Contents of superior mediastinum Thymus Large vein Large arteries Trachea Esophagus Thoracic duct Sympathetic trunk Anterior: Sternum Posterior 4 thoracic vertebra
Contents of inferior mediastinum thymus Heart with pericardium Phrenic nerves Esophagus Thoracic duct Descending aorta Sympathetic trunk
Parts of pleura
Divisions according to regions Cervical pleura: extends upto neck, lining undersurface supra pleural membrane, reaches inch above one third of clavicle. Costal pleura: linesribs, intercostal cartilage, intercostal space, back of sternum. Diaphragmatic pleura: covers thoracic surface of pleura. Mediastinal pleura: covers and forms later boundry of mediastinum.
Nerve Supply: (parietal pleura) Sensitive to pain, pressure, temperature touch and supplied by: Costal pleura: intercostal nerves Mediastinal pleura: phrenic nerves Diaphragmatic pleura: phrenic nerves and six intercostal nerves Visceral pleura: Autonomic supply, pulmonary plexus
Air+Serous fluid=hydropneumothorax Air+pus=pyopneumothorax Air+blood=hemopneumhorax A collection of pus (no air)=empyema Serous fluid= pleural effusion
Needle thoracostomy/ Tube thoracostomy
Think pair and share A patient presented with pain in chest, there was dullness on percussion and dull breath sounds heard on stethoscope. Pleural effusion is suspected. Patient is feeling pain in Parietal or Visceral pleura?