2Look at each part & see how they go together and what they look like Know your basic parts
3Major Function of Resp. System Supply the body with OxygenDispose of Carbon dioxide
4Functional Anatomy – 2 zones Respiratory zone:Actual site of gas exchange(some exchange - Respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts) alveoli (major site)
5Functional Anatomy – 2 zones Conducting zone:Conduits – purify, humidify, and warm incoming airInclude all other respiratory passageways
6Nose – 5 functions Provide airway for respiration Moisten & warm air Filter air (mucus & cilia) (breath in thru nose & out thru mouth)Site of olfactory (smell) receptorsResonating chamber for sound waves (hold your nose closed & see how you sound!)
7Cilia & Goblet CellsMucus traps the “junk” and the cilia sweeps it up toward your throat so you can swallow it or spit it out.Smoking kills cilia so smoker’s constantly have to cough to clear the mucus out!
8Cold day = Runny noseThe cilia in your nose become sluggish & slow when they are cold & do not move the mucus down into your throatMucus in the nasal cavity accumulates & dribbles out
9Nasal ConchaeNasal Conchae aka. NasalTurbinates= increase SA of mucosa exposed to air to help warm & filter it – also increase turbulence (mini tornado effect) of air – more inhaled particles swirled onto mucus and trapped
10Nasal CavityNasal cavity separated from oral cavity by the palate (roof of mouth)Anterior – hard palatePosterior – soft palate
11Paranasal sinuses functions Lighten skullAct a resonance chamberProduce mucus
13Check this out! (do not try this at home or in this classroom!) The Human BlockheadClick through the different pages to see all the info
14Pharynx – 3 basic partsPharynx serves as common passageway for food (& fluids) and air.Color code the 3 parts of the pharynx on the diagram in your notesThe names give you location clues!
15Pharynx – 3 basic parts Nasopharynx – air only During swallowing, Soft palate & uvula rise upward to close off nasopharynx which prevents food & fluids from entering itOropharynx & Laryngopharynx – food, liquids & airFood will be directed posteriorly to the esophagusAir will go anteriorly into the larynx
16Tonsils (think about the name – it tells you the location) Pharyngeal tonsils: aka. Adenoids – located in nasopharynxPalatine tonsils: located in oropharynxLingual tonsils: located at base of tongueAll tonsils are lymph nodes & work with immune systemYou will be labeling these on the back page diagram
17Larynx – 3 Functions Provides patent (open) airway Act as a switching mechanism (between respiratory & digestive systems)Voice production (location of vocal cords)
18Adam’s apple Know this: Laryngeal prominence on the thyroid cartilage Seen externally as Adam’s apple
20Epiglottis 9th cartilage When air is flowing into the larynx – free edge projects upwardDuring swallowing:Larynx is pulled upwardEpiglottis is tipped back and down to cover laryngeal inlet into tracheaRoutes food/fluid into esophagus
21Cough Reflex Initiated if anything other than air enters the larynx Pressure from air moves object upward out of the larynxReflex does not work when unconscious so not a good idea:To give fluids to an unconscious personAlso a reason why people in an alcoholic coma often die from aspirating their own vomit.
22Trachea (Windpipe)The ciliated mucosa (mucociliary escalator) continuously propels the mucus which contains dust particles and debris to the throat so it can be expelled or swallowed.
23Smoking Diminishes ciliary activity Coughing is ONLY method of preventing mucus accumulation in the lungsSmokers should never be given medications that INHIBIT the cough reflex.
25ReinforcementTrachea is reinforced internally by C shaped rings (Be able to explain – see diagram on next slide also)Outer portion of C – causes trachea to stay patent (open) and not collapseInner portion (open part) of C – allow trachea to be flexible and gives esophagus a place to expand into upon swallowing.
27Heimlich manuver is the same principle as a cough Used to press air out of lungs in case someone cannot inhale to initiate a cough
28Tracheostomy -ostomy = cut a hole into Used in cases of: Abnormalities CancersObstructionsInjuries to areaEtc.
29Bronchial TreeTrachea divides into right and left primary bronchi at the level of the sternal angle (where manubrium and body of sternum meet).Inhaled objects usually lodge in the right primary bronchus since it is wider, shorter, and at a more vertical angle
31LungsLeft lung is smaller, consisting of 2 lobes and contains a cardiac notchRight lung has 3 lobesFYI: Bronchopulmonary segmentsServed by own artery, vein, and individual segmental bronchusLeft lung has 8 segments while right lung has 10.
33The lungs weigh approximately 2.5 pounds FYI: Important InfoRespiratory therapists and surgeons use this info about the different bronchopulmonary segments so they can treat the patient as neededEven to the point of removing the diseased segment and leaving the good tissueThe lungs weigh approximately 2.5 pounds
34Pleurae: Review Parietal vs. visceral Function of pleural fluid Lubricate layers so they can slide across each otherCause them to cling tightly to each other through surface tension (helps maintain pressure differences necessary for inhaling/exhaling)
36Respiratory Zone Structures Begins as the terminal bronchioles which feed into the respiratory bronchioles which end in the alveoli chambers where gas exchange (external respiration) takes place.
37AlveoliComposed of simple squamous – much thinner than a sheet of paperMembrane has gas on one side and blood on the other.Account for the largest portion of lung volume and provide a tremendous surface area for gas exchange
38Alveoli Gas exchanges occur through simple diffusion Approximate surface area = square meters (40x greater than skin SA)A moist membrane is required so the TYPE II cuboidal cells secrete a substance called surfactant that coats the membrane & interferes with surface tension.