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GIS TUTORIAL 1 Lecture 1 Introduction to GIS. Outline  GIS overview  GIS data and layers  GIS applications and examples  Software overview  GIS Tutorial.

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Presentation on theme: "GIS TUTORIAL 1 Lecture 1 Introduction to GIS. Outline  GIS overview  GIS data and layers  GIS applications and examples  Software overview  GIS Tutorial."— Presentation transcript:

1 GIS TUTORIAL 1 Lecture 1 Introduction to GIS

2 Outline  GIS overview  GIS data and layers  GIS applications and examples  Software overview  GIS Tutorial 1 overview 2 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

3 GIS OVERVIEW Lecture 1

4 What is GIS?  Geographic information systems (GIS) are computerized systems designed for the storage, retrieval, and analysis of geographically -referenced data  GIS uses advanced analytical tools to explore at a scientific level the spatial relationships, patterns, and processes of cultural, biological, demographic, economic, geographic, and physical phenomena 4 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

5

6 Unique capabilities of GIS  GIS stores related geographic features in separate collections of files called map layers  Map layers can be reused easily, assembled into any number of map compositions, and overlaid for analysis 6 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

7 Spatial Data 7 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

8 Every Geographic Information System 8 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

9 How GIS differs from Related Systems  DBMS --typical MIS data base contains implicit but not explicit locational information  city, county, zip code, etc. but no geographical coordinates  is 100 N. High around the corner or across town from 200 E Main?  automated mapping (AM) --primarily two-dimensional display devices  thematic mapping (choropleth,etc such as SAS/GRAPH, DIDS, business mapping software) unable to relate different geographical layers (e.g zip codes and counties)  automated cartography--graphical design oriented; limited database ability  facility management (FM) systems --  lack spatial analysis tools  CAD/CAM (computer aided design/drafting)--primarily 3-D graphic creation (engineering design) & display systems  don’t reference via geographic location  CAD sees the world as a 3-D cube, GIS as a 3-D sphere  limited (if any) database ability (especially for non-spatial data)

10 GIS answers the following  Location: What is at...? Where is it?  Condition: Status of features?  Trends: What has changed since...?  Patterns: What spatial patterns exist?  Modeling: What if…? 10 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

11 Map Where Things Are Mapping where things are lets you find places that have the features you're looking for, and to see where to take action. *Find a feature—People use maps to see where or what an individual feature is. *Finding patterns—Looking at the distribution of features on the map instead of just an individual feature, you can see patterns emerge

12 Map Quantities  People map quantities, like where the most and least are, to find places that meet their criteria and take action, or to see the relationships between places. This gives an additional level of information beyond simply mapping the locations of features.  Children under age 18 - per pediatrician

13 Map Densities Population density Asia While you can see concentrations by simply mapping the locations of features, in areas with many features it may be difficult to see which areas have a higher concentration than others. A density map lets you measure the number of features using a uniform areal unit, such as acres or square miles, so you can clearly see the distribution

14 Find What's Inside  Use GIS to monitor what's happening and to take specific action by mapping what's inside a specific area.  For example, a district attorney would monitor drug-related arrests to find out if an arrest is within 1,000 feet of a school--if so, stiffer penalties apply

15 Find What's Nearby  Find out what's occurring within a set distance of a feature by mapping what's nearby Flood risk in lower Mekong River Delta

16 Map Change  Map the change in an area to anticipate future conditions, decide on a course of action, or to evaluate the results of an action or policy  Land use, Cape Cod :

17 Scale Scale of GIS data Global to local 17 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

18 Vector data  Map features  Points, lines, polygons  Feature attributes  Every feature has attributes (e.g., name, area, population) ShapeNameClassPop2000State PointNew YorkCity8,008,278NY PointLos AngelesCity3,694,820CA PointChicagoCity2,896,016IL 18 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

19 Raster data Stored electronic image or picture taken as an aerial photograph or satellite image Composed of a rectangular array of square cells, called pixels, with a number in each cell representing the solid color fill of that cell 19 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

20 The evolution of GIS Computerized years Early Years Specialized Years Connect & Collaborate Special thanks to Eric Hoel, Matt McGrath, and Craig Gillgrass of Esri, UC 2009

21 Early years – 1960s  Roger Tomlinson  “Father of GIS”  Canadian Geographic Information System  First computerized GIS  Assisted in regulatory procedures of land-use management and resource monitoring 21 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

22 Early years – 1960s  Howard T. Fisher  Harvard Graduate School of Design  Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis  Important theoretical concepts in spatial data handling were developed 22 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

23 Early years – 1960s  Jack Dangermond  Environmental science and landscape architecture degrees (Harvard GSD, 1969)  Founded Esri with wife Laura in GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

24 Early years – 1960s and 1970s  GPS (Global Positioning Systems)  Space-based positioning, navigation, and timing system  US Department of Defense (DoD) 24 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

25 Specialized years (1980s and 1990s) Desktop GIS applications released  ArcINFO (Esri)  Map Info  ArcGIS (Esri)  Mapguide (Autodesk)  Bentley Map, PowerMap (Bentley Systems)  Geomedia (Intergraph)  Smallworld (GE)  Grass, uDig, ERDAS 25 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

26 Current and future GIS  Desktop GIS  Advanced analysis and geoprocessing tools  Mobile GIS  GIS web solutions  ArcGIS Online  ArcServer  Google Earth  Bing Maps 26 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

27 GIS DATA AND LAYERS Lecture 1

28 GIS example  Identify polluting companies and their proximity to populations in poverty, water features, or schools  Start with  Databases  Map layers 28 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

29 Databases Not easy to interpret 29 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

30 Data shown as GIS layers 30 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

31 Political features Municipalities 31 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

32 Physical features Lakes, rivers, etc. 32 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

33 Administrative data Schools 33 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

34 Interactive GIS Identify features on map 34 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

35 Interactive GIS Select features in table and map 35 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

36 Proximity selections Polluting companies near water 36 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

37 Buffers Schools and children within 2-mile buffer of polluting company. 37 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

38 Statistics to support visuals  US Census data (tracts within pollutant buffers)  The mean percentage of total population in poverty in these tracts is 23.25% as opposed to 9.54% who are outside of these tracts.  The mean percentage of children under the age of 18 living in poverty within these tracts is 26% as opposed to 11.74% of children living in poverty who are outside of these tracts.  The mean median income of the tracts whose centroid is within the top/multiple polluter buffers is $29,290 as opposed to a mean median income of $53,690 for those outside of these buffers. 38 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

39 Statistics to support visuals  Schools  There are 25 schools within the top/multiple pollutant buffers.  The total enrollment of these schools is 1,754 students.  Of these schools, there are 1.9% Native American, 7.3% Asian, 25.3% Black, 8.2% Hispanic, and 20.7% White students.  This supports racial inequalities found by environmental justice projects. 39 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

40 SOFTWARE OVERVIEW Lecture 1

41 ArcMap (Desktop GIS) Table of contents Tools toolbar Identify results window Map document window Standard toolbar Main menu 41 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

42 Map documents  (.mxd) extension  “Points” to layers  Saves layer colors, symbology, etc. 42 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

43 Tutorial 1-1.mxd  Two layers  USCities (red points, restricted to major cities)  USStates (yellow polygons) 43 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

44 Adding map layers Separate files added to a map document 44 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

45 Geodatabases The geodatabase is a "container" used to hold a collection of datasets (GIS features, tables, raster images, etc). Country layer Graticule layer World.gdb 45 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

46 ArcCatalog Arranges and manages geographic information in workspace folders and geodatabases. 46 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

47 ArcToolbox Advanced tools with form-based input by users 47 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

48 GIS TUTORIAL 1 OVERVIEW Lecture 1

49 Part I Using and making maps  Chapter 1: Introduction  Learn the basics of working with existing GIS data and maps  Chapter 2: Map design  Learn how to create maps  Chapter 3: GIS outputs  Learn how to build and export maps using GIS data, map animation, and ArcGIS Online 49 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

50 Part II Working with spatial data  Chapter 4: File geodatabases  Learn how to create geodatabases and import data into them  Chapter 5: Spatial data  Explores the basic data types used within GIS and then shows how to use the Internet to gather GIS data  Chapter 6: Geoprocessing  Perform spatial analysis using geoprocessing tools  Chapter 7: Digitizing  Learn how to digitize vector data and transform data to match real-world coordinates  Chapter 8: Geocoding  Learn how to map address data as points through the geocoding process 50 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

51 Part III Analyzing spatial data  Chapter 9: Spatial analysis  Use buffering points for proximity analysis, conduct site suitability analysis, use multiple ring buffers for calibrating a gravity model, use data mining with cluster analysis  Chapter 10: ArcGIS 3D Analyst  Introduces ArcGIS 3D Analyst, allowing users to create 3D scenes, conduct fly-through animations, and conduct line-of-sight studies  Chapter 11: ArcGIS Spatial Analyst  Introduces ArcGIS Spatial Analyst for creating and analyzing raster maps, including hillshades, density maps, site suitability surfaces, and risk index surfaces 51 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

52 Chapter structure  Tutorials  Multiple tutorials in every chapter  Include step-by step exercises  Your turns  Reinforce the skills learned in the step-by-step exercises  Advanced assignments  Found at the end of each chapter.  Provokes critical problem-solving skills 52 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

53 Data  \EsriPress\GIST1\Data\  Map layers, file geodatabases, data tables, etc. 53 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

54 Maps  \EsriPress\GIST1\Maps\  Map documents  Starting place for tutorials 54 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

55 MyAssignments  \EsriPress\GIST1\MyAssignments\  Empty folders  Location to save end-of-chapter assignments 55 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

56 MyExercises  \EsriPress\GIST1\MyExercises\  Location to save tutorial exercises 56 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

57 FinishedExercises  \EsriPress\GIST1\MyExercises\ FinishedExercises  Completed exercises from each chapter 57 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook

58 Summary  GIS overview  GIS data and layers  GIS applications and examples  Software overview  GIS Tutorial 1 overview 58 GIS TUTORIAL 1 - Basic Workbook


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