Presentation on theme: "Using Basals: Determining How to use Basals Effectively"— Presentation transcript:
1Using Basals: Determining How to use Basals Effectively
2Understanding the basal 1. Used in 9 to 10 primary classrooms in the U.S.2. Used in 85% of the intermediate classrooms3. Have come in several forms forms over time:The first was the hornbook1830 The McGuffey’s Eclectic Reader1812 The Beacon Street Readers: Strong phonics and articulation drills1941 Dick and Jane New Basic Readers: Supported sight reading and repetition
3Anatomy of the Basal Reader Composed of a group of core materials1.Student text2.Teacher’s edition3.Students’ and teacher’s workbooks4. Supplemental practice andenrichment exercises
4Teacher’s Edition Instructional guide and in-service support Three important features1. Scope and sequence chart2. Reduced version of the student’s text3. Suggested lesson plan for the teacher
5The Student’s text In some basals, the beginning readers are called primers. They often contain decodable text: text where 90% of the words have been previously learned or the phonics rules for them have been previously learned. (10% new words)????? What are some important problems with controlling vocabulary in early basal readers???
6WorkbookThe workbook: Designed to provide independently practice of skill instruction provided by the teacherThe cost of workbooks has in some cases, displaced the purchase of good books and the time spent working on them has replaced time for reading.
7Strengths of Basals Strengths Basal Readers A sequenced or spiral curriculumSaves teacher’s timeStudent texts are in ascending difficultySkills gradually introduced and reviewedLesson plans providedHelpful to beginning teachersAssurance that reading skills are being coveredBACK
8Limitations of Basal Readers Editing stories (both text and illustrations) removes supportBasal’s lesson design is questionableStories may not relate to students’ interestsOften less appealing than trade booksCensorship comes into playSeldom contains directions on how to teach readingLeaves little room for creativity and decision makingPromotes the use of traditional groupingManagement becomes time consuming
9Organization of the Basal Designed to take students through a series of of books, experiences, and activities toward increasingly sophisticated reading behaviors (SCOPE AND SEQUENCE)Important feature in the teacher’s edition is the scope and sequence chartSome are organized in themed units
10Instructional Beliefs and Basal Readers The philosophical underpinnings of different basal series varies with respect to the author’s beliefs about how children should be taught to read.There are skills based basals and literature based basals.
11Adopting Basal Readers Most states have adopted some form of highly centralized, state level-control the selection.The remaining states select basals at the district leveledTexas uses elements of bothThe average amount of time textbook adoption committee members spend is approximately one minute per page. This is often referred to as “Flip Test”.
12Guidelines for Evaluating Basal Readers Selection of basals should not be the same as the selection of the reading curriculumReviewers should be the teachers who will work with that basalEstablishing Criteria
13Taking Control of the Basal Reading to,with, and by children – Called a “Balanced Approach to Reading”
14Reading TO KidsSet the stage: Why are we doing this? Where are we going?Introduce the selection – discuss the cover and title, discuss the topic and how it might apply to the kids, …Read the selection – PRACTICE FIRSTFocused or Open Discussion
15Read WITH Kids Echo Reading – repeated reading (I say – you say) Choral Reading – reading as a wholeAntiphonal Reading - a collaborative dialogueGuided Reading – Children read in group at instructional level (mumble voice) with teacher’s individualized feedback
16Reading BY Kids Independent Reading In groups – predetermined stopping point each session with end of reading response. Meet and set next goalSustained Silent Reading – student selected materials read for student determined purposes
17Direct Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA): Used in almost all Basals Pre-ReadingDiscuss cover (or first page) and the titlePredict what will happen in the book (story)During ReadingRead to a predetermined placeReview previous predictionsMake new onesRead on to next stopping point
18Reconciled Reading Lesson Pre-ReadingTeach reading skills before readingRelate them to the section to be readDuring ReadingModel using skill at beginning of the readingHave students monitor their own use of the skillPost-ReadingDiscuss use of skill
19Language Experience What I think I can say What I say, I can write, or someone can write for meWhat I write, I can readRoach Van Allen
20ReQuest Lesson Reciprocal Questioning Pre-ReadingCarefully select “non-negotiables”Preview piece (see DRTA)During ReadingRead together to a stopping pointTeacher asks questions of studentsStudents ask questions of teacherRead on to next stopping point
21Analyzing a Basal Selection of Skills to Include in a Mini-Lesson Select and Analyze a skillIntroduce the Skill to be learned in the context of a “Whole”Students Practice and Follow-upReturn to the “Whole”AssessmentSupplies NeededEND: Back to first slide
22Skills Based Basals emphasize breaking reading into a series of individual skills. These skills are taught in isolation and then brought into the reading process. These basals are of the “decodable” type so that the words in the stories will match the skills being taught a t the time.Back
23Literature based basals use literature acquired from trade books and written for literary value, not for being decodable. Reading strategies are taught within the context of the stories as they are being read and as they come to be needed,, rather on the curriculum’s schedule.Back
24Evaluating Basals: Guidelines 1. _Is extensive and user-friendly2. _Supports curriculum standards/goals/objectives3. _Offers teaching/grouping choices4. _Provides multiple tasks to meet individual needs for prior knowledge, literacy support, writing options, etc.5. _Highlights skills/strategies for vocabulary, decoding, comprehension, study skills, graphics, and technology at point of use6. _Includes intervention strategies/lessons7. _Traces skills/strategies (Scope and Sequence chart)
258. _Incorporates varied assessment options 9. _Enhances cross-curricular connections10. _Heightens cultural perspectives11. _ Demonstrates process writing/leveled projects12. _ Integrates spelling and grammar instruction13. _Implements charts, report utility, Internet capability14. _Has theme organized/utilized15. _Suggests classroom library/complete lessonsBack
26Spiral Curriculumspiral curriculum - 'A curriculum as it develops should revisit this basic ideas repeatedly, building upon them until the student has grasped the full formal apparatus that goes with them'Jerome Bruner.