2Characteristics of ALL Animals Eukaryotic (cells with a nucleus)Multicellular (organisms are generally largeMotile (can move at some point of its life)Heterotrophic (feeds on other organisms)
3Phyla of Life There are 31 Animal Phyla identified by Scientists Major Evolutionary developments occur along the roughly 600 Million years of the Animal KingdomWe will Identify the 10 Largest Phyla of Animals
4Porifera Lack True Tissues Are Filter Feeders Have Choanocytes for Water movementEntirely aquatic9000 SpeciesParametazoa- Animals without TissuesExamples include All variety of salt water and fresh water Sponges
6Cnidaria First Eumetazoans- Animals with tissues All members of this phyla have “Stinging Cells” called nematocystsHave gel-like bodiesSalt or fresh waterBody form are Polyp (mouth up) or Medusa (mouth down)All have Tentacles with Nematocysts
7Cnidaria All have Tentacles with Nematocysts Have extra-cellular digestion with a gastrovascular cavity “sac body plan”Have Radial Body Plans10,000 SpeciesExamples: Hydra, Jellyfish, Man-o-war, Coral, Sea Anemone, Sea Fans
9Platyhelmenthes First Animals with Bilateral Symmetry All are “Flatworms” with ribbon-like bodiesSimplest organisms with specialized organsSingle opening into a digestive gut.Can absorb nutrients directly into body
10Platyhelmenthes Simple Nervous system Many are parasitic living in hostsFree living flatworms live in water20,000 speciesExamples include….Planaria, Tapeworms, Flukes, and Marine Flatworms.
14Nematoda ( Round Worms) Non-segmentedOne way digestive tractCovered by a Thick cuticleFirst organism with a pseudo-coelom12,000 speciesFree living and Parasite speciesExamples: Pinworms, Ascaris, Hookworms, heartworms, Trichina spiralis (Pork)
16Mollusca---animals with Mantles 110,000 species (Second Largest)Breathe by GillsMantle secrets a shell in most speciesHave a true visceral mass with many complex internal organs.Has a muscular “foot” for movement
17Mollusca Three main classes of Mollusca 1. Gastropods-single spiral shell, scraping mouth piece called a “radula”Examples are snails, slugs, conches2. Bivalves-two piece hinged shell, two siphons for filter feeding.Examples : Clams, Oysters, Scallops, Mussels3. Cephalopods-no shell but has a well developed head region, 8 arms/tentacles, mouth part includes a Beak. Eyes very similar to HumansExamples: Squid, Cuttlefish Octopus, Nautilus
24Arthopoda---- animals with exoskeletons and jointed legs Largest Animal phyla with over 1.5 million speciesGeneral Characteristics1. True body cavity2. Segmented3. Jointed Appendages4. Exoskeleton made of Chitin5. Must “Molt” to grow
25Arthropoda 7 Classes of Arthropods Trilobite- Extinct aquatic species Merostomate- Includes only Horseshoe CrabsCrustacians-mostly aquatic, Crabs, Lobster, Shrimp, Barnacles, Pill bugsInsects- largest arthropod class, undergo Metamorphosis, 3 pr. of legs, only group that can fly.
26Insects- largest arthropod class, undergo Metamorphosis, 3 pr Insects- largest arthropod class, undergo Metamorphosis, 3 pr. of legs, only group that can fly. Includes beetles, ants, butterflies, bees, mosquitoes, weevils and grasshoppersArachnids- 4 pair of legs, have fangs instead of jaws, most produce venom, includes spiders, ticks, scorpions, chiggersDiplopods- four legs per segment, herbivores, includes all Millipedes.Chilopods- two legs per segment, aggressive carnivores, includes all centipedes
30Echinodermata- “Spiney Skin” 10,000 SpeciesEndoskeleton with interlocking plates called ossicles5 part Radial Body PlanFundamentally BilateralHas a Water Vascular system that controls water flow, suction and tube feet.Uses skin gills for respirationRemarkable regenerative abilities.
33Chordata Animals with a Notocord 42,500 species All chordates have Bilateral Symmetry, notochord, spinal cord and highly developed Head region and brain.Three Sub Phyla1. Urochordates-2. Cephalochordates-3. Vertebrates-
34Chordates Vertebrates- Largest Group of Chordates Notocord becomes the Vertebrae during embryo developmentLargest group of Vertebrates are fishFirst Vertebrates originated around 500 million years ago.
35Chordates Seven Classes of Vertebrates 1. Agnatha- Primitive jawless Fish. Long tube bodies breathe by gills, Salt Water…. Lampreys
36Chordates 2. Chondrichthytes----Cartilage Fish Has a skeleton made of cartilage, All Salt Water species, gillsIncludes Sharks, Skates and Sting Rays
373. Osteichthyes—Boney Fish----fresh or salt water, skeleton made of calcium bone. Gill Breathers…. Ex. Include, Bass, Goldfish, Eels, Marlin, Catfish and Tuna
384. Amphibians---Four Legged creatures that can live out of water but need water for reproduction. Lung Breathers as adults, gill breathers as young, Soft Moist skin…. Includes Frogs, Toads, Salamanders and Newts
395. Reptiles-Breathe by lungs in all stages.Body covered by scales.Eggs produced on land are tough and leathery.First to have Internal Fertilization.Includes Lizards, Snakes, Turtles, Alligators and relatives. Most include Dinosaurs based on general characteristics
45Major Evolutionary Developments in the Animal Kingdom 1- Parametazoans to Eumetazoans2. Radial symmetry to Bilateral Symmetry3. Acoelomate to Coelomate4. Gill Breathing to Lung Breathing5. Protostome to Deuterostome6. Invertebrates to Vertebrates