Presentation on theme: "Marilyn Anne (Dee) Ray PhD, RN, CTN-A"— Presentation transcript:
1 Marilyn Anne (Dee) Ray PhD, RN, CTN-A Florida Atlantic University Emeritus ProfessorLinda Cassidy MSN, EdM, APRN-CNS, CCNS, CCRN-CSC
2 Early Life Experience Born in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Family of six childrenAge 15, a nurse saved her father while hospitalized for a serious illnessInfluenced decision to be a nurse
3 Education – experience Nursing Diploma (Registered Nurse), St. Joseph's Hospital School of Nursing Hamilton, Canada 1958University of California Medical Center, Los AngelesObstetrics and gynecologyEmergency departmentCardiac and critical care (adults and children)Developed interest in diverse culturesBachelor of Science (BSN), Nursing, University of Colorado School of Nursing Denver, Colorado 1968
4 Education –experience Master of Science (MS), Maternal/Child Nursing, University of Colorado School of Nursing Denver, Colorado 1969Met Dr. Madeline Leininger (first nurse anthropologist)Developed interest in anthropologyStudied children’s hospital as a small cultureClinical Practice – children and adultsCritical careRenal dialysisFirst teaching position:University of California San FranciscoDr. Barney Glaser and Dr. Anselm StraussGrounded TheoryDeveloped interest in qualitative research1971 – traveled to Mexico to study anthropology and health – field work in small villages (learned of life of aboriginal people)1972 – returned to Canada to be close to familyOccupational healthNeonatal Intensive care
5 Education – experience Master of Arts (MA), Cultural Anthropology, McMaster University Hamilton, Canada 1978Studied:human relationshipsdecision makingConflictHospital as an organizational cultureDoctor of Philosophy (PhD), Transcultural Nursing, University of Utah College of Nursing Salt Lake City, Utah, 1981 First transcultural doctoral program in the USDoctoral Dissertation “A Study of Caring Within An Institutional Culture”
6 Education – experience One of the co-founders of International Association for Human Caring (IAHC) 1978University of Colorado 1981Jean WatsonDeveloped interest in phenomenologyDissertation Chair for Dr. Alice DavidsonScience of ComplexityFlorida Atlantic University 1989Retired 2004Professor Emerita
7 Military Service Mid 1960s – US Citizen Joined USAF Reserve, Nurse CorpGraduated as flight nurse from School of Aerospace Medicine – Brooks Air Force Base, San Antonio, TxAeromedical evacuation nurse – served in the Vietnam war...“our job was to bring the boys home”Served in Air Force for over 30 years1990 – First nurse to go to Soviet Union with Aerospace Medical Association1991 – called to active duty during first Persian Gulf WarRetired as Colonial
8 Major Influences Scholars from many disciplines: Nursing (Watson, Boykin, etc.)Anthropology (Leininger and many in program)Sociology (Glasser and Strauss)EconomicsPhysicsPhilosophy (Hegel, Husserl, Weber, etc.)James (Jim) Droesbeke - inspiration, friend, soul mate, and the love of her life.
9 The Philosophy of Hegel Greatly influenced Ray’s WorkHegel’s dialectic (way of reasoning) – “interrelationship between thesis, antithesis, and synthesis”Thesis of beingAntithesis (opposite) non-beingReconciled emerging (synthesis) into a unitive form of beingRay’s theoryImplies that there is a dialectical relationship (thesis, antithesis, and synthesis)between:Thesis of Caring: Human (person and nurse dimensions of spiritual – ethical caringAntithesis of Caring: Organizational (bureaucracy) culture – technological, economic, political, legal, socialSynthesized into bureaucratic theory (process is a transformation and it continues to repeat itself – continually changing, emerging and transforming)Georg Wilhelm Friedrich HegelGerman idealismInterests were logic, aesthetics, history
10 Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic caring Originated as a grounded theoryDifferential caring emerged as a substantive theoryCaring in organizations is complexThe meaning of caring is contextual – it varies depending on department and depending upon unit within nursingCaring has different meanings depending on specific goals and valuesBureaucratic caring emerged as formal theory – represents the dynamic structure of caring within the complex organizationDissertation Research (1981)involved the use of:Grounded theory methodology to generate theoriesPhenomenology to determining meaning of the experienceEthnography to study patterns in organizational cultureQuestion – “What is the meaning of caring to you”Substantive theory – middle range level of abstraction. It is specific to the problem or phenomenon and links to higher, more abstract formal theoryDifferential Caring:Nurses
11 Ray’s Theories Differential Caring Bureaucratic Caring Caring varies by area or practiceNurses in ICU value technological caringNurses in oncology value humanistic or spiritual caringNurses value caring in terms of relationshipAdministrators value caring in terms of economics, legality, politics etc.Dynamic structure of caring within complex organizationContinually evolving and transforming“The logical connectedness of caring to the cosmopolitan social order demonstrates that the Theory of Bureaucratic is unifying rather than alienating” (Ray, 2013)
12 A Study of Caring Within An Institutional Culture Marilyn Anne Ray1981Original Grounded Theory
14 Complex Organizational Cultures Ray’s Theory of Bureaucratic Caring Present Model:Holographic“interconnectedness of all things”Holography means that the whole (implicit order) and the parts (explicit order) are interconnected. Everything is whole in one context and part in another with each part being in the whole and the whole being in the part.
15 Spiritual –Ethical caring Holism and integration of body, mind, spiritSpirituality of CaringCreativityChoiceRevealed in attachment, love, communityEthics of CaringMoral obligation to othersNot treating people as a means to an end but rather as people who have the capacity to make choices (Turkel, 2007)
16 Ray’s OnGoing WorkRequests from all over the world to use Bureaucratic Theory in professional practice modelsOngoing developing of Theory of Bureaucratic CaringComplexity Science/Complexity TheoryTranscultural nursingTechnological caringContinual enhancement of nursing scholarshipMentorship of others
17 Marilyn (Dee) RayCaring and love are synonymous. Inquiring about caring touches the heart and translates through the soul, the "speaking together" between the one caring and the one cared for, the shifting of consciousness from a focus on "they" or "I" to a compassionate “we”.
18 ReFerences Personal correspondence July 6, 2013 Coffman, S. (2010). Theory of bureaucratic caring. In Alligood, M.A. & Tomey, A.M. (Eds.), Nursing theorists and their work, (pp ). Maryland Heights, Missouri: Mosby Elsevier.Davidson, A.W., Ray, M.A. & Turkel, M.C. (2011). Nursing caring and complexity science. New York, NY.: Springer Publishing Company.Ray, M.A. (2013). The theory of bureaucratic caring for nursing practice in organizational culture. In Smith, M.C., Turkel, M.C. & Wolf, A.R., Caring in nursing classics, (pp ). New York, N.Y.: Springer Publishing Co.
19 ReferencesRay, M.A. (2010/1981). A study of caring within an institutional culture. USA: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.Turkel, M.C. (2007). Dr. Marilyn Ray’s theory of bureaucratic caring. International Journal for Human Caring, 11,
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