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About Omics Group OMICS GroupOMICS Group International through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the.

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Presentation on theme: "About Omics Group OMICS GroupOMICS Group International through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the."— Presentation transcript:

1 About Omics Group OMICS GroupOMICS Group International through its Open Access Initiative is committed to make genuine and reliable contributions to the scientific community. OMICS Group hosts over 400 leading-edge peer reviewed Open Access Journals and organize over 300 International Conferences annually all over the world. OMICS Publishing Group journals have over 3 million readers and the fame and success of the same can be attributed to the strong editorial board which contains over eminent personalities that ensure a rapid, quality and quick review process. OMICS Group

2 About Omics Group conferences OMICS Group signed an agreement with more than 1000 International Societies to make healthcare information Open Access. OMICS Group Conferences make the perfect platform for global networking as it brings together renowned speakers and scientists across the globe to a most exciting and memorable scientific event filled with much enlightening interactive sessions, world class exhibitions and poster presentations OMICS GroupOMICS Group Omics group has organised 500 conferences, workshops and national symposium across the major cities including SanFrancisco,Omaha,Orlado,Rayleigh,SantaClara,Chicago,P hiladelphia,Unitedkingdom,Baltimore,SanAntanio,Dubai,H yderabad,Bangaluru and Mumbai.

3 High frequency modulation for injection locking of mid-infrared QCL Maria Amanti A.Calvar, M. Renaudat Saint-Jean, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, A. Bismuto, J. Faist, G. Beaudoin, I. Sagnes In collaboration with:

4 1) QCLs are unipolar devices based on intersubband transitions Transition energy depends only on layer thickness Ultrafast carrier lifetime (ps) Photon energy is fixed by chemistry Carrier lifetime of ≈ 100 ps Laser diode

5 a  up =  3 Photon population Current modulation

6 a  up =  3 Photon population Current modulation

7 Diode lasers vs QCL  3 ≈ 1 ns  3 ≈ 0.3 ps  tot = 10 cm -1  photon ≈ 10 ps j/j th =1.3

8 Motivations Stabilization and control of the laser modes via direct modulation Time Mode locking for mid infrared non linear optics Nature Photonics 6,440–449,(2012). Frequency Combs for spectroscopy Molecular absorption in the MIR

9 Optical spectrum Microwave spectrum Stabilization of the laser cavity modes: toward frequency combs  nn  n-1  n+1 Laser Bias Optical Intensity Frequency FWHM give an insight on the noise of the cavity modes ωBωB

10 Optical spectrum Modulation at ω inj : Stabilization of the laser cavity modes: toward frequency combs Laser Bias Optical Intensity  nn  n-1  inj  n+1  inj Frequency

11 Optical spectrum Microwave spectrum Modulation at ω inj =ω B Stabilization of the laser cavity modes: toward frequency combs Laser Bias Optical Intensity  nn  n-1  inj  n+1  inj Frequency ωBωB

12 Optical spectrum Microwave spectrum ωBωB Modulation at ω inj close to ω B Stabilization of the laser cavity modes: toward frequency combs Laser Bias Optical Intensity  nn  n-1  inj  n+1  inj ω inj

13 Direct modulation of a 9  m 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Buried 9 µm in InGaAs/AlInAs

14 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Modulation Beat note of the cavity modes FWHM= 1.2MHz Direct modulation of a 9  m

15 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Direct modulation of a 9  m

16 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Direct modulation of a 9  m

17 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Locking of the optical modes to the external RF source Direct modulation of a 9  m

18 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Tuning of the cavity modes with the external modulation Direct modulation of a 9  m

19 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Tuning of the cavity modes with the external modulation Direct modulation of a 9  m

20 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Direct modulation of a 9  m

21 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Direct modulation of a 9  m

22 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Direct modulation of a 9  m

23 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Direct modulation of a 9  m

24 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer Direct modulation of a 9  m

25 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation Experimental set-up Spectrum analyzer ModulationBeat note of the cavity modes Injected power : 20 dBm Direct modulation of a 9  m  m ≈1MHz

26 Buried 9 µm in InGaAs/AlInAs Evolution of the locking with the emitted optical power

27 @ 1.7 kA/cm 2 Buried 9 µm in InGaAs/AlInAs Evolution of the locking with the emitted optical power

28 @ 1.7 kA/cm 2 Buried 9 µm in InGaAs/AlInAs Evolution of the locking with the emitted optical 2.0 kA/cm 2

29 @ 1.7 kA/cm 2 Buried 9 µm in InGaAs/AlInAs Evolution of the locking with the emitted optical 2.4 kA/cm 2.0 kA/cm 2 No locking

30 Laser oscillations Microwave modulation Coupled oscillators Theory Cavity field Modulated signal  nn  n-1  inj  n+1

31 Laser oscillations Microwave modulation Cavity field Modulated signal  nn  n-1  inj  n+1 Microwave losses (propagation losses, impedence mismatch) Coupled oscillators Theory

32 Laser oscillations Microwave modulation Cavity field Modulated signal  nn  n-1  inj  n+1 Siegman, A. (1986). Lasers. University Science Book Razavi, B. (2004). Solid-State Circuits, IEEE, 39(9): Locking range Coupled oscillators Theory

33 Laser oscillations Microwave modulation Cavity field Modulated signal  nn  n-1  inj  n+1 Siegman, A. (1986). Lasers. University Science Book Razavi, B. (2004). Solid-State Circuits, IEEE, 39(9): Locking range Optical power Modulation power Coupled oscillators Theory

34 Coupled oscillators theory mm mm mm

35 MIR QCL guide

36 Microwave lineMIR QCL guide

37 Microwave lineMIR QCL guide Design: Control of the losses in the MIR Good overlap of the microwave with the active region Width of the top contact Thickness of the InP claddings

38 Drude model for the calculation of the complex refractive index Finite element 2D simulation in the plane of the facet MicrostripStandard 33 THz (cm -1 ) GHz (cm -1 )5590 Overlap 13 GHz (%) Figure of 13 GHz (cm) Simulations of the optical and microwave modes

39 Microstrip vs Standard Buried heterostructure ≈ 15 GHz Improvement of the bandpass up to ~ 15 GHz Calvar et al Applied Physics Letters 102, (2013) Modulation response

40 Calvar et al Applied Physics Letters 102, (2013) Microstrip vs Standard Buried heterostructure Similar performances

41 FWHM 100 kHz dBm FWHM 1,2 MHz dBm Similar performances Calvar et al Applied Physics Letters 102, (2013) Microstrip vs Standard Buried heterostructure

42 Direct modulation of a microstrip 9  m 65 GHz band QWIP detector QCL Modulation

43 Renaudat Saint-Jean et al Laser & Photonics Reviews 8, Direct modulation of a microstrip 9  m

44 Beatnote (Δω) Signal at the modulation frequency ω m Renaudat Saint-Jean et al Laser & Photonics Reviews 8, Locking over more than 1.5 MHz Direct modulation of a microstrip 9  m

45 7 Broadening of 40 % (13 cm -1 ) of the spectrum width Renaudat Saint-Jean et al Laser & Photonics Reviews 8, Direct modulation of a microstrip 9  m

46 20 dBm Microstrip laser Standard laser No effect on the beatnote Microstrip vs Standard Buried heterostructure

47 Coupled oscillators theory

48 Microwave losses for the microstrip reduced of a factor 10 respect to standard buried

49 Injection locking of QCL emitting in the mid infrared via direct modulation Design and realization of waveguide embedded in a microstrip line: Reduction of a factor 10 of the microwave losses Locking over more than 1.5 MHz with 10 dBm modulation Power Conclusion: THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

50

51 Injected signal

52 Let Us Meet Again We welcome all to our future group conferences of Omics group international Please visit:


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