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Dekalb County Fire Rescue Department

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Presentation on theme: "Dekalb County Fire Rescue Department"— Presentation transcript:

1 Dekalb County Fire Rescue Department
Bill Craddock Firefighter Safety and Survival

2 Objectives Discuss reasons for firefighter fatalities
Identify Causes of Firefighter injuries and Deaths Define Mayday Discuss the parameters of a Mayday Discuss the IC responsibilities when a Mayday is call Identify what to do when you call a Mayday Discuss and practice Self Rescue Techniques

3 Firefighter Down

4 Video of Downed Firefighter

5 On-Duty Firefighter Fatalities: (1977-2005)
Year Deaths Year Deaths Year Deaths 1995……96 1994……104 1993……77 1992……75 1991……109 1990……108 1989……119 1988……136 1987……131 1986……121 1985……126 1984……119 1983……113 1982……125 1981……135 1980……140 1979……126 1978……171 1977……157 2005……115 2004……117 2003……112 2002…...100 2001……441 2000……102 1999……112 1998……91 1997……94 1996……95

6 Reasons for Firefighter Deaths and Injuries
Ineffective size-up Improper strategic and tactical decisions Absence of an effective emergency rescue plan Lack of training Poor judgment

7 Other Identified Causes of Injuries and Deaths
Failure to recognize rapidly deteriorating conditions Inexperienced Officers Failure to use safety equipment Loss of water supply Freelancing

8 Sudden Unexpected Events
Lost/trapped or unaccounted for firefighter Flashover Backdraft Rapid fire increase Explosion Collapse Cardiac Emergency

9 Can’t Happen Right? You've carefully thought out all the angles.
You've done it a thousand times. This is a routine fire. It comes naturally to you. You are confident. You know what you're doing, its what you've been trained to do. Nothing could possibly go wrong, right ?

10 Think Again!!!!

11 The life you save may be your own…
The MAYDAY CALL The life you save may be your own…


13 What is a Mayday It is used internationally as a distress signal in voice procedure radio communications. It is used to signal a life-threatening emergency by many groups, such as pilots (marine and air), police and fire personnel, and transportation organizations

14 What is a Mayday (cont.) The call is always given three times in a row. Mayday, Mayday, Mayday !!! This prevents mistaking it for some similar-sounding phrase under noisy conditions. It means HELP ME

15 Reasons Firefighters Don’t Call a Mayday
Pride Overconfident Denial Lack of Communication/ Radio Traffic

16 Reasons To Call A Mayday

17 Defining the parameters of a “Mayday”
The “if” – “then” approach; call a Mayday if: You fall through the roof You fall through the floor You become tangled, stuck or pinned and can not free yourself quickly You are caught in a flashover You become lost or disorientated and you can not find the exit door or window quickly

18 Defining the parameters of a “Mayday”
Your primary exit is blocked by fire or collapse and you are not at the secondary exit in 30 seconds Your partner collapses Start them early, Cancel them if not needed

19 Case Scenario An examination of three Seattle near-misses uncovered some disturbing similarities None of the firefighters in distress called a Mayday None of their partners called a Mayday Nobody activated their emergency button None of the crew leaders activated their pass

20 Case Scenario cont.. Seattle findings cont’d
None of their partners activated their pass Each firefighter became separated from his partner Each firefighter ran out of air Each firefighter suffered debilitating effects from carbon monoxide

21 What information should I give the IC when I find myself in a Mayday situation?
LUNAR L – Location U – Unit N – Name A –Air (you and partner) R – Resources (What do I need to help me)

22 What to do if you find yourself in trouble…
Do not panic. Stop and think about what is occurring, your location in the building and how you got there. This may help you find your way out. Keep your company together. Discuss your problem and share information. Admit that you are lost and call for help with the radio and verbally to those that may be near.

23 What to do if you find yourself in trouble…
Follow a hose line or lifeline. After you send the Mayday communication, activate your PASS device in a manner that will not interfere with the rescue. Conserve your air supply. (Air Conservation Drill) Shine your light and position your PASS to be most effective. Make noises with a tool.

24 What to do if you find yourself in trouble…
Search for an opening. Create an opening. Wall Climb Most residential structures have exterior walls that are easy to breach.

25 Incident Commander Responsibilities
Stay calm Immediately obtain situation information L.U.N.A.R. Identify primary hazards to trapped firefighters Immediately move fire ground communications to another TAC channel Immediately call for more equipment Call a PAR

26 STANDARDIZED ACTIONS of a Lost / Disoriented Firefighter
Control your P.A.S.S. device Initiate a the “Mayday!” call L-Location U-Unit N-Name A-Air (you and partner) R-Resources (needs) Monitor radio / Update Command Use flashlight to signal Use tools or debris to alert rescuers Stay calm, conserve your air supply Stay with your partner or crew

27 STANDARDIZED ACTIONS of a Lost / Disoriented Firefighter
Attempt to locate an exit – Seek area of refuge Move towards visible light Listen for audible sounds Search walls for windows, doors, etc. Search for hose line (Read couplings) Attempt to locate a life line Create an exit or opening Go down steps unless in a basement or sub-floor Assume defensive posture Right lateral side Protect face piece with gloves

28 Self Rescue Techniques
Breach a Wall Use Bail Out Rope Ladder Bailout

29 Personal Equipment for Rescue
Door chocks Medical shears or tin snips Lifeline Rescue sling/webbing Bail Out Rope

30 Outdoor Drills Air Consumption / Conservation Drill
Airpack Emergencies / Familiarization Rapid Location of a Window, Clearing window and First Floor Bailout Disentanglement Drill Wall Breach / Wall Climb Ladder Bailouts – “hook 2 reach for 4” Rope Bailouts Boot Rappel Body Rappel

31 Be safe and don’t get hurt
Outdoor Drills WE TRAIN AS WE FIGHT You need all your PPE Hustle Show Support Be safe and don’t get hurt HAVE FUN

32 Get out of the Classroom

33 Rapid Intervention Team Day II (RIT / FAST)
Objectives: Define what is RIT / FAST Recommendations by NIOSH Identify your responsibilities when assigned RIT List equipment necessary for RIT Discuss the two phases of RIT What to do in RIT activation? Discuss ways to communicate during a RIT activation Discuss techniques to rescue a downed firefighter

34 Definitions R.I.T. Rapid Intervention Team
F.A.S.T. Fire Fighter Assist & Search Team R.I.C. Rapid Intervention Crew I.R.I. Immediate Response Team F.R.A.T. Firefighter Rescue Available Team R.D.U Rapid Deployment Unit GO-TEAM

35 Why RIT / FAST Too many firefighters have died needlessly. Their deaths should make us think. In most cases, something prevented their escape or their deaths were caused by something that could have been avoided. The concept and tools for accessing and removing a downed firefighter are the same philosophies that we use to remove trapped occupants. RIT/FAST does not take specialized tools and techniques 99% of the time.

36 NFPA 1500 Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program
NFPA major recommendations: Teams entering should operate in teams of two or more ARE TWO(2) ENOUGH??? Team members in hazardous areas shall be in communication with each other through visual, audible or physical means or safety guide rope Minimum team of four members – two in and two out

37 NIOSH Preventing Injuries and Deaths of Fire Fighters
NIOSH recommendations for firefighters: Employ “buddy” system whenever firefighters wear SCBA’s Never allow Firefighters to enter hazardous area alone Remain in contact Two firefighters should form a rescue team stationed outside the hazardous area

38 NIOSH Preventing Injuries and Deaths of Fire Fighters
NIOSH recommendations for IC responsibilities: Initial size-up and risk assessment Personnel accountability Establishing a RIT and ensuring they are in a position to respond efficiently

39 OSHA says… At least two properly outfitted firefighters outside:
Must be positioned outside the IDLH atmosphere Must account for the interior team(s) Must remain capable of rapid rescue of the interior team(s) Are two enough ??

40 Equipment for initial RIT/FAST
PPE SCBA with MASK Hose line Flashlight Portable radio RIT bag TIC Basic Forcible Entry/Egress Tools

41 RIT/FAST Support Equipment
Additional SCBA Hose line Ladders, Saws, Extra Rope, Specialized Equipment based on request from initial entry team (resources). “The initial RIT/FAST team should communicate any additional resources required to extricate the downed firefighter to the IC.”

42 RIT Activation It’s time to go to work!
The access points should already be determined. Obtain a L.U.N.A.R. Communicate with the downed firefighter. Listen for a PASS device. Follow a hose line if the firefighter was part of fire attack.

43 RIT/FAST Communications
Rescue operations remain on original TAC channel and all other operations move to another fire ground TAC channel. This ensures the downed firefighter, RIT/FAST, and the designated RIT/FAST commander to be operating on same channel. NO UNNESSESARY RADIO TRAFFIC

44 Access to the firefighter
Obtain a L.U.N.A.R. Take the shortest and safest route based on info Use a search rope and a TIC Firefighter with the TIC feeds the rope Firefighters in back carry equipment Firefighter up front stays in contact with firefighter with the TIC. This firefighter does not carry the TIC because he or she may need to move obstacles and clear the path.

45 You’ve reached the firefighter, now what?
Get firefighter to a non hostile/safer area. Check for breathing Check SCBA for air level and functionality Give a L.U.N.A.R. to the IC Get fresh air to the firefighter if needed Call for more help Remove the firefighter

46 Additional RIT/FAST Duties
Assist with accountability Monitor access to the hazard area Establish a secondary means of egress Throw Ladders Establish emergency lighting Rope off the hazard area Control utilities

47 Fire Ground Operations Continue
Remember Fire Ground Operations Continue When someone is trapped and the fire is put out 98% of the problem is removed. NOW the trapped victim (Firefighter, or civilian) needs only air to survive. Removal/disentanglement/extrication could take a long time. REMOVE THE HAZARD

48 Outdoor Drills Searches Packaging Drags and Carries Grid Fan
Mass Area Searches Packaging Drags and Carries (1 and 2 Firefighter) Ladder, Hooks, other tools Webbing Girth Hitch Handcuff Hitch Airpack Slings

49 Outdoor Drills cont.. Getting Victim into the window for removal
Lifting techniques Ladders and Pike Poles as Fulcrums Denver Drill

50 Bottom Line DO YOUR JOB!!!!!!!!

51 In Memory William “Bill” Craddock

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