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1 Lesson 10: Standard Form SOCI 108 - Thinking Critically about Social Issues Spring 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Lesson 10: Standard Form SOCI 108 - Thinking Critically about Social Issues Spring 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Lesson 10: Standard Form SOCI Thinking Critically about Social Issues Spring 2012

2 2 Learning Outcomes Covert arguments to their standard form

3 3 Standard Form of an Argument Premise, And premise, (and so on for as many as you have) Therefore, conclusion

4 4 example standard form I am human (premise) And all humans are mortal (premise) Therefore, I am mortal (conclusion)

5 5 example Reversed I am mortal (conclusion) Since all humans are mortal (premise) And I am human (premise)

6 6 example Jumbled Since are humans are mortal (premise) I am mortal (conclusion) For I am human (premise)

7 7 Corandic Workbook page minutes individually How do you know the answers to the questions? – Signal words

8 8 Implicit / Explicit Very often arguments are implicit, rather than explicit With a little work we can extract most arguments from their natural settings and write them in standard premises-conclusion form Arguments are rarely as simple and straightforward as expressed here in class

9 9 Implicit / Explicit Arguments are often expressed in terms that are unclear, incomplete or both Crucial pieces of arguments are sometimes hinted at, rather than clearly stated A premise or even the conclusion of an argument may be left out The material from which we extract an argument may include claims that are not part of the argument, or it may contain several related arguments

10 10 Premise Signals So Since Accordingly For Follows from After all Due to Inasmuch as Insofar as Because

11 11 Conclusion Signals So Therefore Thus Consequently It follows that As a result Hence In conclusion Shows that This implies We may infer that

12 12 Identify the premises and conclusion Since pain is a state of consciousness, a “mental event,” it can never be directly observed. Conclusion is red, premise is lavender

13 13 Identify the premises and conclusion Business is the art of growth. Growth is the essence of life. And so our answer quickly follows. Business is the art of life. Conclusion is red, premise is lavender

14 14 One More Science is based on experiment, on a willingness to challenge old dogma, on an openness to see the universe as it really is. Accordingly, science sometimes requires courage-at the very least the courage to question conventional wisdom.

15 15 Practice! Workbook page 20, practice all three in groups


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