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Pre-malignant lesions of Oral cavity

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Presentation on theme: "Pre-malignant lesions of Oral cavity"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pre-malignant lesions of Oral cavity
Dr.SHANKHASHUBHRA GHOSH DLO,2ND YR Stanley Medical College Chennai


3 Benign lesions Solid- papilloma fibroma hemangioma granuloma
torus palatinus Cystic - retention cyst ranula dermoid

4 Premalignant lesions Leukoplakia Erythroplakia Submucous fibrosis
Lichen planus Laryngeal keratosis Actinic cheliosis Smooth,red tongue of Plummer-Vinson syndrome

5 Predisposing factors EIGHT -- “S” Smoking syphilis spices sharp tooth
submucosal fibrosis siderophenic dysphagia sepsis spirit(alcohol)

6 Leukoplakia -etiology
Tobacco chewing and smoking Alcohol Local irritants Vitamin deficiency-vit A & B Endocrine disturbances Syphilis

7 leukoplakia

8 leukoplakia White patch in mucosa that does not rub off & cannot be clinically identified Most are asymptomatic,only 20% show evidence of dysplasia or carcinoma. Buccal mucosa and oral commissures are most common sites Mostly fourth decade, male>female

9 Non –homogenous leukoplakia

10 Management Proper history Prevention of cause
Surgical excision of small lesion Topical chemotherapy and radiation

11 Erythroplakia Red lesion that cannot be classified as another entity.
91% shows signs of dysplasia Flat, macular, velvety appearance and may be speckled with white spots representing foci of keratosis Most common site-lower alveolar mucosa, gingivobuccal sulcus


13 Types:- A)Homogenous type:
appears as bright red soft velvety lesions and extensive in size. commonly found-buccal mucosa and soft palate. B)Speckled type: soft red lesions,slightly elevated with irregular outline surface being granular-speckled

14 Submucous fibrosis Subepithelial inflammatory response to the irritants mainly due to betel nut chewing Arecoline-active alkaloid found in betel nuts-stimulate fibroblasts to increase production of collagen by 150% White fibrotic bands extending from retromolar trigone to soft palate,buccal mucosa , tongue. It continues even after cessation of areca nut chewing




18 Clinical features The most common initial symptom-burning sensation of oral mucosa aggravated by spicy food followed by either hypersalivation or dryness of mouth In advanced cases,the mucosa becomes tough and leathery, with numerous vertical fibrous band.

19 Clinical staging Stage1-stomatitis..vesicles,mucosal ulcers, mucosal petechie Stage2-fibrosis in ruptured vesicles and ulcers. a)early-blanching.. b)late-vertical and circular palpable fibrous bands, trismus, blanched leathery floor of mouth, fibrotic and depigmented gingiva. Stage3-leukoplakia(>25%) and speech & hearing deficits.

20 Treatment Prescription of chewable pellets of hydrocortisone
Absteinence from alcohol,tea,coffee Submucosal inj of hydrocortisone Submucosal inj of human chorionic gonadotropin Surgical treatment-multiple release deep to mucosa,submucosa and fibrotic tissue & suturing the gap so created by mucosal flap obtained by tongue and Z-plasty.

21 Cont….. In this procedure,multiple deep z shaped incisions are made into fibrotic tissue and sutured in straight fashion Pentoxifylline-vasodilating properties and increased mucosal vascularity used as adjunct therapy. Stem cell therapy-intralesional inj of autologus bone marrow stem cell –angiogenesis of area and decreases fibrosis.

22 Lichen planus Malignant potential is matter of dispute
Prudent practice to biopsy the lesion at first visit to confirm diagnosis or monitor changes. Lesion appear white lace like pattern in buccal mucosa.


24 Relative risk factors for oral cancer
None % Bettle nut Chewing % Smoking only % Bettel chewing+Tobacco chewing 15% Bettel chewing+Smoking % Bettel+Tobacco+smoking %

25 Treatment If carcinoma-in-situ proved—excision by CO2 or KTP532 laser
Chemoprevention-beta-carotene and retinoids as antioxidant supplements

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