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LASTFIRE Large Atmospheric Storage Tank Fires. LASTFIRE An industry consortium of international oil companies reviewing risks associated with storage.

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Presentation on theme: "LASTFIRE Large Atmospheric Storage Tank Fires. LASTFIRE An industry consortium of international oil companies reviewing risks associated with storage."— Presentation transcript:

1 LASTFIRE Large Atmospheric Storage Tank Fires

2 LASTFIRE An industry consortium of international oil companies reviewing risks associated with storage tank fires

3

4 Original Project Sponsors Agip Petroli BP Conoco DEA Elf Exxon MOL Mobil OMV PetroFina Repsol Saudi Aramco Shell Total Veba WRG

5 PROJECT STRUCTURE LASTFIRE Sponsors’ Steering Group External Information Sources Operators Tank Builders Seal Manufacturers Detection Suppliers Protection Suppliers Fire Fighters Legislators Insurers Project Co-ordinator Project Working Group

6 OBJECTIVES Determine current levels of riskDetermine current levels of risk Establish Design & Operational Practice & make knowledge available throughout industryEstablish Design & Operational Practice & make knowledge available throughout industry Establish techniques to determine site- specific levels of risk and identify appropriate & cost-effective risk reduction measuresEstablish techniques to determine site- specific levels of risk and identify appropriate & cost-effective risk reduction measures LASTFIRE

7 FIRE HAZARD MANAGEMENT Fire Scenario Analysis Incident Descriptions CONSEQUENCES Life Safety Environment Business Interruption Asset Value Other Issues HAZOPQRA INCIDENT EXPERIENCE Ignition Sources Hazardous Materials Compare Risk Reduction Options FIRE ENGINEERING FIRE MODELLING COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS Evaluate Alternative Prevention, Protection & Mitigation Measures Define FHM Policy FormalisationLegislation Implement DESIGN STANDARDS CODES OF PRACTICE Equipment Maintenance Preplanning Exercises Fire Training Update

8 PROJECT DELIVERABLES Fire Scenario Analysis Compare Risk Reduction Options Define FHM Policy Implement Incident Frequency Survey Direct input Indirect input Escalation Mechanism Analysis Risk Reduction Options Foam Review Risk Workbook

9 Rimseal Fire Spill on Roof Fire Full Surface Fire Bund FirePontoon Explosion FLOATING ROOF TANK FIRE SCENARIOS

10 Data processed from 16 companies Data processed from 16 companies Completed questionnaires received from 164 sites in 36 countries Completed questionnaires received from 164 sites in 36 countries Data from 2420 tanks >40m diameter in use during Data from 2420 tanks >40m diameter in use during Average age of tanks reviewed years Average age of tanks reviewed years Sample represented tank years of operation Sample represented tank years of operation PROJECT DATABASE LASTFIRE

11 Country/Region Nigeria Southern Europe Northern Europe North America VenezuelaThailandSingapore Saudi Arabia Number of fires Tank years Frequency ( x /tank year ) Thunderstorm days per year RIMSEAL FIRE FREQUENCY BY AREA

12 RISK REDUCTION OPTIONS Options addressed:- Tank & Bund Design & OperationTank & Bund Design & Operation Incident DetectionIncident Detection Fire Protection SystemsFire Protection Systems Portable/Mobile Fire Fighting EquipmentPortable/Mobile Fire Fighting Equipment Fire Response StrategiesFire Response Strategies Final options chosen should be based on site-specific analysis

13 RISK REDUCTION OPTIONS RISK REDUCTION OPTIONSExamplesLASTFIRE Fire retardant rimseal Tank Roof Fire retardant rimseal Fire containment Tank Roof Non fire retardant rimseal Fire spread

14 RISK REDUCTION OPTIONS RISK REDUCTION OPTIONSExamplesLASTFIRE Linear Heat Detector End-of-line device FIRE FAULT SYSTEM FAULT ALARM SILENCED SYSTEM HEALTHY RESETSILENCE ALARM CONTROL ENABLE Linear Heat Detector in rimseal area Tank Roof

15 Lightning Protection of Floating Roof Storage Tanks Lightning Protection of Floating Roof Storage Tanks

16 Computerised version available 4 analyses Rimseal Fire Spill / Partial Surface Fire Full Surface Fire Bund Fire Database Help / Advice Computerised version available 4 analyses Rimseal Fire Spill / Partial Surface Fire Full Surface Fire Bund Fire Database Help / Advice Risk Workbook

17 Fighting Floating Roof Tank Rimseal Fires

18 Foam Fire Test For Storage Tank Fires Foam Fire Test For Storage Tank Fires

19 Tank Firefighting Workshop Tank Firefighting Workshop

20 Full Surface Fire Response Options Burn Down Burn Down System Application System Application Monitor Attack Monitor Attack

21 Full Surface Fire Response Pump-out and Controlled Burndown

22 Full Surface Foam System Full Surface Fire Response

23 Monitor Application

24 Time for an update? Developments Successful extinguishment of major fires Successful extinguishment of major fires Increasing concern re environmental issues Increasing concern re environmental issues Additional Foam test development Additional Foam test development New Fire Detection systems New Fire Detection systems Tank, roof and seal developments Tank, roof and seal developments Large capacity mobile response package Large capacity mobile response package LASTFIRE

25 82m Tank Fire

26 Objectives of update study To continue LASTFIRE’s role as the established recognised international oil companies forum on best practices of Fire Hazard Management of Storage Tanks LASTFIRE

27 Time for an update? Scope of Work Objectives Review of incidents Review of incidents Update database on open top floaters Update database on open top floaters Extend database to fixed roof and internal floaters Extend database to fixed roof and internal floaters Assess current practices and latest developments in risk reduction measures Assess current practices and latest developments in risk reduction measures Detection systems Detection systems Foam systems Foam systems Major incident response systems Major incident response systems Tank / seal constructions Tank / seal constructions Become industry focal point / forum Become industry focal point / forum LASTFIRE

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29 LASTFIRE LASTFIRE Involvement - Existing and Future Benefits

30 Involvement/Benefits Direct involvement in development of latest practices, codes and standardsDirect involvement in development of latest practices, codes and standards LASTFIRE Risk Reduction OptionsLASTFIRE Risk Reduction Options Energy Institute IP19Energy Institute IP19 EI / API Lightning StudyEI / API Lightning Study LASTFIRE Technical input & review

31 Involvement/Benefits Contribution to LASTFIRE Incident database (anonymously)Contribution to LASTFIRE Incident database (anonymously) Most comprehensive statistical database for tank fires and tank related incidentsMost comprehensive statistical database for tank fires and tank related incidents Used for input into safety cases and hazard assessmentsUsed for input into safety cases and hazard assessments LASTFIRE Database continually updated

32 Involvement/Benefits Practical guidance on implementation of FEHM MeasuresPractical guidance on implementation of FEHM Measures Risk Reduction Options DocumentRisk Reduction Options Document What are the cost effective FEHM measuresWhat are the cost effective FEHM measures What are typical & best practicesWhat are typical & best practices LASTFIRE Incident prevention, detection, protection and response

33 Involvement/Benefits Research relevant to tank firesResearch relevant to tank fires BoiloversBoilovers Vapour suppressionVapour suppression Alternative extinguishing methodsAlternative extinguishing methods LASTFIRE Research Topics

34 Boilover Study Boilover Study Small scale instrumented tests with different crudes and water levels Small scale instrumented tests with different crudes and water levels Time to boilover Time to boilover Boilover severity Boilover severity LASTFIRE

35 Initial work

36 Second phase instrumented tests

37 Third Phase LASTFIRE

38 Time to boilover Effect of water/fuel quantity Fire spread Tank wall temperatures Effect of crude composition Refined products / Biofuels Model validation Foam application vs time Time to boilover Effect of water/fuel quantity Fire spread Tank wall temperatures Effect of crude composition Refined products / Biofuels Model validation Foam application vs time Basic Analysis

39 Diesel / Crude Oil


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