Descriptive Grammar of English: Phonetics and Phonology dr Iwona Kokorniak (with contribution from dr Jarosław Weckwerth) 27 Sept 2008
Teacher:dr Iwona Kokorniak Office:223A, Collegium Novum Niepodległości 4 Office hrs:Friday: 12:00 -13:00 Wednesday: 15.30 – 16.30 (by appointment) E-mail:firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Aims Thorough overview of English phonetics and phonology. Some basic information on other languages (especially Polish) will also be provided.
4 What for? Two main reasons: –it will enable you to consciously control your own English pronunciation; –it will enable you to detect, analyse and possibly correct the pronunciation errors of your future students.
5 Why do you need this??? You are to become ‘language professionals’ –Teachers –Translators –Linguists –etc. Role models: TV people, actors... – people who do public speaking professionally
6 Why do you need this??? Therefore, you need more than just communication. You need professional accuracy. Achieving this accuracy needs solid conscious knowledge...... and a lot of individual practice
7 Quick & dirty estimate A child acquiring English, starts at age 0 30 mins x 365 days x 10 years 1825 hours
8 Quick & dirty estimate English learner, three-year course Group of 9 students 3 classes x 90 mins a week 10 mins x 25 classes x 3 years 750 mins = 12.5 hours
9 Aims – summary You need to know what you are doing to do it right. Intuition and talent is not enough. But this course is not ‘theoretical’! You’ve got to learn by doing things. You must make every effort to apply this knowledge in practice. Practice individually
10 Assessment Written examination Core content agreed by all teachers To take the exam, you need a passing grade for the classes (‘ćwiczenia’) The final grade: 30% for the classes + 70% for the final test
11 Grammar? Consider: –He has went yesterday. What normal people call ‘grammar’ is SYNTAX. But in linguistics, syntax is only about how sentences are built.
12 Other branches of linguistics dobry – dobro – dobrze MORPHOLOGY: How words are constructed. This includes inflection: mam – masz – ma......and derivation: dobry – dobro – dobrze
13 Phonology bat – rat – cat PHONOLOGY is mainly about sound contrasts. How sounds can change meaning......how sounds function as a SYSTEM in a language.
14 Phonetics szafa The physical details of pronunciation. Different from language to language... That’s why YOU need phonetics!
16 Other branches of linguistics Historical linguistics SociolinguisticsPsycholinguistics Discourse analysis Text linguistics etc... etc...
17 Descriptive? Consider: I ain’t got none. Przyszłem za wcześnie. Prof. Miodek would say, “These are incorrect”. This is prescriptive. But some people speak like that...
18 Descriptive? Compare: He has went yesterday. – I ain’t got none. We will describe what people do, not what should be done. But this doesn’t mean that anything goes.
19 Lecture topics 1 Introduction. Course aims and overview. Branches of linguistics. Phonetics versus phonology. Pronunciation versus writing. Phonetic transcription.
20 Lecture topics 2 The vocal tract – what organs are used to produce speech. Phonation – what is the source of sound for speech. places and manners of articulation for consonants. English consonants. English consonants: compared with Polish.
21 Lecture topics 3 Cardinal vowels. English vowels. English vowels – continued. Compared with Polish. Phoneme vs. allophone. English allophones Weak forms Phonotactics – how sounds can be combined in English and Polish words
22 Lecture topics 4 Coarticulation – how sounds influence each other. Phonostylistics – how sounds change in running speech. Compared with Polish.
23 Lecture topics 5 Standard American English vs. Standard British English. Other varieties of English.
24 Essential sources 1 Ashby, M. and J. Maidment. 2005. Introducing phonetic science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Collins, B. and I. Mees. 2003. Practical phonetics and phonology. London: Routledge. Cruttenden, A. 2001. Gimson’s pronunciation of English. (6th edition.) London: Arnold.
25 Essential sources 2 Garcia Lecumberri, M.L. and J. Maidment. 2000. English transcription course. London: Arnold. Jones, D. 2003. Cambridge English pronouncing dictionary. (16th edition by Peter Roach, James Hartman and Jane Setter.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [with CD-ROM] Ladefoged, P. 2001. A course in phonetics. (4th edition.) Boston: Heinle & Heinle.
26 Essential sources 3 Roach, P. 2001. English phonetics and phonology. (3rd edition.) Cambridge University Press. Sobkowiak, W. and J. Szpyra. 2001. Workbook in English phonetics for Polish students of English. Lublin: Wydawnictwo UMCS. Sobkowiak, W. 2004. English phonetics for Poles. (3rd edition.) Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskie.
27 Essential sources 4 Upton, C., W. Kretzschmar and R. Konopka. 2003. Oxford pronunciation dictionary for current English. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wells, J. C. 2000. Longman pronunciation dictionary. (2nd edition.) London: Pearson Education.
28 Transcription – why? Is normal writing not enough?! Different writing systems –Alphabets –Syllabaries –Logographic systems Based on different language units All have their weaknesses
29 Some problems Bóg – Bug – buk może – morze pain – pane French: vingt – vin German: Rad – Rat Japanese: 汽車 – 記者 Homophones
30 Homophones Words spelt differently but pronounced the same Because in most languages the spelling represents a historical state E.g. ó and u in Polish were different in the past
31 Even more problems Some letters aren’t pronounced English ride, lamb, though Sometimes sounds aren’t shown in spelling Kępa? /kempa/
32 Still more problems In English, the relation may be very ambiguous ghoti ghoti –gh as in ‘enough’ –o as in ‘women’ –ti as in ‘lotion’ /f ɪʃ / fish
33 Alphabetic writing Generally based on the phonemic principle Each letter tries to represent one phoneme Excellent evidence of the psychological reality of the phoneme......but sometimes fails
34 Alphabets – Latin-derived Represents the phonemes of Latin Today used around the world In numerous languages, too many phonemes to be represented Hence, digraphs – cz, sz, sh, th Hence, diacritics – ó, ę, ż, é, â, ü
35 Extreme case: Vietnamese Trăm năm trong cõi người ta, Chữ tài chữ mệnh khéo là ghét nhau. Trải qua một cuộc bể dâu, Những điều trông thấy mà đau đớn lòng. Lạ gì bỉ sắc tư phong, Trời xanh quen thói má hồng đánh ghen.
36 Other alphabets Greek: α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ... Cyrillic (Russian, Ukrainian, Serbian, Belarussian...): а б в г д е ё ж з и й Hebrew: א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י ך כ Arabic: ا ب ت ث ج ح خ د
38 Syllabaries – examples Japanese katakana and hiragana ka か sa さ ta た na な ki き si し ti ち ni に ku く su す tu つ nu ぬ
39 Syllabaries Based on the syllabic principle Each symbol represents one syllable Excellent evidence of the psychological reality of the syllable But no information on sounds shared across syllables
40 Logographic writing Chinese logographs 木 mù ‘tree’ 本 ben ‘root’
41 Chinese logographs Meaning relations are clear Each character represents a word or morpheme But the speaker needs to learn the pronunciation separately nàng ‘unclear pronouncing due to snuffle’
42 And finally... Many languages do not have a writing system at all People who can’t write can speak (almost always) Speech is primary!
43 And finally... Writing is an important invention......but it is separate from speech and secondary And not always helpful for pronunciation In this course, we’ll learn to think of how you pronounce things......irrespective of how they’re spelt
44 Transcription – that’s why Transcription can show any sound in any language using only one set of symbols If you know the symbols you can pronounce any word in any language (With some practice, and with varying degrees of success, of course)
45 Phonemic transcription Phonemic transcription shows sound contrasts... bat – pat – rat – hat /bæt pæt ræt hæt/ Similar to spelling but far more consistent Dictionaries use phonemic transcription Is it enough?
46 Who needs the detail? Crazy phoneticians (Amibitious) foreign learners = you Because details of pronunciation are different in different languages
47 Allophonic transcription Allophonic transcription shows more detail (below the level of the phoneme) /pæt/ [p h æt] broad (phonemic) narrow (allophonic)
48 Transcription – the basics Controlled by the International Phonetic Association (IPA) Known as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Designed on the basis of the Latin alphabet With added symbols
49 Transcription – principles 1 Always the same symbol for the same sound Exact shapes of symbols are important: nNɲɳŋnNɲɳŋ Five different sounds! aɑaɑ Two different sounds!
50 Transcription – principles 2 For English, don’t use these symbols: c xyqo Don’t use CAPITAL LETTERS