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Vince Matthews Director Colorado Geological Survey The Global Scramble for Minerals and Energy— Its Impact on Colorado.

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Presentation on theme: "Vince Matthews Director Colorado Geological Survey The Global Scramble for Minerals and Energy— Its Impact on Colorado."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vince Matthews Director Colorado Geological Survey The Global Scramble for Minerals and Energy— Its Impact on Colorado

2

3 Harris D. Sherman, Executive Director

4 YOUR Geological Survey !!! Geology of Water Resources Promote Mineral and Energy Resources Colorado Avalanche Information Center Geologic Hazards Educate Assist State and Federal Agencies

5 Everything you need to know about Mineral and Energy in Colorado

6 Production of Natural Resources is an Important Part of Colorado’s Economy $12.0 billion

7 Revenue comparison of Colorado’s Important Economic Sectors (2005) Minerals & Energy Agriculture $ Billion Tourism 48% 96%

8 Distribution of Colorado Mineral & Energy Value 2007 ($ Billions) CO2 0.5 Natural Gas7.0 Oil 1.5 Minerals 1.8 Coal 1.1 Uranium 0.00

9 Production of Natural Resources has Always been an Important Part of Colorado’s Economy

10 Just off 51 st Street Boulder 1902

11 China India U.S.

12 Population Comparison China U.S. India

13 Land Area Comparison ChinaU.S. India

14 GDP Comparison China U.S. India Source: World Bank

15 GDP Growth Comparison China U.S. India Source: World Bank

16 World Electrical Growth World 8.3 terawatts increase (+70%) China/India/U.S. 4.4 terawatts

17 World Electrical Growth India 0.5 U.S. 1.1 China 2.8

18 World Electrical Growth Africa Asia- Pacific Europe- Eurasia Middle East South & Central America North America

19 Industrial minerals: Cement 45 1 Fluorspar 51 1 Rare earths 96 1 Metals: Aluminum 24 1 Antimony 86 1 Copper 16 2 Gold 9 4 Lead 32 1 Magnesium 75 1 Molybdenum 22 3 Silver 12 3 Steel, crude 31 1 Tin 35 1 Tungsten 87 1 Zinc 26 1 China’s Share of World Mineral Production in 2005 Source: USGS, Menzie and Tse % Rank

20 China’s Production and Consumption of Copper Production supplemented by imports Source: USGS, Kenzie, et al

21 Global Impact 457%

22 Global Impact

23 307%

24 Global Impact 457% 307%

25 Colorado Impact Difficulty in manufacturing of copper products Increased copper thefts Increased costs to the consumer Copper mine reopening

26 Industrial minerals: Cement 45 1 Fluorspar 51 1 Rare earths 96 1 Metals: Aluminum 24 1 Antimony 86 1 Copper 16 2 Gold 9 4 Lead 32 1 Magnesium 75 1 Molybdenum 22 3 Silver 12 3 Steel, crude 31 1 Tin 35 1 Tungsten 87 1 Zinc 26 1 China’s Share of World Mineral Production in 2005 Source: USGS, Menzie and Tse % Rank

27 Leading Importers of Iron Ore— 1980–2003 Sources: U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook; United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.

28 Trends in Demand for Steel Source: International Iron and Steel Institute.

29 China 2005 – Opened 70,000 new supermarkets 2006 – Became #3 car manufacturer – 42% increase in capital investment 11 th Five-year plan - Plan to build the equivalent of three Manhattan Islands

30 Price of Scrap Iron 559%

31 Ball mill gets real Leadville welcome Image courtesy of Leadville Herald Democrat

32 U.S. molybdenum exports

33 MOLYBDENUM Price 997%

34 Ball mill gets real Leadville welcome Image courtesy of Leadville Herald Democrat

35 MOLYBDENUM Price 997%

36 MOLYBDENUM Price

37

38 ~ 100 Known Occurrences of Molybdenum

39 Precious & Base Metal Increases 01/ /09 Silver 367% Platinum 255% Gold 205% Palladium 284% Zinc 497% Lead 800% Aluminum 144% Nickel 630% Tin 229% Average Price Increase 379%

40 Selenium GermaniumIridiumManganese Titanium CadmiumChromiumCobalt TungstenVanadium 671% 908% 719% 581% 531% 159% 1620% 8 Tellurium 1123%600% 2060% 193% 411% Magnesium 354%580% Rhenium 685% AntimonyBismuth Average Price Increase 746%

41 Increase in Coal Spot Price

42 2005 Coal Price Spot versus Contract Spot Contract 2007 $29.75

43 Metal prices fall further than during Great Depression The price of key industrial metals has fallen further over the last four months than occurred during the worst years of Great Depression between 1929 and 1933, according to research by Barclays Capital. By Ambrose Evans-Pritchard Last Updated: 7:29AM GMT 03 Dec 2008

44 “Chinese companies and their rivals are scouring the globe from Australia to Africa for access to the raw materials needed to sustain the Asian nation’s growth as commodity prices surge.” --June 23, 2006 (Bloomberg)

45 Renewable Energy WIND - Neodymium - Molybdenum - Iron Ore SOLAR - Cadmium - Tellurium - Indium - Germanium - Gallium - Selenium - Silicon - Copper

46 CommodityPrimary SourcesApplications in Alternative Energy AntimonyChinaThermoelectric/paraelectric materials BariumChinaThermoelectric/paraelectric materials BismuthChina, MexicoThermoelectric/paraelectric materials CobaltKinshasa,AustraliaPhotovoltaics (solar cells) GalliumChinaPhotovoltaics, paraelectric materials GermaniumBelgium,CanadaPhotovoltaics (solar cells) IndiumChina, CanadaSolar cells, thermo/paraelectric materials ManganeseGabon, S. AfricaPhotovoltaics NickelCanadaFuel cells Platinum groupSouth AfricaFuel cells, para/thermoelectric mtrls Rare EarthsChinaFuel cells, para/thermoelectric mtrls ScandiumChina, RussiaThermoelectric/paraelectric materials SeleniumCanadaSolar cells, thermoelectric materials StrontiumMexicoThermoelectric/paraelectric materials TantalumBrazilThermoelectric/paraelectric materials TelluriumBelgium, GermanySolar cells, thermoelectric metrls, semiconductors TinPeruThermoelectric materials TitaniumAustralia, S. AfricaSolar cells VanadiumCzech Rep., S. AfricaFuel cells ZincCanada, MexicoPhotovoltaics, fuel cells, thermoelectric mtrls Strategic and Critical Materials with uses in Alternative Energy applications for which the U.S. is dependent on imports for 50% or more of consumption

47 Percent imported

48 REE = Rare Earth Elements = neodymium, lanthanum, terbium, dysprosium

49 Toyota Prius Rare Earths “The biggest user of rare earths of any object in the world!”

50 HONG KONG — China is set to tighten its hammerlock on the market for some of the world’s most obscure but valuable minerals. --August 31, 2009 ( The New York Times )

51 World faces hi-tech crunch as China eyes ban on rare metal exports –August 24, 2009 (London Telegraph) China Tightens Grip on Rare Minerals –August 31, 2009 (New York Times) China Considers Rare-Earth Reserve in Inner Mongolia –September 2, 2009 (Bloomberg News) As hybrid cars gobble rare metals, shortage looms –August 31, 2009 (Reuters)

52 22% Imported Cement producers 1.China 2.India 3.U.S. China Consumes ½ of all the concrete in the world U.S. cement manufacturing is 81% foreign owned

53 $50/ ton > $200/ ton in 2008 Fertilizers Potash $50/ ton > $500/ ton in one year Sulfur Nitrogen urea $1000/ ton.

54 Dr Colin Thirtle, Professor of Development Economics, Imperial College London

55 U.S. Energy Split Oil Natural Gas Coal Uranium Renewables

56 CommodityPercent of U.S. Percentage Price Percent Imported energy supply Increase (2007 Net) Coal Oil Uranium Natural Gas Hydroelectric Biomass Solar.1-- Wind.3-- Geothermal % 6% Source: EIA, Annual Report 2007 U.S. Energy Split

57 World Coal Consumption

58 COAL Consumption- China 0% imported!

59 China’s Production and Consumption of Coal

60 Coal Spot Price 2/06 – 2/09 China begins importing coal $38 per ton $140 per ton

61 COAL Consumption- India 16% imported!

62 COAL U.S. 0% imported!

63 China/U.S. Coal 51% of world consumption. 54% of world production.

64 Colorado’s Coal is becoming increasingly desirable

65

66 Colorado has the seventh largest bituminous coal reserves in the nation. Colorado has the largest reserves of bituminous compliance coal in the nation. Colorado is the seventh largest coal producer in the nation. Colorado Impact Colorado Coal Production

67 World Nuclear Consumption

68 NUCLEAR- China

69 NUCLEAR- India

70 China : 32 new plants by per year through GW to 60 GW India: 17 new reactors by 2012

71 NUCLEAR- U.S. The last nuclear power plant came on line in 1996 Since then has U.S. nuclear generation -- Increased? Decreased? Remained flat?

72 NUCLEAR- U.S. Last nuclear power plant came online.

73 And, the largest nuclear power generator in the world?

74 The United States generates as much nuclear energy as— France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom combined!

75 World Nuclear Power Consumption 436 Plants Operating 44 Under Construction Countries Applied to IAEA

76 The world’s existing 436 nuclear reactors currently need 180 million pounds of uranium each year. 80 million pound gap

77 Uranium prices Source: Cameco

78 Uranium-vanadium districts and mines, Colorado

79 10,000+ claims filed on federal lands in Colorado in Three new mines opened in Colorado in 2008 Colorado Impact 10,000+ claims filed on federal lands in Colorado in 2007.

80 World Oil Consumption

81 OIL CONSUMPTION- China Source: BP

82 OIL- CONSUMPTION India Source: BP

83 OIL- U.S. Consumption

84 U.S. OIL PRODUCTION to billion barrels 40% less DOWN THE OIL “ESCALATOR”

85 U.S. OIL PRODUCTION to 2050

86 How do you communicate what “2/3 of something gone” means?

87 In 1969, M. King Hubbert Predicted that World Production would Begin Declining in 2000.

88 5% % % % % % % % % % % % of the OIL Consumed by the Human Race Used Since % of the OIL Consumed by the Human Race Used Since Billion barrels Consumed Start 1859 (data from Arnulf Grubler, 1998; BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2008) Copyright J. D. Hughes GSR Inc, 2008

89 (data from Arnulf Grubler, 1998; BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2008; U.S. Bureau of Census, 2008) Percentage of 2007 Year 5.3 times Population 8.6 times WOOD OIL COAL GAS Year HYDRO Per Capita Consumption Renewable 11% Non-Renewable 89% Year Total Consumption 45 times OIL COAL GAS Copyright J. D. Hughes GSR Inc, 2008

90 85% of the world’s oil comes from just 20 of the 65 producing countries 54 of the 65 producing countries are in decline

91 Mexico’s declining production at Cantarell field accelerating Mexican state oil company Pemex said Wednesday that production at its Cantarell oil field, the world’s second-largest, will drop faster than expected. 08/03/ producing 2.2 million barrels per day 2009 producing 0.6 million barrels per day

92 1 of 65 producing countries USA Peak 1970 Source: BP Annual Energy Report

93 USA Mexico Norway UK Indonesia Peak of 65 producing countries Source: BP Annual Energy Report

94 45 small producers USA Peak ~ of 65 producing countries Source: BP Annual Energy Report

95 45 small producers USA 61 of 65 producing countries Brazil Algeria Canada China Kuwait UAE Nigeria Libya Iraq Venezuela Iran Peak 2004 Source: BP Annual Energy Report

96 45 small producers USA Qatar Angola 63 of 65 producing countries Flat 2004 Source: BP Annual Energy Report

97 45 small producers USA Saudi Arabia 64 of 65 producing countries Flat? Source: BP Annual Energy Report

98 FSU Former Soviet Union nations 45 small producers USA Saudi Arabia FSU 65 of 65 producing countries Slight Increase Source: BP Annual Energy Report

99 Crude Oil Prices

100 Wattenberg oil well near Longmont 16th Largest oil field

101 Colorado Impact Rangely still has large reserves (57R/65P). Commerce City refinery will be processing Canadian oil sands. Colorado Oil Production

102 Oil shale is being seriously re-appraised.

103

104 World Natural Gas Consumption

105 NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION - China 6% imported!

106 NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION - India 26% imported!

107 NATURAL GAS CONSUMPTION - U.S. 11% imported!

108 Natural Gas – America’s Silver Bullet?

109 Natural Gas Electrical Generation vs Natural Gas Imports Electricity from Natural Gas Natural Gas Imports

110 Million Cubic Feet of Gas U.S. Monthly Natural Gas Production Well Completions 8,90030,180 Average Initial Production Rockies Trends

111

112 Colorado Drilling Permits Approved

113 Colorado Drilling Rigs

114 Source: Baker-Hughes

115

116 Colorado has the fifth largest gas reserves in the nation. Colorado has the largest reserves of coalbed methane in the nation. Colorado is the seventh largest gas producer in the nation. Colorado Impact Colorado Natural Gas Production

117 Location of the 78,000+ wells that have been drilled for oil and gas. About half are dry holes.

118 Natural Gas Prices $2.00 +/- $0.50 $6.50

119 21 st Century Natural Gas Prices

120

121 Colorado has all, or parts, of seven of the top 50 natural gas fields in the nation!

122 Gas Price Needed to achieve a 10% IRR Piceance Basin Morgan Stanley EncanaIHS4/08/09

123 Delta Petroleum Drilled 163 Colorado wells Last month announced a loss of $459.7 million Next day stock dropped 41%

124 Natural Gas – America’s Silver Bullet?

125 (data copyright IHS Energy, Diagram prepared and copyright by EOG Resources Inc., 2006) 60% From Most Recent FOUR YEARS

126 Natural Gas – America’s Silver Bullet?

127 Oil Geothermal Solar Wind Coal Natural Gas Efficiency Conservation Hydro Nuclear Biomass

128 Hydro Generation - China

129 Hydro Generation – U.S.

130 Geothermal Energy Direct Use Electric Generation Geoexchange Heat Pumps

131 Below the 690 apartments—not to mention the gyms, bars, dry cleaners and movie theater—that make up the 15-acre Linked Hybrid residential complex in Beijing, China, are 660 geothermal wells that eliminate the need for air conditioners and boilers. Each well funnels water 325 feet beneath the ground into bedrock, where the constant 55ºF temperature either heats or cools it before it’s pumped back to the surface and piped through the building’s concrete floors. The system will reduce energy costs by up to 30 percent in the summer and up to 40 percent in the winter.

132 The Escalator Dilemma Natural Forces are Working Against Our Goals Depletion of Natural Resources Demand for Energy Demand Greenhouse Gas Reduction

133 The future is here! Are we ready?

134 Overall Impacts Coloradans will suffer from effects of inflation Coloradans may see increasing shortages of critical raw materials Conflicts may arise with multi-national corporations operating in Colorado Pressures will mount to develop more of Colorado’s natural resources How do we turn lemons into lemonade?

135 So– Working with GEO on geothermal electrical generation. Encouraging the use of Geoexchange heat pumps. Studying the potential of alternative energy minerals in Colorado Studying the potential of CCS. Trying to reduce our energy consumption Trying to increase public understanding of our energy situation. What is CGS doing?

136 “The world is a football field now and you’ve got to be sharp to be on the team which plays on that field. If you’re not good enough, you’re going to be sitting and watching the game. That’s all.” --Rajesh Rao, founder and CEO of Dhurva Interactive

137 The End! Of the talk, that is.


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