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Unit 1 – Organization of the Human Body. I. Anatomy and Physiology A. Anatomy is defined as_______________________ _________________________________________.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 – Organization of the Human Body. I. Anatomy and Physiology A. Anatomy is defined as_______________________ _________________________________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1 – Organization of the Human Body

2 I. Anatomy and Physiology A. Anatomy is defined as_______________________ _________________________________________ ie. What the parts___________!) B. Physiology is defined as ______________________ _________________________________________ (ie. How the parts__________!) Body structures and the relationship between structures ARE Body Functions WORK

3 C. Structure (_______________) and Function (_____________) are closely tied together. 1. Structure _____________function Ex. What is the function of the skull? Explain the structure of the skull? ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY DICTATES To protect the brain. It is hard and does not move. It surrounds the brain.

4 II. Types of Anatomy A. Gross Anatomy - ____________________________ ___________________________________________ Structure viewed with the naked eye. Ex. sheep heart

5 B. Microanatomy - ________________________________ ______________________________________________ Structure viewed under magnification Ex – bone tissue

6 C. Regional Anatomy - ____________________________ _____________________________________________ all structures for a given area (both gross and microanatomy) Ex. Head and neck

7 D. Systemic Anatomy - ____________________________ ______________________________________________ all of the structures for a given organ system (includes gross anatomy and microanatomy) Ex. – Respiratory System

8 III. Levels of Body Organization A. Chemical 1. ___________________ - especially C, H, O, N 2. ___________________-water, carbs, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids (DNA, RNA, ATP) Atoms Compounds

9 B. _______________________ 1. ______________- the basic unit of structure and function of living things a. Cells contain _________________ that perform certain functions b. Cells differ in their _____________ and _________________. CELLULAR Cells organelles structure function Ex. Nerve cells are long and thin to carry info

10 C. _______________________ 1. Tissue -____________________________________ ___________________ (there are four types – epithelial, connective, muscular, & nervous……which we will study in detail in a later unit) TISSUE A group of cells that work together to perform a certain task

11 D. _____________________ 1. Organs - ___________________________________ __________________________________________ Have 2 or more types of tissues working together to perform a certain function Ex – the stomach has epithelial tissue inside and outside and muscle tissue between them. It also has nervous tissue and blood (which is connective tissue.) They all work together to help you digest your BIG MAC! ORGANS

12 E. _____________________ 1. Organ Systems - ____________________________ __________________________________________ 2. The Major organ systems of the human body are: 1. __________________7.___________________ 2. __________________8.___________________ 3. __________________9.___________________ 4.__________________10. __________________ 5. __________________ 11.__________________ 6. __________________ A group of organs that work together to perform the same function ORGAN SYSTEMS Integumentary Skeletal Nervous Muscular Cardiovascular Lymphatic Digestive Respiratory Urinary Reproductive Endocrine

13 a. Organ systems work with each other to ___________ the organism. maintain Ex – digestive system

14 F. _____________________ 1. ___________________________________________ __________________________________________ All of the organ systems combine to form the organism (such as a human) ORGANISMAL

15 IV. 6 Life Processes in Humans A. Metabolism - ______________________________ __________________________________________ 1. Types of metabolism a. Anabolism - __________________________ _____________________________________ b. Catabolism - ___________________________ ______________________________________ The sum of all chemical reactions in the body when simple molecules join to make larger molecules  requires energy (ATP) Ex – monosaccharides join to make glucose when large molecules break into into simpler ones  releases energy (ATP) Ex – breaking down glucose into CO2 and H2O

16 B. _________________________ - the ability of the body to react to a changing internal and external environment C. _______________________ - Including that of the entire body, body parts, cells and organelles within the cells. D. ________________________ - an increase in body size due to increasing the number of cells, the size of cells, or the amount of material around the cells. RESPONSIVENESS MOVEMENT GROWTH

17 E. _________________________- when unspecialized cells (like _______________) develop into a specific cell type such as a white blood cell or a muscle cell. F. __________________________ - production of new cells or an entire new human. DIFFERENTIATION STEM CELLS REPRODUCTION

18 V. Body Plan A. Anatomical Position - ____________________________________________________________________ Subject stands in front of the observer with head and feet facing forward, arms down at side and palms out to the observer

19 B. Major Regions of the Body Head (cephalic ) Neck (cervical) Trunk Upper Limb Lower Limb

20 C. Minor Body Regions 1. Head (cephalic) Forehead (frontal) Eye (orbital) Ear (otic) Cheek (buccal) Nose (nasal) Mouth (oral) Chin (mental)

21 2. Neck (cervical) There is none

22 3. Upper Limb Armpit (axillary) Upper arm (brachial) Front of elbow (antecubital ) Forearm (antebracheal) Wrist (carpel) Palm (palmer) Fingers (digital) Shoulder (acromial) Manual = wrist, fingers and palm

23 4. Lower Limb Thigh (femoral) Kneecap (patellar) shin (crural) Ankle (tarsel) Toes (digital) Foot (pedal) Hollow behind knee (popliteal) Calf (sural) Heel (calcaneal) Sole (plantar)

24 5. Trunk - anterior Chest (Thoracic) Abdomen (Abdominal) Pelvis (pelvic) Breast (mammary) Naval (umbilical) Pubis (pubic) Hip (coxal) Groin (inguinal)

25 5. Trunk - posterior Shoulder blade (scapular) Back (dorsal) Loin (lumbar) Buttock (gluteal) Spinal Column (vertebral) Between Hips (sacral)

26 VI. Directional Terms A. Why? ______________________________________ ___________________________________________ We need these in order to describe the position of one part as compared to the position of another part.

27 TERMDefinitionExample ** The terms ventral and anterior are synonymous in humans, but not in four legged animals. Superior or CranialToward the head Inferior or caudal Toward the feet Ventral or anterior Toward or at the front of the body (in front of) Dorsal or posterior Toward or at the back of the body (behind)

28 TERMDefinitionExample Proximal Closer to the origin of the body part on the body trunk Distal Farther from the origin of a body part on the body trunk Superficial or External Toward or at the body surface Deep or Internal Away from the body surface

29 TERMDefinitionExample Medial Toward or at the midline of the body Lateral Away from the midline of the body

30 YOU NEED TO ADD THIS TO YOUR NOTES! Prone: _________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Supine:________________________________________ _____________________________________________ When the subject is lying with the ventral surface down (“Face down”) When the subject is lying with the dorsal surface down (“Face up”)

31 VII. Types of Body Planes A. ____________________ - divides the body horizontally Transverse

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33 B. ____________________ - divides the body into front and back (anterior/ventral and posterior/dorsal) Frontal

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35 C. ____________________ - divides the body into EQUAL right and left halves Midsagittal

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37 D. ____________________ - divides the body into UNEQUAL right and left halves E. ____________________ - Cuts at an odd angle Parasagittal Oblique

38 VIII. Body Cavities A. Definition: _________________________________ __________________________________________ Space inside the body to contain, protect, separate and support internal organs

39 Thoracic Cavity Abdomino- pelvic Cavity Ventral Body Cavity B. Ventral Body Cavity

40 Mediastinum Cavity (contains parts of trachea, esophagus & bronchi) Right Pleural Cavity (contains right lung) Left Pleural Cavity (contains left lung) Pericardial cavity (contains heart) 1. Sub-Cavities within the Thoracic Cavity

41 Abdominal Cavity (contains digestive organs, liver, spleen & kidneys) Pelvic Cavity (contains urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs & rectum) 2. Two Sub-cavities of the Abdomino-pelvic cavity

42 C. Dorsal Body Cavity Cranial Cavity (contains brain) Vertebral Cavity (contains spinal cord) Dorsal Body Cavity

43 Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ) Unique to the gall bladder & contains majority of the liver IX. Body Quadrants of the Abdominopelvic Cavity

44 Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) Unique to the appendix & contains part of large intestines & small intestines

45 Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ) Contains majority of the stomach

46 Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ) Contains small intestines & large intestines


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