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The Respiratory System

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Presentation on theme: "The Respiratory System"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Respiratory System

2 Look at each part & see how they go together and what they look like
Know your basic parts

3 Major Function of Resp. System
Supply the body with Oxygen Dispose of Carbon dioxide

4 Functional Anatomy – 2 zones
Respiratory zone: Actual site of gas exchange (some exchange - Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts) alveoli (major site)

5 Functional Anatomy – 2 zones
Conducting zone: Conduits – purify, humidify, and warm incoming air Include all other respiratory passageways

6 Nose – 5 functions Provide airway for respiration Moisten & warm air
Filter air (mucus & cilia) (breath in thru nose & out thru mouth) Site of olfactory (smell) receptors Resonating chamber for sound waves (hold your nose closed & see how you sound!)

7 Cilia & Goblet Cells Mucus traps the “junk” and the cilia sweeps it up toward your throat so you can swallow it or spit it out. Smoking kills cilia so smoker’s constantly have to cough to clear the mucus out!

8 Cold day = Runny nose The cilia in your nose become sluggish & slow when they are cold & do not move the mucus down into your throat Mucus in the nasal cavity accumulates & dribbles out

9 Nasal Conchae Nasal Conchae aka. NasalTurbinates= increase SA of mucosa exposed to air to help warm & filter it – also increase turbulence (mini tornado effect) of air – more inhaled particles swirled onto mucus and trapped

10 Nasal Cavity Nasal cavity separated from oral cavity by the palate (roof of mouth) Anterior – hard palate Posterior – soft palate

11 Paranasal sinuses functions
Lighten skull Act a resonance chamber Produce mucus

12 Chronic Sinusitis

13 Check this out! (do not try this at home or in this classroom!)
The Human Blockhead Click through the different pages to see all the info

14 Pharynx – 3 basic parts Pharynx serves as common passageway for food (& fluids) and air. Color code the 3 parts of the pharynx on the diagram in your notes The names give you location clues!

15 Pharynx – 3 basic parts Nasopharynx – air only
During swallowing, Soft palate & uvula rise upward to close off nasopharynx which prevents food & fluids from entering it Oropharynx & Laryngopharynx – food, liquids & air Food will be directed posteriorly to the esophagus Air will go anteriorly into the larynx

16 Tonsils (think about the name – it tells you the location)
Pharyngeal tonsils: aka. Adenoids – located in nasopharynx Palatine tonsils: located in oropharynx Lingual tonsils: located at base of tongue All tonsils are lymph nodes & work with immune system You will be labeling these on the back page diagram

17 Larynx – 3 Functions Provides patent (open) airway
Act as a switching mechanism (between respiratory & digestive systems) Voice production (location of vocal cords)

18 Adam’s apple Know this: Laryngeal prominence on the thyroid cartilage
Seen externally as Adam’s apple

19 Larynx – Label diagram on pg 4 now

20 Epiglottis 9th cartilage
When air is flowing into the larynx – free edge projects upward During swallowing: Larynx is pulled upward Epiglottis is tipped back and down to cover laryngeal inlet into trachea Routes food/fluid into esophagus

21 Cough Reflex Initiated if anything other than air enters the larynx
Pressure from air moves object upward out of the larynx Reflex does not work when unconscious so not a good idea: To give fluids to an unconscious person Also a reason why people in an alcoholic coma often die from aspirating their own vomit.

22 Trachea (Windpipe) The ciliated mucosa (mucociliary escalator) continuously propels the mucus which contains dust particles and debris to the throat so it can be expelled or swallowed.

23 Smoking Diminishes ciliary activity
Coughing is ONLY method of preventing mucus accumulation in the lungs Smokers should never be given medications that INHIBIT the cough reflex.

24 Some Effects of Smoking

25 Reinforcement Trachea is reinforced internally by C shaped rings (Be able to explain – see diagram on next slide also) Outer portion of C – causes trachea to stay patent (open) and not collapse Inner portion (open part) of C – allow trachea to be flexible and gives esophagus a place to expand into upon swallowing.

26 Trachea must be flexible yet stay patent (open)

27 Heimlich manuver is the same principle as a cough
Used to press air out of lungs in case someone cannot inhale to initiate a cough

28 Tracheostomy -ostomy = cut a hole into Used in cases of: Abnormalities
Cancers Obstructions Injuries to area Etc.

29 Bronchial Tree Trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi at the level of the sternal angle (where manubrium and body of sternum meet). Inhaled objects usually lodge in the right primary bronchus since it is wider, shorter, and at a more vertical angle


31 Lungs Left lung is smaller, consisting of 2 lobes and contains a cardiac notch Right lung has 3 lobes FYI: Bronchopulmonary segments Served by own artery, vein, and individual segmental bronchus Left lung has 8 segments while right lung has 10.


33 The lungs weigh approximately 2.5 pounds
FYI: Important Info Respiratory therapists and surgeons use this info about the different bronchopulmonary segments so they can treat the patient as needed Even to the point of removing the diseased segment and leaving the good tissue The lungs weigh approximately 2.5 pounds

34 Pleurae: Review Parietal vs. visceral Function of pleural fluid
Lubricate layers so they can slide across each other Cause them to cling tightly to each other through surface tension (helps maintain pressure differences necessary for inhaling/exhaling)


36 Respiratory Zone Structures
Begins as the terminal bronchioles which feed into the respiratory bronchioles which end in the alveoli chambers where gas exchange (external respiration) takes place.

37 Alveoli Composed of simple squamous – much thinner than a sheet of paper Membrane has gas on one side and blood on the other. Account for the largest portion of lung volume and provide a tremendous surface area for gas exchange

38 Alveoli Gas exchanges occur through simple diffusion
Approximate surface area = square meters (40x greater than skin SA) A moist membrane is required so the TYPE II cuboidal cells secrete a substance called surfactant that coats the membrane & interferes with surface tension.


40 Page 4 diagram Use the text book or the internet to label the head diagram Label only the ones that have a dot on the end. Be very specific about the structures.

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