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Quantitative XRF Standardless Methods UniQuant Denver Conference 2002 Kurt Juchli Applied Research Laboratories Ecublens Switzerland Thermo ARL.

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Presentation on theme: "Quantitative XRF Standardless Methods UniQuant Denver Conference 2002 Kurt Juchli Applied Research Laboratories Ecublens Switzerland Thermo ARL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quantitative XRF Standardless Methods UniQuant Denver Conference 2002 Kurt Juchli Applied Research Laboratories Ecublens Switzerland Thermo ARL

2 Topics Introduction to UniQuant Differences versus Scanning Programs Analytical Conditions Calibration Analysis of Unknown Samples

3 Topics Introduction to UniQuant –Main Features –Evolution

4 Introduction to UniQuant Main Features 74 elements (F to Am) determined in 15 minutes (4 to 12 seconds / spectral line) Peak to Peak Hopping + some Background Positions Be, B, C, N and O if appropriate crystals are present Samples: Solids, Liquids, Loose Powders, Filter Papers, etc. Sample Shape: Flat or uneven, odd shaped, small quantities or small pieces, etc. Determination of Multilayers (Thickness and Mass) Balance of unanalysed Elements or Compounds present in the sample, e.g. Organic Rest or Ultra-light Elements

5 Introduction to UniQuant Evolution (1/2) Version 1 (1989): –Calibration required special knowledge –Background Determination influenced by strong Absorption Edges Version 2 (1992): –Improved Calibration –Improved Background Determination –Program split into 2 parts (due to lack of conventional memory) Version 3 (1995): –Improved Alpha and Kappa Coefficients –Better results on Major Elements –Improved Handling (only 1 Program)

6 Introduction to UniQuant Evolution (2/2) Version 4 (1997): –Improved Background Determination with Manual or Automatic Selection among up to 32 Background Shapes –Easy Calibration through Graphical Displays –Graphical Presentations to check Plausibility of Results –More Elements and alternative Lines Version 5 (2001): –Parent - daughter principle to derive specific calibrations –Setup of user specific calibrations –Thin layer on a substrate: may also employ attenuation of intensity from a substrate element –Analysis of predefined compounds for any compound that contains at least one XRF feasible element.

7 Topics Differences versus Scanning Programs –Scanning - Peak Hopping –Impact on Counting Statistics –Background Determination

8 Differences versus Scanning Programs Scanning

9 Differences versus Scanning Programs Peak Hopping

10 Differences versus Scanning Programs Counting Statistics (1/2)  th = SQR ( R * t ) R = counts/s t = counting time

11 Differences versus Scanning Programs Counting Statistics (2/2)  th = SQR ( R * t ) R = counts/s t = counting time Simple rule: SQR (1’000’000) = 1000  0.1% RSD

12 Differences versus Scanning Programs Background Determination - Scanning Method

13 Differences versus Scanning Programs Background Determination - UniQuant 4 & 5 (1/2) ? ? Background Shape for Last Elements in Group

14 Differences versus Scanning Programs Background Determination - UniQuant 4 & 5 (2/2) Background Shape for First Elements in Group

15 Topics Analytical Conditions

16 Analytical Conditions UniQuant 4 & 5 Special Crystals - Calibrated on request

17 Topics Calibration –Measurement of 64 Specimens –Determination of Background Shapes and Spectral Impurities –Determination of Wedge Effect (Geometry of Instrument) –Determination of Helium and Film Factors –Determination of Tau values (Fine Tuning of Dead Time Correction) –Setup of Drift Correction (5 Setting-up Samples)

18 Calibration Measurement of 64 Specimens Provides over 100 Spectrometer Channel Sensitivities (Kappas) Establishes over 1500 Line Overlap Coefficients Mostly single Compounds, e.g. Elements in the form of pure Metal foils, Oxides, Quartz, Cryolithe, etc. Universal Calibration ?

19 Universal Calibration Sensitivity of Sulfur in various Matrices

20 Universal Calibration What are Kappas ? (1/2) Conventional Sensitivity cps / % 40’000 cps / % S in Steel 300’000 cps / % S in Oil

21 Universal Calibration What are Kappas ? (2/2) Conventional Sensitivity cps / % 40’000 cps / % S in Steel 300’000 cps / % S in Oil Intrinsic Sensitivity = Instrumental Sensitivity = Kappa cps / atom cps / 0.1mg (very Thin Layer, Absorption negligible)

22 Universal Calibration Intrinsic and Overlap Kappas table Intrinsic Kappas cps / 0.1 mg Overlap Kappas ppm / %

23 Universal Calibration Graphical Presentation of Intrinsic Kappas Ka La Lb Kb

24 Topics Calibration –Measurement of 64 Specimens –Determination of Background Shapes and Spectral Impurities –Determination of Wedge Effect (Geometry of Instrument) –Determination of Helium and Film Factors –Determination of Tau values (Fine Tuning of Dead Time Correction) –Setup of Drift Correction (5 Setting-up Samples)

25 Calibration Background Shape and Impurities (Teflon) Spectral Background determined with a Teflon Sample Spectral ImpuritiesMass Absorption Coefficients Background Shape expressed in cps / 0.1 mg

26 Calibration Tables for Background Shapes and Impurities Background Shape Impurity Factors

27 Topics Calibration –Measurement of 64 Specimens –Determination of Background Shapes and Spectral Impurities –Determination of Wedge Effect (Geometry of Instrument) –Determination of Helium and Film Factors –Determination of Tau values (Fine Tuning of Dead Time Correction) –Setup of Drift Correction (5 Setting-up Samples)

28 Calibration The Wedge Effect (1/3)

29 Calibration The Wedge Effect (2/3) Liquid Sample Cup Supporting Film Oil

30 Calibration The Wedge Effect (3/3) Liquid Sample Cup Supporting Film Oil Direction of Incident Radiation Direction of detected Radiation Wedge

31 Calibration Wedge Height Wedge Height (mm)

32 Topics Calibration –Measurement of 64 Specimens –Determination of Background Shapes and Spectral Impurities –Determination of Wedge Effect (Geometry of Instrument) –Determination of Helium and Film Factors –Determination of Tau values (Fine Tuning of Dead Time Correction) –Setup of Drift Correction (5 Setting-up Samples)

33 Calibration Absorption Factors for 6µ Polypropylene Film Film Factor = Intensity without Film / Intensity with Film

34 Calibration Table for Helium / Film Factors Helium Factor Film Factor 1 Film Factor 2 Film Impurities (cps)

35 Topics Calibration –Measurement of 64 Specimens –Determination of Background Shapes and Spectral Impurities –Determination of Wedge Effect (Geometry of Instrument) –Determination of Helium and Film Factors –Determination of Tau values (Fine Tuning of Dead Time Correction) –Setup of Drift Correction (5 Setting-up Samples)

36 Calibration Determination of Tau Factors (Measurement)

37 Calibration Determination of Tau Factors (Calculation)

38 Calibration Tau Values

39 Topics Calibration –Measurement of 64 Specimens –Determination of Background Shapes and Spectral Impurities –Determination of Wedge Effect (Geometry of Instrument) –Determination of Helium and Film Factors –Determination of Tau values (Fine Tuning of Dead Time Correction) –Setup of Drift Correction (5 Setting-up Samples) Samples 223, 246, 295, 298, 299

40 Calibration Setup of Drift Correction Day 0Today Drift

41 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features

42 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features Import Intensities Select Job Specify General Data Calculate Concentrations Display Result Check Result –Advanced Features

43 Analysis of Unknown Samples Import Intensities (1/5)

44 Analysis of Unknown Samples Import Intensities (2/5)

45 Analysis of Unknown Samples Import Intensities (3/5) Drift Range Indication

46 Analysis of Unknown Samples Import Intensities (4/5) Select Results File

47 Analysis of Unknown Samples Import Intensities (5/5) Each Result is stored in an individual file with the extension 000 to 999

48 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features Import Intensities Select Job Specify General Data Calculate Concentrations Display Result Check Result –Advanced Features

49 Analysis of Unknown Samples Select Job

50 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features Import Intensities Select Job Specify General Data Calculate Concentrations Display Result Check Result –Advanced Features

51 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (1/12)

52 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (2/12) Specify Chemistry

53 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (3/12) Select Helium or Vacuum

54 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (4/12) Specify Film

55 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (5/12) Enter Sample Diameter

56 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (6/12) Effective Mass Calculated for Effective Diameter Compensation for Non-Infinite Sample Thickness Enter Sample Weight

57 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (7/12) Enter Sample Thickness to compensate for Wegde Effect

58 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (8/12) Density is only used to calculate the XRF measuring Depth and to check Weight and Height (esp. for Liquids)

59 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (9/12) Enter Concentration of Known Non-Analysed Compound Select Compound / Material

60 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data - Materials (10/12)

61 Analysis of Unknown Samples Specify General Data (11/12) Enter Dilution Ratio Diluent / Sample Select Compound / Material Specify your own, if necessary

62 Analysis of Unknown Samples General Data - Summary (12/12) Specify everything you know about the Sample –Choice of Chemistry –Weight (Effective Mass) to compensate for Non-Infinite Thickness –Height (Thickness) to compensate for Wedge Effect –Known unmeasured Compounds –Dilution Specify everything you know about the Analysis –Helium or Vacuum –Film

63 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features Import Intensities Select Job Specify General Data Calculate Concentrations Display Result Check Result –Advanced Features

64 Analysis of Unknown Samples Calculate Concentrations (1/2) ! Only in Version 5 !

65 Analysis of Unknown Samples Calculate Concentrations (2/2) Result Display Options

66 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features Import Intensities Select Job Specify General Data Calculate Concentrations Display Result Check Result –Advanced Features

67 Analysis of Unknown Samples Display Result (1/7) Result Display Options

68 Analysis of Unknown Samples Display Result (2/7) < 18 ppm

69 Analysis of Unknown Samples Display Result (3/7) < 18 ppm

70 Analysis of Unknown Samples Display Result (4/7)

71 Analysis of Unknown Samples Display Result (5/7)

72 Analysis of Unknown Samples Display Result (6/7) Result Display Options

73 Analysis of Unknown Samples Display Result (7/7)

74 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features Import Intensities Select Job Specify General Data Calculate Concentrations Display Result Check Result –Sum before Normalisation –Information contained in the Intensity Table –Influence of Wrong Sample Weight –Alternative Lines –Advanced Features

75 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Sum before Normalisation (1/2)

76 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Sum before Normalisation (2/2) Reasons for Bad Sum before Normalisation –Wrong Chemistry –Dilution not specified (Binder - Fused Bead) –Helium not selected –Film not specified –Wrong Effective Sample Diameter –Known or Unknown Rest not specified (Not analysable Elements) –Grain Size Effects

77 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features Import Intensities Select Job Specify General Data Calculate Concentrations Display Result Check Result –Sum before Normalisation –Information contained in the Intensity Table –Influence of Wrong Sample Weight –Alternative Lines –Advanced Features

78 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Intensity Table (1/4)

79 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Intensity Table (2/4) For all these lines the L lines are also measured

80 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Intensity Table (3/4) Ka Lines

81 Layer Thickness (in µm), where 90% of the Fluorescence Radiation originates from (4/4) Source: Retsch - The Sample (International Edition Number 5) L Lines K Lines

82 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features Import Intensities Select Job Specify General Data Calculate Concentrations Display Result Check Result –Sum before Normalisation –Information contained in the Intensity Table –Influence of Wrong Sample Weight –Alternative Lines –Advanced Features

83 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Wrong Sample Weight (1/3) Specification of Wrong Sample Weight ! Recalculate !

84 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Wrong Sample Weight (2/3) Correct Sample Weight

85 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Wrong Sample Weight (3/3) Since Version 5.04

86 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features Import Intensities Select Job Specify General Data Calculate Concentrations Display Result Check Result –Sum before Normalisation –Information contained in the Intensity Table –Influence of Wrong Sample Weight –Alternative Lines –Advanced Features

87 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Select Alternative Lines (1/2) Move Cursor here or Click here Enter * / Space to select / deselect Alternative Lines ! Recalculate !

88 Analysis of Unknown Samples Check Result - Select Alternative Lines (2/2)

89 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes –General Information –How to make a New Shape –Example Oil Standard Conostan S-21 / 50 ppm –Example Chemplex 55 Elements Standard Shadow Loss Special Cases Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

90 Analysis of Unknown Samples Background Shapes - Select Shape (1/8)

91 Analysis of Unknown Samples Background Shapes - Selection Criteria (2/8)

92 Analysis of Unknown Samples Background Shapes - Define Default Shape (3/8) Since Version 5 0 = Automatic Shape Selection 1 = Teflon Shape (recommended)

93 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes –General Information –How to make a New Shape –Example Oil Standard Conostan S-21 / 50 ppm –Example Chemplex 55 Elements Standard Shadow Loss Special Cases Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

94 Analysis of Unknown Samples Background Shapes - Table of Shapes (4/8)

95 Analysis of Unknown Samples Background Shapes - Shapes and Impurity Factors (5/8) Background Shapes Impurity Factors N o t S e t u p N o t S e t u p

96 Analysis of Unknown Samples Background Shapes - Make New Shape (6/8)

97 Analysis of Unknown Samples Background Shapes - Select Sample (7/8)

98 Analysis of Unknown Samples Background Shapes - Check / Refine Shape (8/8) Fe Absorption EdgeSmoothed Shape

99 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes –General Information –How to make a New Shape –Example Oil Standard Conostan S-21 / 50 ppm –Example Chemplex 55 Elements Standard Shadow Loss Special Cases Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

100 Analysis of Unknown Samples - Oil Sample Conostan S-21 / 50ppm (1/5) Neighbours in second group Overlapped by Rh Ka Lines Wrong Impurity Factors Last Element in first group Problem of Shape

101 Analysis of Unknown Samples - Oil Sample Inappropriate Background Shape (2/5) Wrong Impurity Factors for Oil Matrix Background too low

102 Analysis of Unknown Samples - Oil Sample Shape and Impurity Factors for Oil Matrix (3/5)

103 Analysis of Unknown Samples - Oil Sample Appropriate Background Calculation (4/5) Background Shape and Impurity Factors calculated with Base Oil Sample Background calculated for Unknown Oil Sample

104 Analysis of Unknown Samples - Oil Sample Conostan S-21 / 50ppm with Oil Background (5/5)

105 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes –General Information –How to make a New Shape –Example Oil Standard Conostan S-21 / 50 ppm –Example Chemplex 55 Elements Standard Shadow Loss Special Cases Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

106 Analysis of Unknown Samples Special Case - Chemplex 55 Elements Standard Look ahead in Background Calculation

107 Analysis of Unknown Samples Special Case - Chemplex 55 Elements Standard Look ahead of 8 Lines (Default Setting)

108 Analysis of Unknown Samples Special Case - Chemplex 55 Elements Standard (1/2) Look ahead of 20 Lines (Special Setting)

109 Analysis of Unknown Samples Special Case - Chemplex 55 Elements Standard (2/2) Look ahead of 20 Lines (Special Setting)

110 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes Shadow Loss Special Cases Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

111 Analysis of Unknown Samples Compensation for Grain Size Effects (1/2)

112 Analysis of Unknown Samples Compensation for Grain Size Effects (2/2)

113 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes Shadow Loss Special Cases –Case 1 Unknown Area –Case 2 Unknown % Rest –Case 3 Unknown Dilution –Case 4 Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) –Case 5 Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

114 Analysis of Unknown Samples Special Cases - Unknown Area (1/2)

115 Analysis of Unknown Samples Special Cases - Unknown Area (2/2) Case 0: Everything is known Case 1: Unknown Area Same Result !

116 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes Shadow Loss Special Cases –Case 1 Unknown Area –Case 2 Unknown % Rest –Case 3 Unknown Dilution –Case 4 Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) –Case 5 Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

117 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Rest % (1/2)

118 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Rest % (2/2)

119 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes Shadow Loss Special Cases –Case 1 Unknown Area –Case 2 Unknown % Rest –Case 3 Unknown Dilution –Case 4 Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) –Case 5 Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

120 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Dilution (1/2)

121 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Dilution (2/2)

122 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes Shadow Loss Special Cases –Case 1 Unknown Area –Case 2 Unknown % Rest –Case 3 Unknown Dilution –Case 4 Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) –Case 5 Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

123 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) (1/6)

124 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) (2/6) “Schmauchspuren” Residues of unburnt powder after a gun shot

125 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) (3/6) La Lb Case 0 (Bulk Sample)

126 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) (4/6)

127 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) (5/6)

128 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) (6/6)

129 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes Shadow Loss Special Cases –Case 1 Unknown Area –Case 2 Unknown % Rest –Case 3 Unknown Dilution –Case 4 Unknown g/cm2 (Monolayer) –Case 5 Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

130 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) (1/7) Up to 9 unknown (Masses) and 6 fixed layers can be specified Layers can be specified by an Element, Oxide or Compound (Material) Each Layer must have at least one Element of which the Intensity can be measured The order of the layers must be specified (Substrate = 0)

131 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) (2/7) Select Case 5 Calculate Background

132 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) (3/7)

133 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) (4/7)

134 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) (5/7)

135 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) (6/7) Check !

136 Analysis of Unknown Samples Unknown Masses/Area (Multilayer) (7/7)

137 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes Shadow Loss Special Cases Subset Programs –Reasons –How to create a Subset –Example Kappa Lists Small Samples

138 Subset Programs Reasons To speed up the Analysis –measure only Elements present in the Samples –measure only Elements that can be measured (e.g. eliminate F to Be in He and/or with Foil) To optimise the Analysis –measure only Elements present in the Samples –increase Counting Times for important Traces –decrease Counting Times for Majors The analysis of oils or polymers does not require to measure lanthanides and precious metals. The total exposure time to X-Rays for Samples using a thin Foil is limited (15 to 20 minutes) - Risk of Damage

139 Subset Programs How to create a Subset Counting Time = 0  will not be measured

140 Subset Programs Example - PetroQuant (1/4) Additives in Oil –Ca, Zn, P, Mg, Mo ( ppm) –Cl, S ( %) –Si (few ppm) Following elements are sometimes present –Na, K, Ba ( ppm) –Cu, Fe ( ppm) Abrasion Elements ( ppm) –Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Ag, Sn, Sb, Pb Total Measuring Time : 11 minutes

141 Subset Programs Example - PetroQuant (2/4)

142 Subset Programs Example - PetroQuant (3/4)

143 Subset Programs Example - PetroQuant (4/4)

144 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes Shadow Loss Special Cases Subset Programs Kappa Lists –Principle –Practical Example Small Samples

145 AnySample Pressed Powder BeadsAlloys Steel Parent Daughter Parent Daughter © 2000 Omega Data Systems BV All Rights Reserved Denver conference 2000 W.K. de Jongh (ODS), Kurt Juchli (ARL) Kappa Lists Principle - New Calibration derived from a Parent (1/3)

146 Pressed Powder Beads Copy Kappa List One or more Standards to firm up calibration of Major Elements Parent Homogeneous Samples Daughter Mineralogical Effects Kappa Lists Principle - New Calibration derived from a Parent (2/3) © 2000 Omega Data Systems BV All Rights Reserved Denver conference 2000 W.K. de Jongh (ODS), Kurt Juchli (ARL)

147 Kappa Lists Principle - Create New Kappa List (3/3)

148 Difference in Sensitivity Reduction between High and Low Crystal Angles versus Sample Surface Size (Opening of Sample Holder) Kappa Lists Practical Example (1/4) –Sample with 90% Pt / 10% Rh (CAL 278) analysed with 29 and 15 mm Sample Holder Openings –Sample with 10% Ir / 90% Pd (CAL 246) measured to adjust Kappas for 15 mm Sample Holder Opening –Sample with 90% Pt / 10% Rh (CAL 278) recalculated with new Kappa list Low 2 Theta AnglesHigh 2 Theta Angles Pd = 16.76Ir = Rh = 17.54Pt = 54.91

149 Kappa Lists Practical Example (2/4)

150 Kappa Lists Practical Example (3/4) 29 mm 15 mm

151 Kappa Lists Practical Example (4/4) Adjusted Kappas

152 Collimator Mask Crystal at higher angles Crystal at lower angles Normal Sample Collimator Mask Kappa Lists Practical Example - Explanation (1/2)

153 Crystal at higher angles Small Sample Collimator Mask Crystal at lower angles Kappa Lists Practical Example - Explanation (2/2)

154 Topics Analysis of Unknown Samples –Basic Features –Advanced Features Background Shapes Shadow Loss Special Cases Subset Programs Kappa Lists Small Samples

155 Polypropylene Insert to keep sample in place Small Samples Irregular Shaped Small Sample

156 Element Drill. 90 Drill.180Drill.360PressedMn% Si% Cr% Ni% Mo% Cu% Ti% Fe% Nb% Drill.90, Drill.180 and Drill.360 were analysed under helium environment with a film support (6µ PP) The pressed sample was analysed under vacuum Small Samples Stainless Steel Drillings Lowest Angle

157 Thank you very much for your Attention Kurt Juchli Applied Research Laboratories Ecublens Switzerland Thermo ARL

158 Collimator Mask Crystal at higher angles Crystal at lower angles Analysed Surface Collimator Mask


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