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The Human Body: An Orientation

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1 The Human Body: An Orientation
Anatomy & Physiology The Human Body: An Orientation

2 Introduction: Anatomy: the study of structure and shape of the body (and its parts) and their relationship to each other. Physiology: (physio= nature; ology= study of) the study of the function of the body and its parts. These compliment each other and allow us to study the body’s structures and functions.

3 Levels of Structural Organization (of Humans):
Atoms (building blocks of matter; combine to make molecules) Cells (smallest unit of life) Tissues (groups of similar cells performing a common function) Organs (groups of tissues working together for a specific function) Organ Systems (groups of organs working collectively for a greater good) Organism

4 Levels of Structural Organization (of Humans):

5 Organ System Overview:
Integumentary System: skin; provides protection, waterproofing, and cushioning; excretes waste; regulates temperate; contains temperature, pain & pressure receptors.

6 Skeletal System: bones, cartilage, ligaments, & joints
Skeletal System: bones, cartilage, ligaments, & joints. Provides framework and supports body; with muscles, allows movement; protects organs; forms blood cells; stores minerals

7 Muscular System: Muscles
Muscular System: Muscles. Movement and transport substances throughout the body

8 Nervous System: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, & receptors
Nervous System: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, & receptors. Respond to stimuli and activate muscles or glands.

9 Endocrine System: Glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, thymus, ovaries, testes, & pineal) and hormones. Regulate bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.

10 Cardiovascular System: Heart & blood vessels
Cardiovascular System: Heart & blood vessels. Transports fluid, oxygen, and waste throughout the body.

11 Lymphatic System: Lymph Nodes, Lymph Vessels, Tonsils, Thymus, Appendix, & Spleen. Clean blood of impurities; help with immunity.

12 Respiratory System: Nasal passages  pharynx  larynx  trachea  bronchi  lungs. Functions in gas exchange.

13 Digestive System: Mouth  esophagus  stomach  small then large intestine  rectum; accessory organs include liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Functions in breaking down food into nutrients for the absorption into the blood.

14 Urinary System: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, & urethra
Urinary System: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, & urethra. Functions in filtering nitrogenous waste from the blood (creates urea), maintains body’s water and salt balance, regulates body’s blood pressure, and acid- base balance.

15 Reproductive System: Function is to produce offspring
Reproductive System: Function is to produce offspring. Male includes testis, penis, and duct system; female includes ovaries, uterus, and duct system.

16 Maintaining Life: There are 8 characteristics that maintain, or enable, life. Maintaining boundaries: separation of life from outside environment (from a cell membrane to skin) Movement: internal & external Responsiveness: sense the environment and react to it accordingly Digestion: break down food

17 Metabolism: all chemical reactions within the body: decomposition (break down) and synthesis (build up) Excretion: removal of wastes Reproduction: produce more like self (this can occur on the cellular level for growth, maintenance, and repair) Growth: increase in size

18 Survival Needs: There are 5 survival needs, or requirements for life:
Nutrients: food Oxygen: needed to break down food (releases energy from food) Water: transports, regulates, & needed for chemical reactions (most abundant chemical in our bodies) Normal Body Temperature: determines rate of reactions Atmospheric Pressure: force exerted on body by weight of air (enables gas exchange)

19 Homeostasis: Homeostasis is the body’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment (temp., bp). Homeo = same; stasis = stand still There are 2 types of control: Negative & Positive Feedback Mechanisms.


21 The Language of Anatomy:
Superior: above, or toward the head (cranial) Inferior: below, or away from the head (caudal) Ventral: front of the body (anterior) Dorsal: backside (behind) of the body (posterior) Medial: middle Lateral: outer side of body Proximal: close to the origin point of attachment to a limb Distal: farther from the point of attachment to a limb Superficial: surface

22 Body Planes & Sections:
Sagittal Section: cutting the body lengthwise Median (midsagittal) Section: sagittal section that is equal Frontal Section: cutting the body into anterior and posterior parts. Transverse Section: (a.k.a. cross section) cutting the body into superior & inferior sections

23 Median: Frontal: Transverse:

24 Body Cavities: Dorsal Cavity: Ventral Cavity:
Cranial Cavity: skull & brain Spinal Cavity: spinal cord & backbone (vertebrate) Ventral Cavity: Thoracic Cavity: upper part of trunk Abdominopelvic Cavity: lower trunk The ventral cavity is separated by the diaphragm (thin muscle).


26 Ventral Cavity: Thoracic Cavity:
Abdominopelvic Cavity: This is from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor. Contains 2 cavities: Abdominal Cavity (below diaphragm): viscera: stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, gall bladder, and small & large intestines (majority) Pelvic Cavity (above diaphragm): viscera: large intestines (lower end), bladder, & reproductive organs Thoracic Cavity: The mediastinum separates the left & right sides (separates the lungs). The viscera: lungs, heart, espohagus, trachea, & thymus gland (all except lungs are w/in mediastinum).


28 Other Body Cavities:

29 Nasal Cavity: nose, nasal septum & sinuses (frontal & sphenoidal)
Oral & Digestive Cavities: teeth & tongue

30 Orbital Cavities: eyes, eye muscles, & nerves
Middle Ear Cavities: middle ear bones

31 This slide show was developed by Dana Halloran,
Cardinal Mooney High School, Sarasota, FL. Used with her personal permission, adapted and amended by Rosa Whiting, Manatee School for the Arts, Palmetto, FL.

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