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©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Sentence Skills: A Workbook for Writers, Form A John Langan Fragments.

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Presentation on theme: "©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Sentence Skills: A Workbook for Writers, Form A John Langan Fragments."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Sentence Skills: A Workbook for Writers, Form A John Langan Fragments

2 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A sentence fragment is a group of words that is punctuated as a sentence but is not grammatically correct.A sentence fragment is a group of words that is punctuated as a sentence but is not grammatically correct. A sentence fragment may lack a, a, or an.A sentence fragment may lack a subject, a verb, or an independent clause. –The wind velocity in hurricanes and monsoons. –The winds raging in hurricanes and monsoons.

3 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Locate the subject.Locate the subject. Locate the verb.Locate the verb. – Inspires many poets and song writers. (This lacks a subject.) – The pleasant weather of May. (This lacks a verb.)

4 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Verb phrase: – To take advantage of sunlight in photography. Prepositional phrase: – Within the eye of the hurricane.

5 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Noun phrase:Noun phrase: – Various theories for weather forecasting. Appositive phrase:Appositive phrase: – One popular weather topic, el Niño.

6 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. A clause that begins with a (or) is aA clause that begins with a subordinator (or dependent word) is a dependent clause. These examples are notThese examples are not independent clauses. If a tornado sweeps across the plains. Because snow is beautiful in the moonlight.

7 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Look for relative pronouns.Look for relative pronouns. Relative pronouns introduce clauses that modify or (who, which, that). Relative pronouns introduce clauses that modify nouns or pronouns (who, which, that). – The instructor who argued against class cancellations for snow. Revised: The instructor who argued against class cancellations for snow was very unrealistic.Revised: The instructor who argued against class cancellations for snow was very unrealistic.

8 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Although relative clause fragments have both a subject and a verb, they cannot stand alone.Although relative clause fragments have both a subject and a verb, they cannot stand alone. – Bob who intends to buy a small tractor and a plow. Revised: Bob, who intends to buy a small tractor and a plow, thinks he will earn money removing snow this winter.Revised: Bob, who intends to buy a small tractor and a plow, thinks he will earn money removing snow this winter.

9 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Combine the fragment with the sentence that precedes it or with the sentence that follows it.Combine the fragment with the sentence that precedes it or with the sentence that follows it. –Dramatic weather conditions do not always cause disasters. But at times create beautiful situations as well. – Correction: – Correction: Dramatic weather conditions do not always cause disasters but at times create beautiful situations.

10 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. The jet stream can pull cold air down from Canada. Or bring warm air up from Mexico. The jet stream can pull cold air down from Canada. Or bring warm air up from Mexico. The jet stream can pull cold air down from Canada or bring warm air up from Mexico.

11 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dependent clause fragments begin with a (because, since, before).Dependent clause fragments begin with a subordinating conjunction (because, since, before). Although air traffic controllers regulate flight patterns. Although air traffic controllers regulate flight patterns. – Corrected: – Corrected: Although air traffic controllers regulate traffic patterns, they cannot control the weather.

12 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Be aware of situations that can lead to sentence fragments. –Examine a sentence that begins with a –Examine a sentence that begins with a subordinating word. Because hail fell on the peach blossoms. Because hail fell on the peach blossoms. –Carefully select transitional words or phrases which introduce examples or a list. For example, floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes. For example, floods, hurricanes, and tornadoes.

13 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Decide whether each sentence group is a correct sentence or if it is a sentence fragment. (Click to see the answer.) My Aunt Marie being a good cook cook. Fragment

14 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Decide whether each sentence group is a correct sentence or if it is a sentence fragment. She can spend hours reading a cook book. Correct

15 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Decide whether each sentence group is a correct sentence or if it is a sentence fragment. Although she says that she says that she doesn’t doesn’t like to read. Fragment

16 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Decide whether each sentence group is a correct sentence or if it is a sentence fragment. Fragment Special desserts such as pecan pies, chocolate cheese- cakes, and pumpkin cake roll.

17 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Decide whether each sentence group is a correct sentence or if it is a sentence fragment. Aunt Marie’s desserts are not for those who are watching their diet. Correct

18 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Decide whether each sentence group is a correct sentence or if it is a sentence fragment. Filled with cream and sugar, these delicacies contain hundreds of calories. Correct

19 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Decide whether each sentence group is a correct sentence or if it is a sentence fragment. It often seems that any food item that tastes good is fattening. Correct

20 Sentence Skills, Form A, 7E Fragments ©2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Decide whether each sentence group is a correct sentence or if it is a sentence fragment. For example, ice cream and chocolate cake. Fragment


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