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기본 의학 용어 의공학교실 박 성 근.

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Presentation on theme: "기본 의학 용어 의공학교실 박 성 근."— Presentation transcript:

1 기본 의학 용어 의공학교실 박 성 근

2 table 1. 의학용어의 특징 2. 인체의 기본구조 3. 병리학적 검사분야 4. 방사선과학적 검사분야 5. 임상병리 검사분야 6. 핵의학 검사분야 7. 약물요법 분야 8. 소화기계질환 분야 9. 심혈관계질환 분야 10. 호흡기계질환 분야 11. 근골격계질환 분야 12. 신경 및 정신계질환 분야 13. 비뇨기계 및 남성생식기계질환 분야 14. 내분비계 및 여성생식기계질환 분야 15. 피부과, 안과 및 이비인후과질환 분야 16. 병원의 진료 편제

3 소화기계 질환 분야 gastrointestinal tract (GI tract): 위장관
abdomen (adj. abdominal): 복부(의) 4 quadrants (right, left – upper, lower): 우,좌 – 상,하복부 epigastric (심와부, 명치), periumbilical (배꼽주위), flank (옆구리)

4 GI tract

5 oral cavity I

6 oral cavity II hard palate (경구개) soft palate uvula (목젖) (연구개)
tonsil (편도) gingiva (잇몸)

7 Waldeyer’s tonsilar ring
(pharyngeal tonsil) (tubal tonsil) (palatine tonsil) (lingual tonsil)

8 소화기계 질환 분야 oral cavity (구강) lip (입술) palate (구개, 입천장) uvula (목젖)
tongue (혀) tooth (치아) gingiva (gum) (잇몸) tonsil (편도) cleft lip(harelip)언청이 cleft palate (구개열) dental caries (충치) gingivitis (치은염) tonsil(l)itis (편도염)

9 salivary gland parotid gland (이하선) sublingual gland (설하선)
submandibular gland (악하선)

10 소화기계 질환 분야 salivary gland (타액선, 침샘) esophagus (식도) stomach (위)
parotid gland (이하선, 耳下腺) esophagus (식도) stomach (위) cardia (분문부, 噴門部) fundus (위저부, 胃底部) body (위체부, 胃體部) antrum (위전정부, 胃前庭部) pylorus (유문부, 幽門部) esophageal varix (식도 정맥류) gastritis (위염) gastric ulcer (위궤양) (peptic) ulcer (소화성 궤양) perforation (궤양천공) stomach cancer (위암) pyloric stenosis (유문부 협착)

11 eshophagus I

12 eshophagus II

13 esophageal foreign bodies
eshophagus III esophageal varices esophageal foreign bodies

14 stomach I

15 stomach II

16 stomach blood supply

17 digestive process in stomach I

18 digestive process in stomach II

19 layers of stomach wall 1. serosa 2. tela subserosa 3. muscularis
4. oblique fibers of m. 5. circular m. layer 6. longitudinal m. layer 7. submucosa 8. lamina m. mucosa 9. mucosa 10. lamina propria 11. epithelium 12. gastric glands 13. gastric pits 14. villous folds 15. gastric areas (surface)

20 different types of cells in gast. gl.
Layer of stomach Name Secretion Region of stomach Staining Isthmus of gland mucous cells mucus gel layer Fundic, cardiac, pyloric Clear Body of gland parietal (oxyntic) cells gastric acid and intrinsic factor Acidophilic Base of chief (zymogenic) cells pepsinogen, rennin Fundic only Basophilic enteroendocrine (APUD) cells hormones gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin and somatostatin -

21 gastric glands I

22 gastric glands II

23 gastro-esophageal junction

24 gastric glands III regular mucosa with surface epithelium
severe degen. of surface epithelium (Water Avoidance Stress group) WAS+taurine group: regular epi. and gl.

25

26 gastric acid secretion

27 소화기계 질환 분야 duodenum (십이지장) small bowel (intestine) (소장)
jejunum (공장 空腸) ileum (회장 回腸) large bowel (intestine) (대장, 결장 結腸) cecum (맹장 盲腸) appendix (충수 蟲垂, 충양돌기) duodenal ulcer (십이지장궤양) intestinal obstruction (장폐색증) acute appendicitis (급성 충수염)

28 소화기계 질환 분야 colon (대장) rectum (adj. rectal) (직장 直腸) anus (항문 肛門)
ascending (상행) transverse (횡행) descending (하행) sigmoid (S자) rectum (adj. rectal) (직장 直腸) anus (항문 肛門) (entero)colitis ((소장)대장염) anal fissure (치열 痔裂), anal fistula (치루 痔瘻), hemorrhoid (치질 痔疾, 치핵 痔核)

29 small intestine

30 duodenum I

31 duodenum II

32 villi of small intestine I

33

34 vessels in villi of small intestine

35 lipid lipid fats, waxes, sterols, fat soluble vitamins (Vit A, D, E & K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, phospholipids & etc. functions: energy storage, structural components of cell membranes, signaling molecules (e.g., steroid hormones, prostaglandins)

36 glycerol (glycerine) 3 hydrophilic hydroxyl group -> water soluble

37 fatty acid I carboxylic acid (-COOH) with long unbranched aliphatic chain saturated vs. unsaturated: depending on double bonds the blend of f.a. exuded by mammalian skin with lactic acid & pyruvic acid: as distinctive as fingerprints -> dogs differentiate this btw. various people

38 fatty acid II

39 unsaturated fatty acids
Common name Chemical structure Myristoleic acid CH3(CH2)3CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Palmitoleic acid CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Oleic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Linoleic acid CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH α-Linolenic acid CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Arachidonic acid CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3COOH Eicosapentaenoic acid CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CH(CH2)3 COOH Erucic acid CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)11COOH Docosahexaenoic acid CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2CH=CHCH2 CH=CH(CH2)2COOH

40 glyceride known as acylglycerol esters: glcerol + fatty acids
monoglyceride, diglyceride & triglyceride

41 monoglyceride & triglyceride

42 phospholipid major component of all cell membranes (lipid bilayer)

43 lipid bilayer

44

45 lipid digestion

46 carbohydrate monosaccharides disaccharides polysaccharides glucose
fructose galactose xylose, ribose disaccharides sucrose: glucose + fructose lactose: glucose + galactose polysaccharides starch, cellulose

47 glucose, fructose & sucrose

48 carbohydrate digestion I

49

50 amino acid general amino acid & lysine

51 amino acids Amino Acid 3-Letter 1-Letter Amino Acid 1-Letter Alanine
Leucine Leu L Arginine Arg R Lysine Lys K Asparagine Asn N Methionine Met M Aspartic acid Asp D Phenylalanine Phe F Cysteine Cys C Proline Pro P Glutamic acid Glu E Serine Ser S Glutamine Gln Q Threonine Thr T Glycine Gly G Tryptophan Trp W Histidine His H Tyrosine Tyr Y Isoleucine Ile I Valine Val V

52 peptide bond

53 protein

54 hemoglobin α-subunit (141 a.a.) β-subunit (146 a.a.) heme group

55 protein digestion I

56 protein digestion II

57 digestion in small intestine I

58 digestion in small intestine II

59 anatomy of colon

60 vessels of colon I

61 vessels of colon II

62 vessels of colon III

63 vessels of colon IV

64 소화기계 질환 분야 liver (hepatic) (간) gallbladder (담낭,쓸개) bile duct (담도)
cystic duct (담낭관) common bile duct (총수담관) hepatitis (간염) liver cirrhosis (간경화) fatty liver (지방간) hepatoma (간암) gallstone (담석) cholecystitis (담낭염) cholangitis (담도염)

65 소화기계 질환 분야 pancreas (pancreatic) (췌장) pancreatic duct (췌장관)
ampulla of Vater (파터씨 팽대부) peritoneum (복막) peritoneal cavity (복강) mesentery (장간막) umbilicus (제대, 배꼽) pancreatitis (췌장염) peritonitis (복막염)

66 anatomy of liver I

67 anatomy of liver II

68 vessels of liver

69 histology of liver I

70 histology of liver II

71 histology of liver III

72 histology of liver IV

73 microvascular anatomy of liver

74 physiology of liver synthesis break down IGF-1 amino acid syn.
carbohydrate meta. gluconeogenesis glycogenolysis glycogenesis lipid meta. cholesterol syn. lipogenesis coagulation factors bile IGF-1 thrombopoietin many proteins break down insulin & other horm. hemoglobin to bilirubin drug meta. (toxins) by conjugation ammonia to urea

75

76 TG metabolism in liver

77 ethanol metabolism in liver

78

79 pancreas

80 histology of pancreas Structure Appearance Function
Islets of Langerhans Lightly staining, large, spherical clusters Hormone production and secretion (endocrine pancreas) Pancreatic acini Darker staining, small, berry-like clusters Digestive enzyme production and secretion (exocrine pancreas)

81 pancreas histology I

82 pancreas histology II

83 소화기계 질환 분야 생리적 기능 bile (담즙) ingestion (섭취) pancreatic juice (췌장액)
secretion (분비) absorption (흡수) defecation (배변) gastric juice (위액) gastric acid (위산) hyperacidity (위산과다) gas (flatus) (방귀) feces (fecal material, stool) (대변) bile (담즙) pancreatic juice (췌장액) peristalsis (장운동, 연동운동)

84 소화기계 질환 분야 symptom (증상) diarrhea (설사) anorexia (식욕부진)
nausea (오심, 구역) vomiting (구토) belching (트림) indigestion (소화불량) hematemesis (토혈) epigastric pain (상복통) heartburn (작열통) constipation (변비) diarrhea (설사) incontinence (실금) ascites (복수) distension (팽만) tenesmus (후중(기),) melena (흑혈변) hematochezia (혈변) cramping pain (경련통) colic (산통) jaundice (황달)

85 소화기계 질환 분야 기타 질환 진단, 검사, 수술 dysentery (이질)
congenital megacolon (선천성 거대결장) volvulus (염전) intussuscetption (장중첩증) hernia (inguinal, umbilical, incisional) (탈장, 서혜부, 제대부, 반흔부) 진단, 검사, 수술 endoscopy (내시경) esophagoscopy (식도경) gastroscopy (위내시경) colonoscopy (대장경) choledochoscopy (담도경) laparoscopy (복강경)

86 소화기계 질환 분야 Levin tube (nasogastric tube) (비위관, 레빈튜브)
anastomosis (문합술) (예:gastrojejunostomy; 위공장문합술) (exploratory) laparotomy (진단적 개복술) transplantation (이식) gastrectomy (위절제) appendectomy (충수절제술) colostomy (대장루), colectomy (대장절제술) hemorrhoidectomy (치핵절제술) hepatectomy (간절제술) (laparoscopic) cholecystectomy (복강경 담낭절제술) pancreatectomy (췌장절제술)


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