Presentation on theme: "Microsoft Excel 2000 Lecture 1. Overview of Excel Excel is a spreadsheet program. Excel is used to analyse numerical data. Excel replaces the function."— Presentation transcript:
Microsoft Excel 2000 Lecture 1
Overview of Excel Excel is a spreadsheet program. Excel is used to analyse numerical data. Excel replaces the function of a calculator. You can enter and format data easily. You can analyse data by using formulas and functions. You can view data as a graph or chart. You can make what-if analysis.
Titlebar displays program name and filename. Control-menu buttons are restore,move, size, minimize, maximize, close. Menubar Minimize, Restore and Close buttons. Standard Toolbar Format Toolbar Name Box Formula Bar Edit Formula Button Workspace displays workbook window Status Bar
Workbook Window Displays a new blank workbook file containing three blank sheets. A sheet is used to display different types of information, such as financial data or charts. Whenever you open a new workbook it displays a worksheet. A worksheet, also referred as spreadsheet is a rectangular grid of rows and columns used to enter data. It is the primary type of sheet you will use in excel. The parts of the worksheet are...
Introducing Workbook Window
Row Numbers Column Letters Column Row Active Sheet Tab Scroll Buttons Cell Selector identifies active cell.
Name box displays reference of Active Cell. Formula box displays the value of Active Cell.
Using the Office Assistant You can use the office assistant as in MS Word. Press F1 to display office assistant. Then you can type your question and display the related help topics as usual.
Using Toolbars Standard and Formatting toolbars are displayed automatically. Standard toolbar contains most frequently used buttons. Buttons on the formatting toolbar are used to change the format and the design of the worksheets. You can open toolbars by using View Toolbars... Menu item.
Moving around the Worksheet Either the MOUSE or the KEYBOARD can be used to move CELL SELECTOR from one cell to another.
move left move right move up move down Page-up move one page up Page-downmove one page down CTRL+ last column CTRL+ last row Moving with Keyboard
Types of Entries The information you enter in a cell can be: –TEXT –NUMBERS –FORMULAS
Text Entries Can contain any combination of letters, numbers, spaces, and any other special characters. Max characters can be entered in a cell. By default they are aligned to left.
Number Entries Number entries can contain only the digits 0 to 9 and any of the special characters + - ( ),. / $ % E e. Number entries are used in calculations. Numbers are aligned to right, by default.
Formula Entries An entry that begins with an equal sign “=“ is a formula. Formula entries perform calculations using numbers or data contained in other cells. The resulting value is a variable value because it can change if the data it depends changes. In contrast a number value is a constant value.
Entering Data Example
Let’s Enter Data Goto B2 and press “J” character. CANCEL BUTTON ENTER BUTTON Formula Bar Displays Entry Active CELL displays Entry and Insertion Point You can use cancel and enter buttons to cancel the entry or complete the entry with your mouse. Type “anuary” to complete the word to “January” and press ENTER. Text entries are LEFT Aligned. Cell Selector moves down after you press ENTER. You can press BACKSPACE if you have mistyped a character.
Enter Edit Delete Copy: Data
Let’s Edit the Contents of the cell B3 and change January to JAN. 1.Put your mouse over cell B3. 2.Double click or press F2. Insertion Point You can move insertion point by using HOME, END, , keys. Mouse pointer is now an I-beam. You can position insertion point by using mouse as well. DELETE key deletes the next character to the I-Beam. BACKSPACE key deletes the previous character to the I-Beam. 1.Position insertion point to end of the word January. 2.Press BACKSPACE 6 times. 3.Type “AN”. 4.Press Enter button. Moving horizontally write the words FEB, MAR, APR, MAY, JUN and TOTAL in cells C3 through H3. Move to C2 and type “1999 First Half Budget” Long text Entry. Now write row headings: A4SALES A5Clothing A6Hard Goods A7Total Sales You should have a similar looking worksheet. ENTERING NUMBERS 1.Move to B5 2.Type Press Numeric entries are right aligned by default. Write following: C D E F G Then These: B C D E F G Now A6 cannot be displayed completely, but it is displayed completely in the formula bar. Save the workbook with the name “Sales Data”
Now enter Expenses Data. Then copy contents of B12 to C12 by using Copy & Paste buttons. Now select cells through D12 to G12 and press paste. Now select cells B13 to B15 and copy cells. Then select cells C13 to G15 and press paste again. CUT, COPY, PASTE SHORT-CUTS CUTCTRL+X COPYCTRL+C PASTECTRL+V ENTERING FORMULAS 1.Move to cell B5 2.Enter =B5+C5+D5+E5+F5+G5 3.Press ENTER. Results of the calculation appears in the cell. If you change the contents of one of the cells B5 to G5 then formula is recalculated.
You can change the format of cells using Format Cells... Menu item. You can change Data Format, Alignment, Fonts, Borders, Background, from this dialog box. Data formats in Excel include: General, Number Currency, Accounting Date, Time Percentage, Fraction Scientific,Text Special, Custom
Previewing and Printing Worksheets
Previewing and Printing an Excel Workbook PreviewFile Print Preview... PrintFile Print...
Write formulas using print mode 1.Move to B7 2.Type = 3.Select B5 4.Press + 5.Select B6 6.Press Enter Command Formula =B5+B6 is calculated in cell B7 You can copy the formulas in the same way as other values. Copy the formula in B7 to cells C7 to G7 using range-selection. Notice that the formula in B7 =B5+B6 changes relative to the cell it is copied. It becomes =C5+C6 in C7. 1.Select cells through B10 to G10. 2.Type =B7*4% 3.Press CTRL+Enter Formulas B7*4%, C7*4%,... G7*4% are entered automaticly. Now Enter the formula =B7*58% to the cells in range B11 to G11 using same method. Again we observe that the correct versions of the formulas are entered to all of the selected cells.
Entering Functions Using functions you can increase your Productivity. You can write =SUM(B10:B15) instead of the formula B10+B11+B12+B13+B14+B15 Move to cell B16. Press Autosum button. Excel proposes a range to automaticly for you. Now Press Enter command and enter formula. Function Name Range Argument Now copy the function from B16 to range C16 to G16. Now Goto cell B18 and select the range B18 to G18. Then Enter formula =B7-B16 ress CTRL+Enter. Obsreve result. Goto H6 and press Autosum button. Excel proposals incorrect range. Now select range B6 to G6 Range is corrected. Press Enter Command. Copy cell H6 to range H7 to H18. Move to H8 Range references blank cells.
1.Move to I3. 2.Type AVG and right align it. 3.Move to I5. Another way to enter a function is Paste Function utility. Press Paste Function Button 1.Select Statistical 2.Then Average 3.Press OK Proposed Argument Range Hide dialog box to select range. Description of function Formula Result Calculated Because the proposed argument list is incorrect, (it includes total) we will select the actual range. 1.Click Hide Dialog Box button. Name Box as drop down list Dialog-box reduced to a single bar to allow easy access to worksheet. Restores display of dialog box. Select B5 through G5 Press Restore Dialog box button. Press OK. Copy the function to cells I5 to I18.
1.Move to J5. 2.Enter =H5/H7 To get ratio of sale to total sales. Copy cell to J6. Error occurs because formula becomes H6/H8 What we wanted was to compute ratio H6/H7. So H7 must be an absolute reference rather than a relative reference. Reference types H7Relative reference. $H$7Absolute reference. $H7Mixed reference. H$7Mixed reference. Goto J5 and press F2 to edit it. Move cursor to start of H7 and press F4. If you continue to press F4 you will observe all kind of references. ($H$7, $H7, H$7, H7). Press Enter Command when it shows $H$7 reference. After copying J5 to J6 observe on the formula bar that H7 reference doesn’t change. To clarify the meaning of cell contents you can enter a comment to a cell. From Insert menu select Comment Red triangle indicates cell has a comment. Enter comment to text box. Comment text box name Type “Total hard goods sales as a percent of total sales” as comment. To close the comment click anywhere outside the comment box. To view the comment again point to cell or select View Comments menu item.
Changing the column width
Adjusting Column Widths After entering the numbers for January in column B, any long headings in column A were cut off or interrupted. To allow the long text entries to be fully displayed, you can increase the column’s width. Column A contains many interrupted headings. Column Width The size or width of a column controls how much information can be displayed in a cell. A text entry that is longer than the column width will be fully displayed only if the cells to the right are blank. If the cells contains data, then the text is interrupted. The column width can be quickly adjusted by dragging the column divider line located to the right of the column letter. Dragging it to the right increases column width. Max column width is 255. Drag the column divider line located to the right of the column letter. Reference Line shows the place of the moving column width. Next you want to see how the columns would be displayed if you decrease the width of all the columns from B to J. You can decrease the width of all the columns individually, but there is a faster way to do this. To set the width of multiple columns you should select the columns you want by clicking the first one and then dragging your mouse. Now you can set the width of all columns by setting the width of one of the selected columns. Just repeat the previous step. And then goto A1. All the cells in the selected columns have changed to five character spaces. Notice that a series of number signs (#####) appears in most of the worksheet cells. Whenever the width of a cell is too small to display the entire number, number signs are displayed. As you can see, this new column width is too small. To cancel the most recent operation and restore the worksheet to how it was prior to your change Click UNDO. The effects of the column width setting are reversed to the prior column width setting. To undo several actions at once, open the Undo drop- down list and select the actions you want to reverse. All actions above the selected actions are also reversed.
Zooming the worksheet
You can reduce or enlarge the amount of information displayed onscreen by changing the magnification from between 10 to 400 percent. You want to display more information: Open zoom drop-down menu. Select 75%.
Formatting Numbers Number format affect how numbers look on screen when they are printed. They do not affect how excel stores or uses the values in calculations. The default format setting that controls how numbers are displayed in worksheet is General. General automatically sets the number format to a Date, Time, Comma, Currency, Percent or Scientific number format depending on the characters you used when entering data.
continued... The table below shows samples of how Excel automatically formats a number based on how it appears when you enter it. ENTRYFORMAT 10,000Comma $102.20Currency with 2 decimal places. 90%Percent with zero decimal places. 10/30/98Date 9:10Time
continued... If no symbol is used, Excel leaves the number unformatted. Unformatted numbers are displayed without a thousand separator such as comma, with negative values preceded by a – (minus sign), and with as many decimal place settings as the cell space allows.
You will change the number format of cells through B5 to I18 to display dollar signs, commas, and decimal places. A quick way of selecting a range is to select the first cell of the range then press Shift key and then pressing the last key of the range. Using this method select the range B5 through I18. Click format cells. If necessary open the number tab and select currency. Click OK. A second category that displays number as currency is accounting. Click decrease decimal places button 2 times. Then Select Format/Column/AutoFit Menu Item. AutoFit feature automatically adjusts column width to display the contents of cells within the selection.
Select cells from A5 to A7 and A10 to A16 by using CTRL key. Now open Format/Cells and select Alignment tab. You can set cell alignment to any item in this drop-down box. This time we will set Left alignment and Indentation level to 2. Observe that the contents of the selected cells are indended 2 levels.
You may want to insert rows after filling some parts of the worksheet. You may do this by choosing Insert/Rows. Goto A3 and Select Insert/Rows item from the menu bar. You may also insert columns by choosing Insert/Columns.
Centering Across a Selection
You may want to set a heading for your workbook, visible on the workbook. Lets make our heading at C3 centered. Select cells from A2 to I2 Press Merge and Center button on format toolbar.
Changing Fonts and Font Styles
You want to improve the worksheet appearence by enhancing the appearance of the title. To do this you can change the font settings. Font settings are common to all Office family of programs. Select Times New Roman from font-face drop down list. Select 12 from font size drop- down list. Click Bold. Set row heading in A8 and A17 to Bold. Move to A5. Press Bold and Italic. Double-click format painter. Click A10 and A19. Click format painter. Finally, you want to bold and underline the column headings. Select B4 through I4. Click bold and underline. Now select range B6 to I19. Change format to Accounting from Format/Cells... Then select Format/Columns/AutoFit Selection...
Adding Headers and Footers
To add a header, Preview the worksheet using File/Print Preview. Select Setup... Select Header/Footer tab. Open Header list and select your name, date, page number option. You can select a predefined footer by the same method.
Changing Page Orientation
Notice that entire page does not fit on the screen. To see second page click next. You can use landscape style to fit the contents of worksheet on the same paper. Now press previous and then choose setup. Dont forget to set page tab. Then choose landscape option. Now you can print spreadsheet by using the print command.
End of lecture. Don’t forget to save your work.