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1 Semester 2 Module 4 Learning about Other Devices Yuda college of business James Chen

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1 1 Semester 2 Module 4 Learning about Other Devices Yuda college of business James Chen

2 2 Outline Discovering and Connecting to Neighbors Getting Information about Remote Devices

3 3 Introduction to CDP Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) is a Layer 2 protocol that connects lower physical media and upper network layer protocols. CDP is used to obtain information about neighboring devices, such as the types of devices connected, the router interfaces they are connected to, the interfaces used to make the connections, and the model numbers of the devices.

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5 5 CDP Version 2 (CDPv2) is the most recent release of the protocol. Cisco IOS (Release 12.0(3)T or later) supports CDPv2. CDP Version 1 (CDPv1) is enabled by default with Cisco IOS (Release 10.3 to 12.0(3)T).

6 6 When a Cisco device boots up, CDP starts up automatically and allows the device to detect neighboring devices that are also running CDP. It runs over the data link layer and allows two systems to learn about each other, even if they are using different network layer protocols.

7 7 Each device configured for CDP sends periodic messages, known as advertisements, to multiple routers. Each device advertises at least one address at which it can receive Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) messages. The advertisements also contain “time-to-live” or holdtime information, indicating the length of time that receiving devices should hold CDP information before discarding it. Additionally, each device listens to periodic CDP messages sent by others in order to learn about neighboring devices.

8 8 Information obtained with CDP The primary use of CDP is to discover all Cisco devices that are directly connected to a local device. Use the show cdp neighbors command to display CDP updates on the local device.

9 9 CDP provides information about each CDP neighbor device by transmitting type length values (TLVs), which are blocks of information embedded in CDP advertisements. Device TLVs displayed by the show cdp neighbors command include the following: Device ID Local Interface Holdtime Capability Platform Port ID VTP Management Domain Name (CDPv2 only) Native VLAN (CDPv2 only) Full/Half-Duplex (CDPv2 only)

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11 11 Implementation, monitoring, and maintenance of CDP The following commands are used to implement, monitor, and maintain CDP information: cdp run cdp enable clear cdp counters show cdp show cdp entry {*|device-name[*][protocol | version]} show cdp interface [type number] show cdp neighbors [type number] [detail]

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18 18 Creating a network map of the environment Though a CDP frame can be small, it can retrieve a great deal of useful information about connected neighboring Cisco devices. This information can be used to create a network map of the connected devices. Devices connected to neighboring devices can be discovered by using Telnet to connect to the neighbors, and using the show cdp neighbors command to discover what devices are connected to those neighbors.

19 19 Disabling CDP To disable CDP at the global level, use the no CDP run command in global configuration mode. If CDP is disabled globally, individual interfaces cannot be enabled for CDP.

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21 21 Troubleshooting CDP The following commands can be used to show the version, update information, tables, and traffic: clear cdp table clear cdp counters show cdp traffic show debugging debug cdp adjacency debug cdp events debug cdp ip debug cdp packets cdp timer cdp holdtime show cdp

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23 23 Outline Discovering and Connecting to Neighbors Getting Information about Remote Devices

24 24 Telnet Telnet is a virtual terminal protocol that is part of the TCP/IP protocol suite. It allows connections to be made to remote hosts. Telnet functions at the application layer of the OSI model.

25 25 A router can have multiple simultaneous incoming Telnet sessions. The range zero through four is used to specify five VTY or Telnet lines. These five incoming Telnet sessions could take place at one time.

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27 27 Establishing and verifying a Telnet connection The Telnet IOS EXEC command allows a user to Telnet from one Cisco device to another. With Cisco's implementation of TCP/IP, it is not necessary to enter the command connect or telnet to establish a Telnet connection. The hostname or the IP address of the remote router may be entered. To end a Telnet session, use the EXEC commands exit or logout.

28 28 To initiate a Telnet session any of the following alternatives can be used: Denver>connect paris Denver>paris Denver> Denver>telnet paris The Telnet connection will terminate after ten minutes of inactivity by default or when the exit command at the EXEC prompt is entered.

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31 31 Disconnecting and suspending Telnet sessions One important feature of the Telnet command is the suspend feature. However, one potential problem exists when a Telnet session is suspended and the Enter key is pressed. Cisco IOS software resumes the connection to the most recently suspended Telnet connection.

32 32 The command show sessions will show what Telnet sessions are taking place. The procedure for disconnecting a Telnet session is as follows: 1. Enter the command disconnect 2. Follow the command with the name or IP address of the router. Example: Denver>disconnect paris The procedure for suspending a Telnet session is as follows: 1. Press Ctrl-Shift-6, then x 2. Enter the name of the router or IP address

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34 34 Advanced Telnet operation A user may switch back and forth between concurrent Telnet sessions. The number of open sessions that are allowed at one time is defined by the session limit command. Multiple Telnet sessions can be used and suspended by using the Ctrl-Shift-6, then x sequence. The session can be resumed by using the Enter key. If the resume command is used it requires a connection ID. The connection ID is shown by using the show sessions command.

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36 36 Alternative connectivity tests Echo protocols are used to test whether protocol packets are being routed. The ping command sends a packet to the destination host and then waits for a reply packet from that host. Results from this echo protocol can help evaluate the path-to-host reliability, delays over the path, and whether the host can be reached or is functioning. This operation can be performed at either the user or privileged EXEC modes.

37 37 The ping target responded successfully to all five datagrams sent. The exclamation points ( ! ) indicate each successful echo. If one or more periods (. ) are received instead of exclamations on the display, the application on the router timed out waiting for a given packet echo from the ping target. The command ping uses ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol).

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39 39 The traceroute command is the ideal tool for finding where data is being sent in a network. The traceroute command is similar to the ping command, except that instead of testing end-to-end connectivity, traceroute tests each step along the way. This operation can be performed at either the user or privileged EXEC levels.

40 40 If one of these routers is unreachable, three asterisks ( * ) will be returned instead of the name of the router. The traceroute command will continue attempting to reach the next step until the Ctrl-Shift-6 escape sequence is used.

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42 42 A basic verification test also focuses on the network layer. Use the show ip route command to determine whether a routing table entry exists for the target network. This command will be discussed in more detail in a later module of this course.

43 43 Troubleshooting IP addressing issues The following three commands are used to perform address-related troubleshooting: ping uses the ICMP protocol to verify the hardware connection and the IP address of the network layer. This is a basic testing mechanism. telnet verifies the application layer software between source and destination. This is the most complete test mechanism available. traceroute allows the location of failures in the path from the source to the destination. Trace uses Time to Live values to generate messages from each router along the path.

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