure in relation to another Superior (cranial) – toward the head end (above) Anterior (caudal) – away from head (below)
Directional Terms Ventral (anterior) – toward front of body, in front of Dorsal (posterior) – toward back of body, behind
Directional Terms Medial – toward midline, inner side Lateral – away from midline, outer side Intermediate – between a more medial or more lateral structure
Directional Terms Proximal – closer to point of origin of body part or point of attachment to body trunk Distal – further from point of origin or point of attachment Superficial (external) – toward or at the surface of the body Deep (internal) – away from body surface
Regional Terms Axial – main axis – head neck, trunk Appendicular – appendages or limbs
Planes Sagittal Plane – vertical plane, divides the body into right and left Median Plane – midsagittal plane – sagittal plane exactly at midline Parasagittal plane – set off from midline
Planes Frontal Planes – vertically divide body into anterior and posterior Also called coronal plane
Planes Transverse (horizontal) Plane – horizontally left to right, divides into superior and inferior parts (cross section)
Planes Oblique Section – cuts made diagonally between horizontal and vertical planes
Body Cavities 1.Dorsal Body cavity – protects NS organs 2 subdivisions – -Cranial cavity – skull -Vertebral or spinal cavity – with in vertebrae
Body Cavities 2. Ventral Body Cavity – thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity -Houses internal organs – viscera
Ventral Body Cavity -Thoracic cavity – pleural cavities (2 – lungs) -Medial mediastinum – contains pericardial cavity – heart, esophagus, etc. -Abdominopelvic cavity – 2 parts -Abdominal cavity – stomach, intestines, spleen, liver, etc. -Pelvic cavity – bony pelvis, urinary bladder, some repo organs, rectum -Abdominal cavity – most susceptible to injury – no bony covering, only muscle
Abdominopelvic Cavity Can also be divided into quadrants RUQ – right upper LUQ – left upper RLQ – right lower LLQ – left lower
Abdominopelvic Cavity Can also be divided into regions
Other Body Cavities 1.Oral and digestive cavity – continuous mouth to anus, oral – mouth – teeth and tongue 2.Nasal Cavity – within and posterior to nose 3.Orbital Cavity – houses eyes 4.Middle Ear Cavities – medial to eardrums, tiny bones that transmit sounds 5.Synovial Cavity – joint cavities