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Survey of the Animal Phyla Notes

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1 Survey of the Animal Phyla Notes

2 Characteristics of ALL Animals
Eukaryotic (cells with a nucleus) Multicellular (organisms are generally large Motile (can move at some point of its life) Heterotrophic (feeds on other organisms)

3 Phyla of Life There are 31 Animal Phyla identified by Scientists
Major Evolutionary developments occur along the roughly 600 Million years of the Animal Kingdom We will Identify the 10 Largest Phyla of Animals

4 Porifera Lack True Tissues Are Filter Feeders
Have Choanocytes for Water movement Entirely aquatic 9000 Species Parametazoa- Animals without Tissues Examples include All variety of salt water and fresh water Sponges


6 Cnidaria First Eumetazoans- Animals with tissues
All members of this phyla have “Stinging Cells” called nematocysts Have gel-like bodies Salt or fresh water Body form are Polyp (mouth up) or Medusa (mouth down) All have Tentacles with Nematocysts

7 Cnidaria All have Tentacles with Nematocysts
Have extra-cellular digestion with a gastrovascular cavity “sac body plan” Have Radial Body Plans 10,000 Species Examples: Hydra, Jellyfish, Man-o-war, Coral, Sea Anemone, Sea Fans


9 Platyhelmenthes First Animals with Bilateral Symmetry
All are “Flatworms” with ribbon-like bodies Simplest organisms with specialized organs Single opening into a digestive gut. Can absorb nutrients directly into body

10 Platyhelmenthes Simple Nervous system
Many are parasitic living in hosts Free living flatworms live in water 20,000 species Examples include….Planaria, Tapeworms, Flukes, and Marine Flatworms.


12 Rotifera (Rotifers) aka Wheel Mouth
First organism with an alimentary canal with both mouth and anus Microscopic fresh water organism Has jaws surrounded by cilia to bring in food 2200 Species


14 Nematoda ( Round Worms)
Non-segmented One way digestive tract Covered by a Thick cuticle First organism with a pseudo-coelom 12,000 species Free living and Parasite species Examples: Pinworms, Ascaris, Hookworms, heartworms, Trichina spiralis (Pork)


16 Mollusca---animals with Mantles
110,000 species (Second Largest) Breathe by Gills Mantle secrets a shell in most species Have a true visceral mass with many complex internal organs. Has a muscular “foot” for movement

17 Mollusca Three main classes of Mollusca
1. Gastropods-single spiral shell, scraping mouth piece called a “radula” Examples are snails, slugs, conches 2. Bivalves-two piece hinged shell, two siphons for filter feeding. Examples : Clams, Oysters, Scallops, Mussels 3. Cephalopods-no shell but has a well developed head region, 8 arms/tentacles, mouth part includes a Beak. Eyes very similar to Humans Examples: Squid, Cuttlefish Octopus, Nautilus

18 Gastropods

19 Bivalves

20 Cephalopods

21 Annelida --segmented round worms
12,000 Species Internally and externally segmented Well developed nervous system Have a closed circulatory system First organisms with a true body cavity

22 Annelids Three Classes:
1. Oligochaeta- terrestrial Earthworms and bloodworms 2. Hirudnia- Parasitic worms like Leeches 3. Polychaeta- marine worms like sandworms, bristleworms, tubeworms and fanworms

23 Annelids

24 Arthopoda---- animals with exoskeletons and jointed legs
Largest Animal phyla with over 1.5 million species General Characteristics 1. True body cavity 2. Segmented 3. Jointed Appendages 4. Exoskeleton made of Chitin 5. Must “Molt” to grow

25 Arthropoda 7 Classes of Arthropods Trilobite- Extinct aquatic species
Merostomate- Includes only Horseshoe Crabs Crustacians-mostly aquatic, Crabs, Lobster, Shrimp, Barnacles, Pill bugs Insects- largest arthropod class, undergo Metamorphosis, 3 pr. of legs, only group that can fly.

26 Insects- largest arthropod class, undergo Metamorphosis, 3 pr
Insects- largest arthropod class, undergo Metamorphosis, 3 pr. of legs, only group that can fly. Includes beetles, ants, butterflies, bees, mosquitoes, weevils and grasshoppers Arachnids- 4 pair of legs, have fangs instead of jaws, most produce venom, includes spiders, ticks, scorpions, chiggers Diplopods- four legs per segment, herbivores, includes all Millipedes. Chilopods- two legs per segment, aggressive carnivores, includes all centipedes




30 Echinodermata- “Spiney Skin”
10,000 Species Endoskeleton with interlocking plates called ossicles 5 part Radial Body Plan Fundamentally Bilateral Has a Water Vascular system that controls water flow, suction and tube feet. Uses skin gills for respiration Remarkable regenerative abilities.

31 Echinodermata Examples include, sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sea cucumbers and sand dollars


33 Chordata Animals with a Notocord 42,500 species
All chordates have Bilateral Symmetry, notochord, spinal cord and highly developed Head region and brain. Three Sub Phyla 1. Urochordates- 2. Cephalochordates- 3. Vertebrates-

34 Chordates Vertebrates- Largest Group of Chordates
Notocord becomes the Vertebrae during embryo development Largest group of Vertebrates are fish First Vertebrates originated around 500 million years ago.

35 Chordates Seven Classes of Vertebrates
1. Agnatha- Primitive jawless Fish. Long tube bodies breathe by gills, Salt Water…. Lampreys

36 Chordates 2. Chondrichthytes----Cartilage Fish
Has a skeleton made of cartilage, All Salt Water species, gills Includes Sharks, Skates and Sting Rays

37 3. Osteichthyes—Boney Fish----fresh or salt water, skeleton made of calcium bone. Gill Breathers…. Ex. Include, Bass, Goldfish, Eels, Marlin, Catfish and Tuna

38 4. Amphibians---Four Legged creatures that can live out of water but need water for reproduction. Lung Breathers as adults, gill breathers as young, Soft Moist skin…. Includes Frogs, Toads, Salamanders and Newts

39 5. Reptiles- Breathe by lungs in all stages. Body covered by scales. Eggs produced on land are tough and leathery. First to have Internal Fertilization. Includes Lizards, Snakes, Turtles, Alligators and relatives. Most include Dinosaurs based on general characteristics


41 .6 Aves----the Birds All Aves….. Have feathers instead of scales
Are warm blooded Have a 4 chambered heart Produce hard shelled eggs Provide much parental involvement in the young

42 Eagles Hawks Partridge Chicken Peacock Sparrow Owl Penguin Ostrich

43 Mammalia--- the Advanced Vertebrates
All have hair on the body Warm blooded Have a Four chambered heart Internal fertilization Give live birth Nurse the young with milk External ears


45 Major Evolutionary Developments in the Animal Kingdom
1- Parametazoans to Eumetazoans 2. Radial symmetry to Bilateral Symmetry 3. Acoelomate to Coelomate 4. Gill Breathing to Lung Breathing 5. Protostome to Deuterostome 6. Invertebrates to Vertebrates

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