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COLORADO HISTORY Mr s. Bier. Ancestral Puebloans (The Anasazi) ·In about 550, the first Ancestral Puebloans arrived in the southwestern part of Colorado.

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Presentation on theme: "COLORADO HISTORY Mr s. Bier. Ancestral Puebloans (The Anasazi) ·In about 550, the first Ancestral Puebloans arrived in the southwestern part of Colorado."— Presentation transcript:


2 Ancestral Puebloans (The Anasazi) ·In about 550, the first Ancestral Puebloans arrived in the southwestern part of Colorado ·They were formerly nomadic, transitioned from hunting and gathering to farming ·They were known as “the Basket-makers” for their skill

3 Ancestral Puebloans (The Anasazi) ·At first, the Ancestral Puebloans lived in pit houses ·By 1000, they were living in impressive “cliff houses” with ceremonial rooms called “kivas” ·By 1300, they had left the area and to go south ·Historians are uncertain as to why they left

4 European Explorers ·In 1541, the first European to arrive was Francisco Vásquez de Coronado who was searching for the Seven Cities of Cibola ·In 1682, La Salle claimed all of the area now known as Colorado east of the Rocky Mountains for France

5 European Explorers ·In 1706, Juan de Ulibarri and his men camped near present-day Pueblo and claimed the area for Spain ·Juan Maria Rivera led a Spanish expedition into San Juan and Sangre de Cristo Mountains in search of gold and silver in 1765

6 Native Americans ·Many Native American groups lived in Colorado - The Utes lived in the mountains - The Cheyenne and Arapahoe resided on the plains from the Arkansas to the Platte rivers - The Kiowas and Comanches lived south of the Arkansas River - The Pawnee tribe hunted buffalo along the Republican River - The Sioux sometimes hunted in the outskirts of the Cheyenne and Arapahoe lands.

7 Early 19th Century ·In 1803, President Jefferson signed for the Louisiana Purchase which included present-day Colorado ·In 1806, Zebulon Pike and a small party of U.S. soldiers sent to explore southwestern boundary of Louisiana Purchase. Here, he discovered the peak that bears his name, and reached the Arkansas River near Leadville ·In 1807, Pike crosses Sangre de Cristo Mountains to Conejos River in San Luis Valley and builds Pike's Stockade; placed under nominal arrest by Spanish authorities and taken to Santa Fe; later, he and his men are released

8 Early 19th Century ·In 1820, Major Stephen H. Long is sent by President Monroe to explore southwestern boundary of the Louisiana Purchase ·Long's party came up the South Platte River ·Long's Peak named for him ·Dr. Edwin James, the historian of Long's expedition, leads first recorded ascent of Pike's Peak. James Peak, west of Denver, is named for him

9 The Fur Trade ·Tall hats made out of beaver pelts were very popular in Europe ·During the 1820s and 1830s, men arrived in Colorado to trap beaver ·Some famous fur-traders, trappers and Mountain Men included: the Bent brothers, Ceran St.Vrain, Louis Vasquez, Kit Carson, Jim Baker, James Bridger, Thomas Fitzpatrick, "Uncle Dick" Wooten, and Jim Beckworth - all of whom established posts in Arkansas and South Platte Valleys

10 Bent's Fort ·In 1832, Bent's Fort was built by the Bent Brothers and Ceran St. Vrain ·It is located near present-day La Junta ·Was one of the most important trading posts in the West

11 Mexican Involvement ·During the 1840s, Mexico granted lands to south of the Arkansas Valley and in the San Luis Valley to the wealthy in hopes of securing claims against Texas or America. ·In 1846, General Stephen W. Kearney leads the Army of the West along Santa Fe Trail through southeastern Colorado on the way to conquer New Mexico during Mexican War ·In 1848, with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico cedes most of the part of Colorado not acquired by Louisiana Purchase to the United States

12 1850s ·In 1850, the Federal Government purchased Texas' claims in Colorado, and present boundaries of Colorado were established ·In 1851, the first permanent non-Indian settlement in Colorado is founded at Conejos in San Luis Valley; settlers begin using irrigation; and Fort Massachusetts established in San Luis Valley to protect settlers from Native Americans ·In 1854, treaties with Native American groups proved unsatisfactory, which resulted in conflict as the Utes kill fifteen inhabitants of Fort Pueblo on Christmas Day

13 Gold! ·In 1858, Green Russell's discovered small placer gold deposits near the meeting of South Platte River and Cherry Creek ·Montana City, St. Charles, Auraria, and Denver City are founded on present site of Denver ·On November 6, two hundred men meet here to organize County of Arapahoe, Kansas Territory ·This begins the gold rush from the East and "Pikes Peak or Bust" slogan

14 ·In 1859, Gold is found by George A. Jackson along Chicago Creek on the present site of Idaho Springs Gold! ·April 23, first newspaper in the region, the Rocky Mountain News, is published by William N. Byers ·May 6, John Gregory makes famous gold-lode strike on North Clear Creek, causing a rush of prospectors, who establish camps of Black Hawk, Central City and Nevadaville ·October 3, O.J. Goldrick opens the first school, at Auraria ·The Jefferson Territory is organized without the sanction of Congress to govern gold camps; officers are elected ·Prospectors spread through mountains and establish camps at Boulder, Colorado City, Gold Hill, Hamilton, Tarryall, and Pueblo.

15 1860s ·In 1860, rich placer discoveries cause stampede of miners to California Gulch on present site of Leadville ·In 1861, Congress establishes Colorado Territory with the boundaries of the present state, and President Lincoln appoints William Gilpin as first Territorial governor ·In 1862, Golden was chosen as the first capital ·In 1864, the Sand Creek Massacre occurs ·In 1867, Denver established as permanent seat of government by territorial legislature meeting in Golden

16 1870s ·In 1870, the Denver and Pacific Railroad is constructed to connect Denver with the Union Pacific at Cheyenne, Wyoming ·In 1871, Colorado Springs is founded by General William J. Palmer ·In 1876, Colorado is admitted to Union as 38th State ·In 1877, the University of Colorado at Boulder opens classes, with two teachers and 44 students

17 ·In 1892, the Denver Post established and H. C. Brown opens Brown Palace Hotel in Denver ·In 1881, Tabor Opera House opens in Denver, built by H.A.W. Tabor, famous Leadville capitalist ·In 1906, the United States Mint in Denver issues its first coins ·In 1894, Colorado is second state in the nation to extend suffrage to women, following the precedent set by Wyoming Turn of the Century

18 ·In 1942, the federal government established Amache, a camp for Japanese-Americans who were interned and relocated from their homes on the West Coast The 20th Century ·In 1958, the United States Air Force Academy is build near Colorado Springs ·In 1960, Colorado gets the Denver Broncos professional football team ·In 1967, the Denver Rockets become Colorado's professional American Basketball Association team; in 1974 they are renamed the Denver Nuggets

19 The 20th Century ·In 1973, the Eisenhower Tunnel is built beneath the Continental Divide ·In 1974, desegregation of schools in Denver begins as busing attempts to achieve racial balance ·In 1993, the Colorado Rockies become first regional major league baseball team ·In 1995, the Quebec Nordiques National Hockey League team moves to Colorado to become the Colorado Avalanche

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