# Energy Force and Motion

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Energy Force and Motion

PART I ENERGY

KWL- What do we already know?

Kinetic vs. Potential Energy F62
Kinetic is moving energy Potential is stored energy

WB 330 What are Kinetic and Potential Energy?

Extended Response Question

Types of Kinetic Energy….. F64-F65

Fire Safety… Thermal Energy Cameras!

Forms of Energy F64 Chemical Energy
Ex: stored energy in food and fuel.

Forms of Energy Electrical Energy Ex: batteries, electric in homes

Forms of Energy Light energy Ex: sun and lasers

Forms of Energy Mechanical Energy
Ex: wind, water falling over a water fall, sound

Forms of Energy Thermal Energy Ex: stove, heaters, matches

Transfer of Heat- REVIEW
Conduction- pot on the stove Convection- hot air rises cold air sinks Radiation- from the sun Reflection- heat bouncing off Heat energy is caused by the motion of particles that make up matter. When you rub your hands together, you are converting mechanical energy into heat energy.

Forms of Energy Nuclear Energy Ex: Sun

Forms of Energy CAN ENERGY CHANGE FORM? YES!
Ex: The fuel in a rocket changes from chemical energy to mechanical energy when the fuel burns

Page F65 Questions 1-5 Create a flipchart about the 4 of the forms of energy discussed in the reading… Mechanical Thermal Light Sound Electrical

Electricity F68- F72 Electricity – An energy source

Circuit Activity

Who discovered Electricity?

Electrical Energy Can be transformed into: Heat Light
Mechanical Energy

Which items are insulators?
Insulators are materials that do not conduct electricity very well.

Which items are conductors?
Conductors are materials that let electrical energy move through them.

Circuit A circuit is a pathway taken by an electric current.

Closed Circuit Allows the movement of electrical energy

Stops the movement of electrical energy
Open Circuits Stops the movement of electrical energy

Parallel Circuits There are 2 or more pathways for the current in a parallel circuit

Series Circuit There is only 1 pathway for the current.

Electricity and Magnetism
An electric current creates a magnetic field. A moving magnetic field creates an electric current.

Magnetic Fields Lines of force extend from the poles of a magnet in an arched pattern defining the area over which magnetic force is exerted.

Metallic Attraction Certain iron-bearing metals attract other such metals.

Electromagnets Wrapping a wire around certain iron-bearing metals like a nail creates a closed circuit and is an example of a simple electromagnet.

Review Questions Name 3 things that are insulators.
List 3 things that are conductors. What is the difference between an open and closed circuit? What is the difference between a series and a parallel circuit? What type of metal attracts other metals?

Workbook 335

Light F76 Key Terms Reflection Refraction Transparent Translucent
Opaque Convex Concave Spectrums Wavelengths

Sound Sound travels in waves- vibrations Key terms: Pitch Volume
Frequency Decibels Wavelength Amplitude

Can sound travel under the water? Yes sound can travel under the water. It moves four times faster through water than through the air. It can travel such long distances that whales can hear each other when they are nearly a hundred miles apart. Is there sound on the moon? No, there is no sound in space. Sound needs something to travel through like air or water. What is the speed of Sound? Sound travels through air at 1,120 feet (340 meters) per second.

Workbook 340 Open Response – Light

Workbook 346

Test Part I

PART II

EVERYDAY FORCES Page F6-F9

Three Forces that affect objects on Earth
FRICTION MAGNETISM GRAVITATION Tell me at least 3 facts about each of these types of forces.

A flag being blown by the force of the wind.

Force The greater the force, the greater the change in motion.
The bigger an object is, the less effect a force will have on it. The smaller an object is, the more effect a force will have on it.

How do things move? Above Below Ahead Behind Up Down Horizontally
Vertically Right Left

Friction Friction is a force that opposes motion. Friction acts in a direction opposite to the object's direction in motion. Without friction, the object would continue to move at a constant speed forever.

What Really Happened with the Apple?
Probably the more correct version of the story is that Newton, upon observing an apple fall from a tree, began to think along the following lines: The apple is accelerated, since its Gravity is the attractive force between all objects in the universe. It is the force that pulls objects to the earth.

Galileo, a famous Italian scientist who lived in the 1500's, was the first to discover the force of gravity. In his famous experiment he dropped two cannonballs, one 10 times the mass of the other, at exactly the same time from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. Which cannonball do you think hit first? Before you answer the question set up your own Galilean type experiment. Explanation: Both objects should hit the ground at the same time. Even though the two objects had different masses, gravity pulls each down to the ground at the same rate. Galileo discovered that gravity accelerates all objects at the same rate

Magnetism SIX things to know about magnets Almost everyone knows these six basic facts about how magnets behave: A magnet has two ends called poles, one of which is called a north pole or north-seeking pole, while the other is called a south pole or south-seeking pole. The north pole of one magnet attracts the south pole of a second magnet, while the north pole of one magnet repels the other magnet's north pole. So we have the common saying: like poles repel, unlike poles attract.

A magnet creates an invisible area of magnetism all around it called a magnetic field.
The north pole of a magnet points roughly toward Earth's north pole and vice-versa. That's because Earth itself contains magnetic materials and behaves like a gigantic magnet. If you cut a bar magnet in half, it's a bit like cutting an earthworm in half! You get two brand new, smaller magnets, each with its own north and south pole. If you run a magnet a few times over an unmagnetized piece of a magnetic material (such as an iron nail), you can convert it into a magnet as well. This is called magnetization.

Workbook page 294

Open Response Force and Mass

Example OE

Balanced and Unbalanced Forces F12-F13
A book resting on a desk illustrates balanced forces. However, a book dropped from a desk illustrates unbalanced forces. In this case, gravity has overcome the balance of forces

Workbook page 299

Newton’s Project Due 11-12 VIDEO: Newton’s Life Wkbk 304- Vocabulary

Motion and Speed F34- F36

How do we know something has moved?
By looking at the things that are not moving around it. FRAME OF REFERENCE

Speed What is speed? How fast an object is moving.
Measure of distance.

Speed How do I calculate speed? DISTANCE / TIME
Ex:10ft/ 3 seconds=3.1 ft/sec

On the weather channel a hurricane's path is explained in terms of velocity. People want to know how fast a hurricane is traveling but they also need to know in what direction it is traveling so they can evacuate if necessary. For instance, the weatherman will report a hurricane's velocity as five kilometers per hour moving in a northeasterly direction.

Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity
Acceleration is the rate of change in velocity. A roller coaster is constantly changing its velocity as it travels up and down and around. To calculate the acceleration of a roller coaster, divide the change in velocity by the time it takes the velocity to change.

Momentum How hard it is to slow or stop an object in motion.

Review An object’s speed in a particular direction
An object slows down, speeds up, turns An object’s place or location A measure of the distance an object moves A measure of how hard it is to stop an object

Workbook 323 Vocabulary Check

Buoyant Procedure 1. Make a boat of some type out of your foil paper. 2. Put your boat into the container of water and begin to place marbles in one at a time (See Rule # 2) 3. Place your marbles evenly throughout your boat. Make sure you balance your weight evenly. Rules 1. You only have one attempt. You may not start over once you begin placing marbles in the boat. 2. You must wait three seconds before you can place another marble in your boat. 3. When your boat sinks, count the number of marbles in your sunken boat.

Conclusion 1. In what way does the size of the boats make a difference in the amount of marbles they hold? Please be specific. 2. In what way does the design of the boats make a difference in the amount of marbles they hold? Please be specific. 3. Please describe which design held the most marbles and why. 4. What would you do different next time?

Newton's first law of motion says that an object in motion will stay in motion and an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force. In the car your body was in motion, traveling at the same speed as the car. When the car stopped, your body stayed in motion. If you were not wearing a seatbelt and you were traveling very fast, your body could continue to move forward through the windshield!

Inertia Inertia keeps an object still or keeps it moving.
A moving object will keep moving until something stops it. An object that is not moving will not move until something moves it.

If a bowling ball and a soccer ball were both dropped at the same time from the roof of a tall building, which would hit the ground with a greater force? Common sense tells us that the bowling ball would. We know that gravity accelerates all objects at the same rate, so both balls would hit the ground at the same time. Therefore the difference in forces would be caused by the different masses of the balls.

A speeding bullet and a slow moving train both have tremendous force
A speeding bullet and a slow moving train both have tremendous force. The force of the bullet can be attributed to its incredible acceleration while the force of the train comes from its great mass.

Imagine a rocket is being launched from the earth
Imagine a rocket is being launched from the earth. Hot gases are pushed out from the bottom of the rocket as the rocket is thrust upward. The force of the gases pushing against the surface of the earth is equal and opposite to the force with which the rocket moves upward. The motion of the rocket can be explained by Newton's third law, for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. In other words, when one object exerts a force on another object, the second object exerts a force of equal strength in the opposite direction on the first object. Likewise, when a skeet shooter fires his shotgun at a clay disc flying through the air, he experiences the recoil upon the shotgun. The "kick" felt by the shooter is the reaction force upon the shotgun which is equal in magnitude to the force that pushes the pellets.

Newton Flipchart Newton Law 1 Law 2 Law 3

Workbook Page: 317

Study Guide……

TEST GOOD LUCK!