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Assessment Chapter 16.

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Presentation on theme: "Assessment Chapter 16."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment Chapter 16

2 Objectives • Describe how to select and administer an appropriate assessment instrument and interpret and share assessment data • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of both norm-referenced and criterion-referenced assessment instruments • Provide a comparative example of a product-oriented versus a process-oriented assessment

3 Objectives • Describe these norm-referenced assessment instruments: Bayley III, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Basic Motor Ability Test–Revised, and Denver II • Describe these process-oriented assessment instruments: SIGMA, Developmental Sequence of Motor Skills Inventory, Fundamental Motor Pattern Assessment Instrument, and the Test of Gross Motor Development–2 • Describe two popular assessment instruments used in assessing the disabled • Identify several aids to improve your ability to acquire more valid assessment data • Describe test batteries specifically designed to assess the physical fitness of children, adolescents, adults, and senior citizens

4 “Studies suggest that many physical educators fail to assess their students’ motor behavior properly. The major reason for this is lack of training.”

5 Guidelines for Assessment
Why do you want to assess your students? What variables do you plan to assess? Which tests purport to assess the important variables that you have identified? How will you prepare yourself for collecting the data?

6 Guidelines for Assessment
Do you have the statistical skills to interpret the assessment data? Will you be conducting an informal or a formal assessment? How, and with whom, will you share the assessment results?

7 Why Assess? Screening Program content To identify needs
To determine if an individual requires further testing, additional programming, or instruction Program content Plan the content of a particular program

8 Why Assess? Student progress Program evaluation Classification
Are individuals meeting the course or program objectives? Program evaluation Is the program meeting the objectives for enhanced skill development? Classification Placement of individuals by group

9 What Variables to Assess
Instructional units that are tied to specific course objectives indicate which variables are assessed Assess variables tied to course objectives

10 Selecting the Best Test
Review all available tests Is the test statistically valid, reliable, and objective? If the test is norm-referenced, are the norms established on a population similar to the one you plan to assess?

11 Selecting the Best Test
Is the test instrument feasible to administer? Do you have the training and expertise to administer the test as well as interpret the results? Ask CPS questions 1-2 to test student comprehension

12 An Ideal Test Validity Test measures what it claims to measure
Content validity ~ the instrument contains tasks that measure specific content of interest A subjective measure

13 An Ideal Test Reliability Consistency of test scores
Individual scores do not vary significantly from day to day, assuming there has been no additional instruction Test reliability is the test score’s freedom from error Measured statistically

14 An Ideal Test Objectivity
Interrater reliability Degree of accuracy to which a test is scored Determined statistically Statistical determination is performed by computing a correlation coefficient for two sets of scores

15 An Ideal Test Correlation coefficient
A set of ratings compiled by one scorer is correlated with the scores obtained by a second scorer A correlation coefficient of 0.80 –1.00 is acceptable Caution: norms are population specific Height of American children should not be compared with the norms in height for Japanese children

16 An Ideal Test Test feasibility
Which test can be administered in the least amount of time? Must you administer the test to a single student, or can it be administered to groups? Do you have the training and expertise to administer the test?

17 An Ideal Test Test feasibility
Do you have all of the supplies and equipment needed for test administration? Do you have the training and expertise to interpret the test results? Ask CPS questions 3-5 to test student comprehension

18 Preparing Students for Assessment
To reduce test anxiety Test environment can be controlled Meet the participant’s physical needs Procedure for restroom breaks Meet the participant’s psychological needs Introduce the test with conversation Reveal what will be done during the test Avoid the word “test” Allow participants to explore the equipment

19 Instructor Preparation and Data Collection
Do you have the necessary equipment to administer the assessment? Can you deliver the standardized directions to students taking the assessment? Do you have an appropriate score sheet with extra pencils on hand?

20 Instructor Preparation and Data Collection
Are you adequately prepared to administer the assessment without constantly referring to the test manual? If assessment requires observation, do you possess valid observational skills? Are you able to recognize deviations from the norm? From what point will you observe?

21 Instructor Preparation and Data Collection
You must think through and even pilot (test run) your assessment procedures prior to administering the test to a target population Ask CPS questions 6-7 to test student comprehension

22 Interpreting the Assessment Data
Need to have an understanding of measures of central tendency and measures of variability Measures of central tendency Mean – arithmetic average Median – 50th percentile Mode – score that appears most frequently

23 Interpreting the Assessment Data
Measures of variability Describes the spread of scores A measure of variability Standard deviation – describes the degree to which the scores vary about the mean of the distribution δ = sigma (standard deviation symbol)

24 Interpreting Assessment Data
Ask CPS questions 8-9 to test student comprehension

25 Formal vs. Informal Assessment
When assessment is performed in an informal manner, the student is not generally aware that an observation is being made Playbased assessment Children are involved in free play within an approved area, but in the presence of an adult facilitator

26 Formal vs. Informal Assessment
Playbased assessment Facilitator plays along and models the child's play behavior Later, the facilitator will coax the child into exhibiting new movements During this time, an evaluation is being conducted Videotaping is recommended

27 Sharing Assessment Results
Share results with parents, fellow teachers, school nurse, other professionals Face-to-face communication is the best way to share the written evaluation Avoid using complex statistical terms or terms that the lay public would not understand Have references available for review and have program suggestions available for parents and other professionals

28 Types of Assessment Instruments
Norm-referenced Quantitative evaluations designed to compare a person’s skill and abilities with those of others from similar age, gender, and socioeconomic categories Also called psychometric instruments Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III, Gesell Developmental Schedules, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Test of Gross Motor Development-2

29 Types of Assessment Instruments
Norm-referenced Advantages Easy to administer Minimal training required to administer the test Scoring procedures are simple Compare results to others in peer group Disadvantages Provides only “average” results

30 Types of Assessment Instruments
Criterion-referenced These instruments evaluate the “quality” of a person’s performance Can determine placement of an individual along the developmental continuum Compares and individual to him/herself over time Common testing procedures for motor developmentalists

31 Types of Assessment Instruments
Criterion-referenced Advantages Provides more insight into programming considerations Provides a true developmental assessment Disadvantages More complicated to administer than norm-referenced tests

32 Types of Assessment Instruments
Product-oriented assessment The examiner is more interested in performance outcomes than the technique used to perform the task Measures quantitative outcomes How far How many Pass-fail system Score for each successful completion of a task

33 Product-vs. Process-Oriented Assessment
Requires a component approach “the identification of developmental characteristics of body parts within a task” Disadvantages A comprehensive understanding of developmental steps and a prolonged period of study and practice of the techniques is required Conducting this type of assessment within a large school population is questionable

34 Product-vs. Process-Oriented Assessment
Task Time Involved Training first observer to code* Training second observer to code 9 hours 40 min 5 hours 45 min Time needed to videotape 206 children 3 hours 17 min Time needed to code performance from videotape 18 hours 46 min * 0.80 criterion agreement

35 Product vs. Process-Oriented Assessment
Component approach assessments not feasible to use with large classes Takes too much time Appropriate for small classes Total body approach assessments more feasible with large classes Ask CPS questions to test student comprehension

36 Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III (2005) Subtests to identify deficits in young children (1-42 months) Cognitive Motor Language Social-Emotional Adaptive Behavior Motor subtests Body control Large muscle coordination Fine motor manipulatory skills Dynamic movement Dynamic praxis Postural imitation Stereognosis

37 Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) Test battery of 8 subtests with 46 items Short and long form Provides a comprehensive index of motor proficiency and individual measures of fine and gross motor skills in children 4.5 to 14.5 years of age

38 Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
Basic Motor Ability Test – Revised Designed to assess selected large and small muscle control responses Can be used with children 4 to 12 years of age Some test items: bead stringing, target throwing, back and hamstring stretch, static balance, basketball throw, agility run

39 Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
Denver II A major revision and restandardization of the original Denver Development Screening Test Designed to screen children between birth and 6 years of age for developmental delays in four areas

40 Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
Areas Personal-social Fine motor adaptive Language Gross motor Test sheet is unique Scoring: pass-fail, refusal, no opportunity to observe grading Training aids available DENVER II

41 Selected Norm-Referenced (NR) Instruments
4 AREAS of child’s development tested in Denver II Personal-social Drinking from a cup, removing one’s own garments, washing and drying hands Fine motor adaptive Ability to perform tasks as passing a block from hand to hand, stacking blocks Language Ability to imitate sounds, name body parts, define words Gross motor Ability to sit, walk, jump, throw

42 Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
SIGMA The Ohio State University Scale of Intra-Gross Motor Assessment A criterion-referenced tool designed to evaluate motor behavior of normal preschool, elementary, and young mentally retarded school children 11 fundamental motor skills in four developmental levels assessed A Performance Based Curriculum (PBC) is included with the assessment test

43 Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
Developmental Sequence of Motor Skills Inventory This analysis is based upon the configuration of the total body during performance of a task Three to five stages of behavior are observed Level of development is then classified for hopping, skipping, galloping, throwing, catching, punting, striking, kicking, long jumping

44 Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
Fundamental Motor Pattern Assessment Instrument Used to assess developmental changes over time for fundamental patterns Walking, running, jumping, throwing overhand, catching, kicking Performer is scored in one of three stages of development Initial stage, elementary stage, mature stage

45 Selected Process-Oriented Assessment Instruments
Test of Gross Motor Development – 2 Used to identify children between 3.0 and years of age who may be significantly behind in gross motor skill development and eligible for special education services Locomotor and object-control skills are evaluated Normative data stratified by age, geography, gender, race, residence Ask CPS question 12 to test student comprehension

46 Assessing the Disabled
Although individuals with selected special needs perform behind their “normal” peers, both groups follow similar patterns of development Most assessment tests are geared to the “normal” population Comparisons using normative data are inappropriate

47 Assessing the Disabled
Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development (BDIED) Criterion-referenced test with norms Assesses behaviors that are divided into 11 domains Can assess development from birth to 6 years of age Easy to administer and interpret

48 Assessing the Disabled
Brigance Diagnostic Inventory of Early Development: Assessment Categories Preambulatory motor skills and behaviors Gross motor skills and behaviors Fine motor skills and behaviors Self-help skills Prespeech behaviors Speech and language skills General knowledge and comprehension Readiness skills Basic reading skills Writing skills Math skills

49 Assessing the Disabled
I CAN The goal of this assessment is to improve the quality of physical education instruction for all students Target population: “children whose overall developmental growth is slower than the average, as well as . . children with specific learning disabilities, social, or emotional adjustment difficulties, and or economic or language disadvantages”

50 Assessing the Disabled
I CAN Criterion-referenced Easy to administer Modules include Preprimary motor and play skills Primary skills Sport, leisure, and recreation skills Ask CPS question 13 to test student comprehension

51 Aids in Assessing Motor Skills
Checklists or reminder sheets that list key descriptive terms for each developmental level to jog the examiner’s memory Videotaping individual performance

52 Assessing Physical Fitness
Physical-fitness test batteries FITNESSGRAM/ACTIVITYGRAM President’s Challenge National Youth Physical Fitness Program National children and Youth fitness Studies I and II Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years Senior Fitness Test

53 Assessing Physical Fitness
FITNESSGRAM/ACTIVITYGRAM Developed by the Cooper Institute for Aerobic Research Most widely used instrument in the assessment of health-related physical fitness for youth and young adults (5-25 yr) Web-based version Reference Guide

54 Assessing Physical Fitness
FITNESSGRAM Aerobic capacity Body composition Muscular strength Muscular endurance Flexibility ACTIVITYGRAM Behaviorally based physical activity assessment tool Students record physical activity each 30-min over 3 days Determines if activity guidelines are being met

55 Assessing Physical Fitness
Physical Best program from AAHPERD is an excellent supplement to the FITNESSGRAM A comprehensive health-related fitness education program Includes program materials and an instructional videotape on test administration Special certifications are available from AAHPERD

56 Assessing Physical Fitness
Brockport Physical Fitness Test Designed to assess the health-related fitness of youths yrs of age who have various disabilities Criterion-referenced for: Visual impairments, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, congenital anomalies or amputations 27 health-related fitness tests

57 Assessing Physical Fitness
The President’s Challenge Youth Physical Fitness Program Sponsored by the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Designed for Americans age 6 and up Children can receive one of four awards Awards are based on normative data Accommodations are made for students with disabilities President's Challenge Guidelines

58 Assessing Physical Fitness
Awards Offered by the President’s Challenge Program The Presidential Physical Fitness Award The National Physical Fitness Award The Participant Physical Fitness Award The Health Fitness Award

59 Assessing Physical Fitness
National Youth Physical Fitness Program (YPF) Sponsored by the United States Marines Youth Foundation Encourages individuals K-college age to maintain a drug-free lifestyle fostering self-respect and self-esteem through physical fitness

60 Assessing Physical Fitness
YFP test battery Push-ups Pull-ups Sit-ups Standing long jump 300-yeard shuttle run 17 Certificates of Athletic Accomplishment available Modifications encouraged for people with special challenges

61 Assessing Physical Fitness
National Children and Youth Fitness Studies I and II Implemented by the Department of Health and Human Services in 1985 Purpose is to describe the current fitness status of American children and youth (ages 6-17 years) Ask CPS question 13 to test student comprehension

62 Assessing Physical Fitness
Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years Older adults need to be able to carry out activities for daily living The American Association for Physical Activity and Recreation, a part of AAHPERD, developed this test

63 Assessing Physical Fitness
Functional Fitness Assessment for Adults Over 60 Years Agility/dynamic balance ½ mile walk (endurance) Test of trunk/leg flexibility (sit and reach) Test of muscular strength/endurance Soda pop coordination

64 Assessing Physical Performance
Senior Fitness Test Designed to assess the major physiological components of functional capacity in elderly individuals (60-94 years of age) Contains performance norms, test manual, and video to teach assessment procedures Ask CPS question 13 to test student comprehension

65 The End

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