Presentation on theme: "The Human Body: An Orientation"— Presentation transcript:
1The Human Body: An Orientation Anatomy & PhysiologyThe Human Body: An Orientation
2Introduction:Anatomy: the study of structure and shape of the body (and its parts) and their relationship to each other.Physiology: (physio= nature; ology= study of) the study of the function of the body and its parts.These compliment each other and allow us to study the body’s structures and functions.
3Levels of Structural Organization (of Humans): Atoms (building blocks of matter; combine to make molecules)Cells (smallest unit of life)Tissues (groups of similar cells performing a common function)Organs (groups of tissues working together for a specific function)Organ Systems (groups of organs working collectively for a greater good)Organism
6Skeletal System: bones, cartilage, ligaments, & joints Skeletal System: bones, cartilage, ligaments, & joints. Provides framework and supports body; with muscles, allows movement; protects organs; forms blood cells; stores minerals
7Muscular System: Muscles Muscular System: Muscles. Movement and transport substances throughout the body
8Nervous System: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, & receptors Nervous System: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, & receptors. Respond to stimuli and activate muscles or glands.
9Endocrine System: Glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, thymus, ovaries, testes, & pineal) and hormones. Regulate bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.
10Cardiovascular System: Heart & blood vessels Cardiovascular System: Heart & blood vessels. Transports fluid, oxygen, and waste throughout the body.
11Lymphatic System: Lymph Nodes, Lymph Vessels, Tonsils, Thymus, Appendix, & Spleen. Clean blood of impurities; help with immunity.
12Respiratory System: Nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea bronchi lungs. Functions in gas exchange.
13Digestive System: Mouth esophagus stomach small then large intestine rectum; accessory organs include liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Functions in breaking down food into nutrients for the absorption into the blood.
14Urinary System: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, & urethra Urinary System: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, & urethra. Functions in filtering nitrogenous waste from the blood (creates urea), maintains body’s water and salt balance, regulates body’s blood pressure, and acid- base balance.
15Reproductive System: Function is to produce offspring Reproductive System: Function is to produce offspring. Male includes testis, penis, and duct system; female includes ovaries, uterus, and duct system.
16Maintaining Life:There are 8 characteristics that maintain, or enable, life.Maintaining boundaries: separation of life from outside environment (from a cell membrane to skin)Movement: internal & externalResponsiveness: sense the environment and react to it accordinglyDigestion: break down food
17Metabolism: all chemical reactions within the body: decomposition (break down) and synthesis (build up)Excretion: removal of wastesReproduction: produce more like self (this can occur on the cellular level for growth, maintenance, and repair)Growth: increase in size
18Survival Needs: There are 5 survival needs, or requirements for life: Nutrients: foodOxygen: needed to break down food (releases energy from food)Water: transports, regulates, & needed for chemical reactions (most abundant chemical in our bodies)Normal Body Temperature: determines rate of reactionsAtmospheric Pressure: force exerted on body by weight of air (enables gas exchange)
19Homeostasis:Homeostasis is the body’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment (temp., bp).Homeo = same; stasis = stand stillThere are 2 types of control: Negative & Positive Feedback Mechanisms.
21The Language of Anatomy: Superior: above, or toward the head (cranial)Inferior: below, or away from the head (caudal)Ventral: front of the body (anterior)Dorsal: backside (behind) of the body (posterior)Medial: middleLateral: outer side of bodyProximal: close to the origin point of attachment to a limbDistal: farther from the point of attachment to a limbSuperficial: surface
22Body Planes & Sections: Sagittal Section: cutting the body lengthwiseMedian (midsagittal) Section: sagittal section that is equalFrontal Section: cutting the body into anterior and posterior parts.Transverse Section: (a.k.a. cross section) cutting the body into superior & inferior sections
26Ventral Cavity: Thoracic Cavity: Abdominopelvic Cavity:This is from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor.Contains 2 cavities:Abdominal Cavity (below diaphragm): viscera: stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, gall bladder, and small & large intestines (majority)Pelvic Cavity (above diaphragm): viscera: large intestines (lower end), bladder, & reproductive organsThoracic Cavity:The mediastinum separates the left & right sides (separates the lungs).The viscera: lungs, heart, espohagus, trachea, & thymus gland (all except lungs are w/in mediastinum).
31This slide show was developed by Dana Halloran, Cardinal Mooney High School, Sarasota, FL.Used with her personal permission,adapted and amended by Rosa Whiting,Manatee School for the Arts, Palmetto, FL.