Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 – Organization of the Human Body"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 1 – Organization of the Human Body Human A&P
2I. Anatomy and Physiology Body structures and the relationship between structuresAnatomy is defined as________________________________________________________________ie. What the parts___________!)B. Physiology is defined as ______________________(ie. How the parts__________!)AREBody FunctionsWORK
3It is hard and does not move. It surrounds the brain. ANATOMYC. Structure (_______________) and Function (_____________) are closely tied together. 1. Structure _____________function Ex. What is the function of the skull? Explain the structure of the skull?PHYSIOLOGYDICTATESTo protect the brain.It is hard and does not move. It surrounds the brain.
4II. Types of Anatomy Structure viewed with the naked eye. Gross Anatomy - _______________________________________________________________________Structure viewed with the naked eye.Ex. sheep heart
5B. Microanatomy - ________________________________ ______________________________________________ Structure viewed under magnificationEx – bone tissue
6C. Regional Anatomy - ____________________________ _____________________________________________ all structures for a given area (both gross and microanatomy)Ex. Head and neck
7D. Systemic Anatomy - ____________________________ ______________________________________________ all of the structures for a given organ system (includes gross anatomy and microanatomy)Ex. – Respiratory System
8III. Levels of Body Organization Chemical1. ___________________ - especially C, H, O, N2. ___________________-water, carbs, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, ATP)AtomsCompounds
9Nerve cells are long and thin to carry info B. _______________________ 1. ______________- the basic unit of structure and function of living things a. Cells contain _________________ that perform certain functions b. Cells differ in their _____________ and _________________.CELLULARCellsorganellesstructurefunctionEx.Nerve cells are long and thin to carry info
10TISSUEC. _______________________ 1. Tissue -____________________________________ ___________________ (there are four types – epithelial, connective, muscular, & nervous……which we will study in detail in a later unit)A group of cells that work together to perform a certain task
11ORGANSD. _____________________ 1. Organs - ___________________________________ __________________________________________Have 2 or more types of tissues working together to perform a certain functionEx – the stomach has epithelial tissue inside and outside and muscle tissue between them. It also has nervous tissue and blood (which is connective tissue.) They all work together to help you digest your BIG MAC!
12E. _____________________ ORGAN SYSTEMSE. _____________________1. Organ Systems - ______________________________________________________________________2. The Major organ systems of the human body are:1. __________________ 7.___________________2. __________________ 8.___________________ 3. __________________ 9.___________________4.__________________ 10. __________________5. __________________ 11.__________________6. __________________A group of organs that work together to perform the same functionIntegumentaryLymphaticSkeletalDigestiveNervousUrinaryReproductiveMuscularRespiratoryEndocrineCardiovascular
13a. Organ systems work with each other to ___________ the organism. maintainEx – digestive system
14ORGANISMALF. _____________________ 1. ___________________________________________ __________________________________________All of the organ systems combine to form the organism (such as a human)
15IV. 6 Life Processes in Humans Metabolism - ________________________________________________________________________1. Types of metabolisma. Anabolism - __________________________ _____________________________________b. Catabolism - _________________________________________________________________The sum of all chemical reactions in the bodywhen simple molecules join to make larger molecules requires energy (ATP)Ex – monosaccharides join to make glucosewhen large molecules break into into simpler ones releases energy (ATP)Ex – breaking down glucose into CO2 and H2O
16B. _________________________ - the ability of the body to react to a changing internal and external environment C. _______________________ - Including that of the entire body, body parts, cells and organelles within the cells. D. ________________________ - an increase in body size due to increasing the number of cells, the size of cells, or the amount of material around the cells.RESPONSIVENESSMOVEMENTGROWTH
17E. _________________________- when unspecialized cells (like _______________) develop into a specific cell type such as a white blood cell or a muscle cell. F. __________________________ - production of new cells or an entire new human.DIFFERENTIATIONSTEM CELLSREPRODUCTION
18V. Body Plan Anatomical Position - _________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________Subject stands in front of the observer with head and feet facing forward, arms down at side and palms out to the observer
19B. Major Regions of the Body Head (cephalic)Neck (cervical)TrunkUpper LimbLower Limb
20C. Minor Body Regions 1. Head (cephalic) Forehead (frontal)Eye (orbital)Ear (otic)Cheek (buccal)Nose (nasal)Mouth (oral)Chin (mental)
26VI. Directional Terms Why? ______________________________________ ___________________________________________We need these in order to describe the position of one part as compared to the position of another part.
27Superior or Cranial Toward the head TERMDefinitionExampleSuperior or Cranial Toward the headInferior or caudal Toward the feetVentral or anterior Toward or at thefront of the body (infront of)Dorsal or posterior Toward or at theback of the body(behind)** The terms ventral and anterior are synonymous in humans, but not in four legged animals.
28Closer to the origin of the body part on the body trunk Proximal TERMDefinitionExampleCloser to the origin of the body part on the body trunkProximalDistal Farther from theorigin of a bodypart on the bodytrunkSuperficial or External Toward or at thebody surfaceDeep or Internal Away from thebody surface
29Toward or at the midline of the body Medial TERMDefinitionExampleToward or at the midline of the bodyMedialLateral Away from themidline of the body
30YOU NEED TO ADD THIS TO YOUR NOTES! Prone: _________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Supine:________________________________________ _____________________________________________When the subject is lying with the ventral surface down (“Face down”)When the subject is lying with the dorsal surface down (“Face up”)
31VII. Types of Body Planes A. ____________________ - divides the body horizontallyTransverse
37D. ____________________ - divides the body into UNEQUAL right and left halves E. ____________________ - Cuts at an odd angleParasagittalOblique
38VIII. Body CavitiesA. Definition: _________________________________ __________________________________________Space inside the body to contain, protect, separate and support internal organs
39B. Ventral Body CavityThoracicCavityVentral Body CavityAbdomino-pelvicCavity
40Mediastinum Cavity (contains parts of trachea, esophagus & bronchi) 1. Sub-Cavities within the Thoracic CavityMediastinum Cavity (contains parts of trachea, esophagus & bronchi)Right Pleural Cavity (contains right lung)Pericardial cavity(contains heart)Left Pleural Cavity(contains left lung)
412. Two Sub-cavities of the Abdomino-pelvic cavity Abdominal Cavity(contains digestive organs, liver, spleen & kidneys)Pelvic Cavity(contains urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs & rectum)