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Organization of the Human Body

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1 Organization of the Human Body
ST110 Concorde Career College, Portland

2 Objectives Define the terms anatomy, physiology, and pathology
Identify the structural units of the body from the chemical level to the organ systems Define chemistry as it relates to cell function List the organ systems and the major structures of each system

3 Objectives List and define the terms of direction
Apply the terms of direction to the body List and define the body planes Apply body plane terminology when referencing the body List and identify the body cavities and the organ(s) contained within each cavity

4 Terms Anatomy Study of structures of Physiology Pathophysiology
the body Physiology Study of functions of structures of the body Pathophysiology Study of diseases and disorders

5 History of Anatomy and Physiology
Imhotep, BC: recorded some of the earliest information on surgery Aristotle, BC: founder of comparative anatomy Herophilos, BC: “The First Anatomist,” described the diagnostic value of the pulse Erasistratus, BC: contributed to the understanding of the anatomy of the brain, and noted the difference between motor and sensory nerves Herophilos – first to perform cadaveric dissections Erasistratus was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria. Along with fellow physician Herophilus, he founded a school of anatomy in Alexandria, where they carried out anatomical research. He is credited for his description of the valves of the heart, and he also concluded that the heart was not the center of sensations, but instead it functioned as a pump. Erasistratus was among the first to distinguish between veins and arteries. He believed that the arteries were full of air and that they carried the "animal spirit" (pneuma). He considered atoms to be the essential body element, and he believed they were vitalized by the pneuma that circulated through the nerves. He also thought that the nerves moved a nervous spirit from the brain. He then differentiated between the function of the sensory and motor nerves, and linked them to the brain. He is credited with one of the first in-depth descriptions of the cerebrum and cerebellum.

6 History of Anatomy and Physiology
Galen, year AD: “First Great Anatomist,” his writings remained unchallenged for 1,500 years. Conformed his anatomic findings to theological principles Andreas Vesalius, : “Father of Modern Anatomy,” corrected Galen’s mistakes. Dissected human cadavers. Ambroise Pare, : “Greatest Surgeon of the 16th century,” first to ligate vessels to control bleeding after amputations . Pare – Barber Surgeon

7 Organization of the Human Body
The levels of organization progress from the least complex (chemical level) to the most complex (organism level) Atoms and molecules are referred to as the chemical level


9 Organization of the Human Body
Cells are the smallest living units of structure and function in our body. Tissues are an organization of many similar cells . Organs are an organization of several different kinds of tissues.

10 Organization of the Human Body
Systems are varying numbers and kinds of organs working together to perform complex functions. The body is a unified and complex assembly of interactive components.

11 Anatomical Position When a person is in anatomical position, the body is erect and facing forward with arms supinated at the side and palms of the hands and feet facing forward. Supine- face up, palms up Prone- face down, palms down

12 Anatomical Position

13 Positions Also describe lateral Decubitus – lying down
Recumbent – lying down Supine – dorsal recumbent Lateral – lateral decubitus

14 Directional Terms Superior/cephalic- above, the very top
Inferior/caudal- below, very low Anterior/ventral- toward the front Posterior/dorsal- toward the back Medial- most near the imaginary midline Lateral- away from the midline Proximal- closest to the point of attachment Distal-away from the point of attachment

15 Directional Terms Superior – toward the head
Inferior – toward the feet Anterior – front Posterior – back Adduct – bring near Abduct – move away Mention Caudal and Cephalic

16 Directional Terms Medial – toward the midline of the body
Lateral – toward the side of the body Proximal – nearest the point of origin of one of its parts Distal – away from the point of origin Varus – turned inward Valgus – turned outward Flexion – bend a joint Extension – extend a joint Dorsiflexion – turn the foot up Palmar flexion – turn the foot down Rotation – internal/external Varus/valgus = knees and ankles

17 Directional Terms Contralateral – opposite side
Ipsilateral – same side Equilateral – the same on both sides Dorsal – toward the posterior surface Ventral – toward the anterior surface Volar – pertaining to the palm or sole

18 Terms of Reference Deep- away from the surface
Superficial- near the surface Internal- inside External- outside Central- closer to the inside or within a system Peripheral- closer to the outside or on the outside Visceral- pertaining to the covering of the internal organs Mention internal/external rotation

19 Geometric Planes

20 Geometric Planes The body is sectioned into imaginary geometric planes: Sagittal - divides the body or parts into right and left sides Midsagittal (median plane)– divides the body into equal right and left sides Transverse (horizontal plane)- divides the body or parts into upper and lower portions Coronal (frontal plane)- divides the body or parts into anterior and posterior portions Cross section – a transverse cut that is at angles to the long axis of the organ

21 Sagittal

22 Transverse

23 Coronal

24 Quadrants When making clinical diagnoses surgeons frequently use quadrants to indicate the area of bodily pain RUQ – right upper quadrant RLQ – right lower quadrant LUQ – left upper quadrant LLQ – left lower quadrant

25 Quadrants

26 Nine Regions Two sagittal planes and two transverse planes divide the abdomen into nine regions Right Hypochondrium Left Hypochondrium Epigastrium Right Lumbar Left lumbar Umbilical Right Iliac Left Iliac Hypogastrium

27 Nine Regions

28 Major Body Cavities The body is divided into two major cavities:
Dorsal Cavity – Posterior division of the body, further subdivided into the cranial cavity and the spinal cavity Ventral Cavity – Anterior division of the body, further subdivided into the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities Pleura- contains the lungs Abdominal- contains the liver

29 Body Cavities

30 Body Cavities

31 Body Cavities Cranial cavity: contains the brain Spinal Cavity: contains the spinal cord The membranes that line the cranial and spinal cavities are called the meninges

32 Body Cavities Thoracic cavity: further subdivided into the…
mediastinum: esophagus, thymus gland, trachea, heart, great vessels Pericardial cavity: contains the heart (within its pericardial sac) Pleural cavities: contains the lungs Abdominopelvic cavity: also called the peritoneal cavity is further subdivided into the… Abdominal cavity: contains the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestines, and colon Pelvic cavity: sigmoid colon, rectum, bladder, and internal reproductive organs


34 Diaphragm Separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
Is the most important muscle in breathing

35 Diaphragm

36 Peritoneum The peritoneum is a serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity Parietal peritoneum: lines the wall of the abdominopelvic cavity Visceral peritoneum: covers the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity Peritoneal space: small space between the two layers, contains serous fluid and reduces friction

37 Mesentery Mesentery: a fold of peritoneum that invests the intestines and attaches them to the posterior abdominal wall Omentum : a double fold of peritoneum that is divided into the greater omentum and the lesser omentum Greater omentum: attaches to the greater curvature of the stomach and hangs loosely downward covering the intestines Attaches to the lesser curvature of the stomach and duodenum

38 Body Systems

39 Body Systems A group of organs arranged to perform a more complex function There are 11 major organ systems in the human body Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Circulatory (cardiovascular & peripheral vascular) Lymphatic Digestive Respiratory Urinary Reproductive

40 Integumentary system Largest organ system which Includes: Skin
Sweat glands Sebaceous glands Hair Nails

41 Skeletal System Includes: Skeleton Ligaments Tendons Cartilage

42 Muscular System Includes: Skeletal muscle (Voluntary/striated muscle)
Smooth muscle (involuntary/non striated muscle) Cardiac muscle

43 Nervous system Includes: Brain Spinal cord Cranial nerves
Peripheral nerves

44 Nervous System cont. CNS – Central nervous system, consists of the brain and spinal cord PNS – Peripheral nervous system, comprises the nerves

45 Pituitary gland (master gland) Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland
Endocrine system Includes: Pituitary gland (master gland) Thyroid gland Parathyroid gland Pancreas Thymus gland Adrenal glands Testes Ovaries The endocrine system works closely with the nervous system. The nervous system provides rapid response while the endocrine system Provides slower response, but longer lasting resultes

46 Circulatory system Includes: Cardiovascular system
Heart, coronary arteries, aorta, pulmonary arteries and veins, superior and inferior vena cava Peripheral vascular system all arteries, veins and capillaries outside of the heart

47 Includes: Lymph fluid Lymph vessels Lymph nodes Spleen Thymus
Lymphatic system Includes: Lymph fluid Lymph vessels Lymph nodes Spleen Thymus

48 Digestive system Includes: Mouth Teeth Liver Tongue Gallbladder
Salivary glands Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Liver Gallbladder Biliary duct system Pancreas Small intestine colon

49 Respiratory system Includes: Nasal cavity Pharynx (throat)
Larynx (voice box) Trachea (wind pipe) Lungs Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli

50 Genitourinary system Includes: Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Urethra

51 Female Reproductive System
Includes: Ovaries Fallopian tubes Uterus Vagina Clitoris External genitalia (vulva) Breast

52 Male Reproductive system
Includes: Scrotum Testes Epididymis Vas deferens Seminal vesicles Prostate gland Bulbourethral glands Urethra penis

53 Metabolism Life-sustaining reactions that go on within the body systems Catabolism-complex substances are broken down to simpler compounds. Breakdown of nutrients ATP-energy obtained from the breakdown Anabolism-simple compounds used to manufacture materials for growth, function and repair

54 Fluid Balance Extracellular fluid- all fluids outside the cells
Intracellular fluid-all fluids within the cells

55 Homeostasis Homeostasis: is the coordination of all the various functions of the body to maintain a normal internal environment. (consistency) Negative feedback-monitoring internal conditions and bringing them back to normal

56 Review What is the smallest level of organization in the human body?

57 Review What is the smallest structural unit in the body? cells

58 Review Describe anatomical position.
Body is erect, standing with arms at sides, palms turned forward, head and feet forward

59 Review What is “toward the midline of the body?” medial
What is “nearer the surface?” superficial What is “back” posterior

60 Review Which plane divides the body into front and back portions?
Frontal/coronal Which plane divides the body into right and left sides? Sagittal

61 Thoracic, pleural, abdominopelvic
Review Which subcavities are contained in the dorsal cavity? Cranial, Spinal Which subcavities are contained in the ventral cavity? Thoracic, pleural, abdominopelvic

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