Presentation on theme: "Dekalb County Fire Rescue Department"— Presentation transcript:
1Dekalb County Fire Rescue Department Bill CraddockFirefighter Safety and Survival
2Objectives Discuss reasons for firefighter fatalities Identify Causes of Firefighter injuries and DeathsDefine MaydayDiscuss the parameters of a MaydayDiscuss the IC responsibilities when a Mayday is callIdentify what to do when you call a MaydayDiscuss and practice Self Rescue Techniques
5On-Duty Firefighter Fatalities: (1977-2005) Year DeathsYear DeathsYear Deaths1995……961994……1041993……771992……751991……1091990……1081989……1191988……1361987……1311986……1211985……1261984……1191983……1131982……1251981……1351980……1401979……1261978……1711977……1572005……1152004……1172003……1122002…...1002001……4412000……1021999……1121998……911997……941996……95
6Reasons for Firefighter Deaths and Injuries Ineffective size-upImproper strategic and tactical decisionsAbsence of an effective emergency rescue planLack of trainingPoor judgment
7Other Identified Causes of Injuries and Deaths Failure to recognize rapidly deteriorating conditionsInexperienced OfficersFailure to use safety equipmentLoss of water supplyFreelancing
8Sudden Unexpected Events Lost/trapped or unaccounted for firefighterFlashoverBackdraftRapid fire increaseExplosionCollapseCardiac Emergency
9Can’t Happen Right? You've carefully thought out all the angles. You've done it a thousand times.This is a routine fire.It comes naturally to you.You are confident.You know what you're doing, its what you've been trained to do.Nothing could possibly go wrong, right ?
13What is a MaydayIt is used internationally as a distress signal in voice procedure radio communications.It is used to signal a life-threatening emergency by many groups, such as pilots (marine and air), police and fire personnel, and transportation organizations
14What is a Mayday (cont.)The call is always given three times in a row.Mayday, Mayday, Mayday !!!This prevents mistaking it for some similar-sounding phrase under noisy conditions.It means HELP ME
15Reasons Firefighters Don’t Call a Mayday PrideOverconfidentDenialLack of Communication/ Radio Traffic
16Reasons To Call A Mayday FALLCOLLAPSETRAPPED / CAUGHTLOST
17Defining the parameters of a “Mayday” The “if” – “then” approach; call a Mayday if:You fall through the roofYou fall through the floorYou become tangled, stuck or pinned and can not free yourself quicklyYou are caught in a flashoverYou become lost or disorientated and you can not find the exit door or window quickly
18Defining the parameters of a “Mayday” Your primary exit is blocked by fire or collapse and you are not at the secondary exit in 30 secondsYour partner collapsesStart them early, Cancel them if not needed
19Case ScenarioAn examination of three Seattle near-misses uncovered some disturbing similaritiesNone of the firefighters in distress called a MaydayNone of their partners called a MaydayNobody activated their emergency buttonNone of the crew leaders activated their pass
20Case Scenario cont.. Seattle findings cont’d None of their partners activated their passEach firefighter became separated from his partnerEach firefighter ran out of airEach firefighter suffered debilitating effects from carbon monoxide
21What information should I give the IC when I find myself in a Mayday situation? LUNARL – LocationU – UnitN – NameA –Air (you and partner)R – Resources (What do I need to help me)
22What to do if you find yourself in trouble… Do not panic. Stop and think about what is occurring, your location in the building and how you got there. This may help you find your way out.Keep your company together. Discuss your problem and share information.Admit that you are lost and call for help with the radio and verbally to those that may be near.
23What to do if you find yourself in trouble… Follow a hose line or lifeline.After you send the Mayday communication, activate your PASS device in a manner that will not interfere with the rescue.Conserve your air supply. (Air Conservation Drill)Shine your light and position your PASS to be most effective.Make noises with a tool.
24What to do if you find yourself in trouble… Search for an opening.Create an opening.Wall ClimbMost residentialstructures haveexterior walls thatare easy to breach.
25Incident Commander Responsibilities Stay calmImmediately obtain situation informationL.U.N.A.R.Identify primary hazards to trapped firefightersImmediately move fire ground communications to another TAC channelImmediately call for more equipmentCall a PAR
26STANDARDIZED ACTIONS of a Lost / Disoriented Firefighter Control your P.A.S.S. deviceInitiate a the “Mayday!” callL-LocationU-UnitN-NameA-Air (you and partner)R-Resources (needs)Monitor radio / Update CommandUse flashlight to signalUse tools or debris to alert rescuersStay calm, conserve your air supplyStay with your partner or crew
27STANDARDIZED ACTIONS of a Lost / Disoriented Firefighter Attempt to locate an exit – Seek area of refugeMove towards visible lightListen for audible soundsSearch walls for windows, doors, etc.Search for hose line (Read couplings)Attempt to locate a life lineCreate an exit or openingGo down steps unless in a basement or sub-floorAssume defensive postureRight lateral sideProtect face piece with gloves
28Self Rescue Techniques Breach a WallUse Bail Out RopeLadder Bailout
29Personal Equipment for Rescue Door chocksMedical shears or tin snipsLifelineRescue sling/webbingBail Out Rope
30Outdoor Drills Air Consumption / Conservation Drill Airpack Emergencies / FamiliarizationRapid Location of a Window, Clearing window and First Floor BailoutDisentanglement DrillWall Breach / Wall ClimbLadder Bailouts – “hook 2 reach for 4”Rope BailoutsBoot RappelBody Rappel
31Be safe and don’t get hurt Outdoor DrillsWE TRAIN AS WE FIGHTYou need all your PPEHustleShow SupportBe safe and don’t get hurtHAVE FUN
33Rapid Intervention Team Day II (RIT / FAST) Objectives:Define what is RIT / FASTRecommendations by NIOSHIdentify your responsibilities when assigned RITList equipment necessary for RITDiscuss the two phases of RITWhat to do in RIT activation?Discuss ways to communicate during a RIT activationDiscuss techniques to rescue a downed firefighter
34Definitions R.I.T. Rapid Intervention Team F.A.S.T. Fire Fighter Assist & Search TeamR.I.C. Rapid Intervention CrewI.R.I. Immediate Response TeamF.R.A.T. Firefighter Rescue Available TeamR.D.U Rapid Deployment UnitGO-TEAM
35Why RIT / FASTToo many firefighters have died needlessly. Their deaths should make us think. In most cases, something prevented their escape or their deaths were caused by something that could have been avoided.The concept and tools for accessing and removing a downed firefighter are the same philosophies that we use to remove trapped occupants.RIT/FAST does not take specialized tools and techniques 99% of the time.
36NFPA 1500 Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program NFPA major recommendations:Teams entering should operate in teams of two or moreARE TWO(2) ENOUGH???Team members in hazardous areas shall be in communication with each other through visual, audible or physical means or safety guide ropeMinimum team of four members – two in and two out
37NIOSH Preventing Injuries and Deaths of Fire Fighters NIOSH recommendations for firefighters:Employ “buddy” system whenever firefighters wear SCBA’sNever allow Firefighters to enter hazardous area aloneRemain in contactTwo firefighters should form a rescue team stationed outside the hazardous area
38NIOSH Preventing Injuries and Deaths of Fire Fighters NIOSH recommendations for IC responsibilities:Initial size-up and risk assessmentPersonnel accountabilityEstablishing a RIT and ensuring they are in a position to respond efficiently
39OSHA says… At least two properly outfitted firefighters outside: Must be positioned outside the IDLH atmosphereMust account for the interior team(s)Must remain capable of rapid rescue of the interior team(s)Are two enough ??
40Equipment for initial RIT/FAST PPESCBA with MASKHose lineFlashlightPortable radioRIT bagTICBasic ForcibleEntry/EgressTools
41RIT/FAST Support Equipment Additional SCBAHose lineLadders, Saws, Extra Rope,Specialized Equipment based on request from initial entry team (resources).“The initial RIT/FAST team should communicateany additional resources required to extricate thedowned firefighter to the IC.”
42RIT Activation It’s time to go to work! The access points should already be determined.Obtain a L.U.N.A.R.Communicate with the downed firefighter.Listen for a PASS device.Follow a hose line if the firefighter was part of fire attack.
43RIT/FAST Communications Rescue operations remain on original TAC channel and all other operations move to another fire ground TAC channel.This ensures the downed firefighter, RIT/FAST, and the designated RIT/FAST commander to be operating on same channel.NO UNNESSESARY RADIO TRAFFIC
44Access to the firefighter Obtain a L.U.N.A.R.Take the shortest and safest route based on infoUse a search rope and a TICFirefighter with the TIC feeds the ropeFirefighters in back carry equipmentFirefighter up front stays in contact with firefighter with the TIC. This firefighter does not carry the TIC because he or she may need to move obstacles and clear the path.
45You’ve reached the firefighter, now what? Get firefighter to a non hostile/safer area.Check for breathingCheck SCBA for air level and functionalityGive a L.U.N.A.R. to the ICGet fresh air to the firefighter if neededCall for more helpRemove the firefighter
46Additional RIT/FAST Duties Assist with accountabilityMonitor access to the hazard areaEstablish a secondary means of egressThrow LaddersEstablish emergency lightingRope off the hazard areaControl utilities
47Fire Ground Operations Continue RememberFire Ground Operations ContinueWhen someone is trapped and the fire is put out 98% of the problem is removed.NOW the trapped victim (Firefighter, or civilian) needs only air to survive.Removal/disentanglement/extrication could take a long time.REMOVE THE HAZARD
48Outdoor Drills Searches Packaging Drags and Carries Grid Fan Mass Area SearchesPackagingDrags and Carries(1 and 2 Firefighter)Ladder, Hooks, other toolsWebbingGirth HitchHandcuff HitchAirpack Slings
49Outdoor Drills cont.. Getting Victim into the window for removal Lifting techniquesLadders and Pike Poles as FulcrumsDenver Drill