Presentation on theme: "The Human Body: An Orientation"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Human Body: An Orientation Anatomy & PhysiologyThe Human Body: An Orientation
2 Introduction:Anatomy: the study of structure and shape of the body (and its parts) and their relationship to each other.Physiology: (physio= nature; ology= study of) the study of the function of the body and its parts.These compliment each other and allow us to study the body’s structures and functions.
3 Levels of Structural Organization (of Humans): Atoms (building blocks of matter; combine to make molecules)Cells (smallest unit of life)Tissues (groups of similar cells performing a common function)Organs (groups of tissues working together for a specific function)Organ Systems (groups of organs working collectively for a greater good)Organism
7 Muscular System: Muscles Muscular System: Muscles. Movement and transport substances throughout the body
8 Nervous System: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, & receptors Nervous System: Brain, spinal cord, nerves, & receptors. Respond to stimuli and activate muscles or glands.
9 Endocrine System: Glands (pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, pancreas, thymus, ovaries, testes, & pineal) and hormones. Regulate bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction.
10 Cardiovascular System: Heart & blood vessels Cardiovascular System: Heart & blood vessels. Transports fluid, oxygen, and waste throughout the body.
11 Lymphatic System: Lymph Nodes, Lymph Vessels, Tonsils, Thymus, Appendix, & Spleen. Clean blood of impurities; help with immunity.
12 Respiratory System: Nasal passages pharynx larynx trachea bronchi lungs. Functions in gas exchange.
13 Digestive System: Mouth esophagus stomach small then large intestine rectum; accessory organs include liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Functions in breaking down food into nutrients for the absorption into the blood.
14 Urinary System: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, & urethra Urinary System: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, & urethra. Functions in filtering nitrogenous waste from the blood (creates urea), maintains body’s water and salt balance, regulates body’s blood pressure, and acid- base balance.
15 Reproductive System: Function is to produce offspring Reproductive System: Function is to produce offspring. Male includes testis, penis, and duct system; female includes ovaries, uterus, and duct system.
16 Maintaining Life:There are 8 characteristics that maintain, or enable, life.Maintaining boundaries: separation of life from outside environment (from a cell membrane to skin)Movement: internal & externalResponsiveness: sense the environment and react to it accordinglyDigestion: break down food
17 Metabolism: all chemical reactions within the body: decomposition (break down) and synthesis (build up)Excretion: removal of wastesReproduction: produce more like self (this can occur on the cellular level for growth, maintenance, and repair)Growth: increase in size
18 Survival Needs: There are 5 survival needs, or requirements for life: Nutrients: foodOxygen: needed to break down food (releases energy from food)Water: transports, regulates, & needed for chemical reactions (most abundant chemical in our bodies)Normal Body Temperature: determines rate of reactionsAtmospheric Pressure: force exerted on body by weight of air (enables gas exchange)
19 Homeostasis:Homeostasis is the body’s ability to maintain a stable internal environment (temp., bp).Homeo = same; stasis = stand stillThere are 2 types of control: Negative & Positive Feedback Mechanisms.
21 The Language of Anatomy: Superior: above, or toward the head (cranial)Inferior: below, or away from the head (caudal)Ventral: front of the body (anterior)Dorsal: backside (behind) of the body (posterior)Medial: middleLateral: outer side of bodyProximal: close to the origin point of attachment to a limbDistal: farther from the point of attachment to a limbSuperficial: surface
22 Body Planes & Sections: Sagittal Section: cutting the body lengthwiseMedian (midsagittal) Section: sagittal section that is equalFrontal Section: cutting the body into anterior and posterior parts.Transverse Section: (a.k.a. cross section) cutting the body into superior & inferior sections
26 Ventral Cavity: Thoracic Cavity: Abdominopelvic Cavity:This is from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor.Contains 2 cavities:Abdominal Cavity (below diaphragm): viscera: stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, gall bladder, and small & large intestines (majority)Pelvic Cavity (above diaphragm): viscera: large intestines (lower end), bladder, & reproductive organsThoracic Cavity:The mediastinum separates the left & right sides (separates the lungs).The viscera: lungs, heart, espohagus, trachea, & thymus gland (all except lungs are w/in mediastinum).
31 This slide show was developed by Dana Halloran, Cardinal Mooney High School, Sarasota, FL.Used with her personal permission,adapted and amended by Rosa Whiting,Manatee School for the Arts, Palmetto, FL.