Presentation on theme: "First Aid Skills 1 Discovery Ranger Workbook Pages 195-209 Leaders Red Merit Reference Pages 169 - 199 Welcome to First Aid Skills Lesson TwoLesson ThreeLesson."— Presentation transcript:
First Aid Skills 1 Discovery Ranger Workbook Pages Leaders Red Merit Reference Pages Welcome to First Aid Skills Lesson TwoLesson ThreeLesson FourLesson Five
First Aid Skills 2 Lesson One
First Aid Skills 3 Lesson One – Objectives Fundamentals of First Aid 1.Define the meaning of First Aid. 2.Explain how to use the 911 system. 3.Explain the first concern when giving first aid. 4.Explain when to move and when not to move an injured person. 5.List the four steps of victim assessment.
First Aid Skills 4 First Aid is care given to an injured person to stabilize and keep him / her safe until he / she can receive professional medical attention. Fundamentals of First Aid Fundamentals of First Aid 1. What is the purpose of first aid: DR Workbook Pg 199, Question 1
First Aid Skills 5 MWS 2: RAP ABCH Page 200
First Aid Skills 6 Fundamentals of First Aid Scenario: A man has been hit by a car and thrown into the street. He is wearing shorts, and blood is flowing, but not spurting, from his leg. What looks like a bone is sticking out of his leg. What are the two major concerns when giving first aid to this victim?
First Aid Skills 7 Fundamentals of First Aid First, safety of the rescuer from traffic and the safety of the of the victim. Second, unless the victim is in a life- threatening situation, he should not be moved. Answer:
First Aid Skills 8 a.The first rule of first aid and the primary concern is: b.The second concern is, unless the victim is in a life-threatening situation, he or she should: Fundamentals of First Aid Fundamentals of First Aid 2. List the Two Major Concerns When Giving First Aid: Pg. 199 Safety Not Be Moved
First Aid Skills 9 MWS 2: RAP ABCH Page 200
First Aid Skills 10 Giving First Aid RAP ABCH R is for Responsiveness Is the victim conscious? Touch their shoulder, ask if they are alright. Ask if they need help. If they say no, then proceed no further If yes, or no response, then proceed to A
First Aid Skills 11 Giving First Aid RAP ABCH A is for Activate EMS or 911
First Aid Skills 12 Your name The emergency The location of the emergency Condition of the victim How to Use the 911 System How to Use the 911 System 4. What are the four things you need to remember when making a 911 call? Pg. 199 Stay on the line with the operator until help arrives.
First Aid Skills 13 Check the victim for responsiveness. If they do not respond or if they tell you that they need help, then contact EMS. How To Use the 911 System How To Use the 911 System When should EMS / 911 be called? Page 195, Question 2b
First Aid Skills 14 When To Move An Injured Person MWS 2, page 200 P is for Position Only re-position the victim if the victim is in further danger in their present location. And / or there does not seem to be spinal injury and additional care requires moving them.
First Aid Skills 15 If there are suspected spinal injuries, do not move the victim (except when the victim is in a life threatening situation). Seek immediate medical attention. Follow the flowchart and care for the victim in any form that does not require moving the victim. Explain when an injured person should and should not be moved? Requirement 4, Pg. 195
First Aid Skills 16 Use the mnemonic “ABCH” MWS 2, Page 200 Four Steps of Victim Assessment A is for airway Use your finger to sweep the mouth to remove any seen object. If this fails, then perform the Heimlich maneuver or abdominal thrusts. We will learn these techniques in later lessons. -check to see if the airway is blocked.
First Aid Skills 17 B is for breathing Four Steps of Victim Assessment Look, listen and feel by watching the chest and placing your cheek a few inches above the mouth of the victim to sense any movement of air. If the victim is not breathing, they may need their head repositioned. If they are still not breathing they need rescue breathing, do not give unless you are trained, instead, find an adult.
First Aid Skills 18 C is for circulation Four Steps of Victim Assessment If there is not a pulse, then this person needs CPR. The best place to check for a pulse is the carotid artery along the side of the neck along the windpipe. If you are not trained in CPR, then find someone who is.
First Aid Skills 19 H is for Hemorrhaging Four Steps of Victim Assessment If the victim is bleeding, then provide the necessary care. If not, then begin a secondary assessment. Complete filling in MWS 2 RAP ABCH Flowchart
First Aid Skills 20 Lesson One Review First aid is a first-response activity, nothing more. It’s sole goal is to maintain the injured person until they get professional help. First priority – Safety for all! Blood from a cut or torn vein will flow, a cut artery will spurt. Fill out the True-False Questions on Page 199.
First Aid Skills 21 Lesson One True-False Questions MWS 1, Pg. 199 T F 5. Checking the victim, calling for help, and giving care are three steps in treating someone who has been seriously hurt or ill. T F 6. It is ok to move someone who is seriously hurt to make them feel better. T F 7. Knowing first aid could save a life, and applying first aid should be accompanied with prayer.
First Aid Skills 22 T F 8. The groove to the side of the neck (carotid artery) is a good place to check the pulse. T F 9. Calling for help may be the most important thing that you do to help the victim. T F 10. First aid is the temporary care that you give until professional help arrives. Complete requirements 1, 2, 3 and 4 if you have not done so already - (Page 195) Lesson One True-False Questions MWS 1, Pg. 199
First Aid Skills 23 Lesson Two
First Aid Skills 24 Lesson Two – Objectives Choking, Shock and Weather- Related Ailments 1.Review Victim Assessment from lesson 1 2.Explain and Demonstrate how to treat for shock. 3.Explain and Demonstrate the Heimlich maneuver and abdominal thrusts. 4.Explain the treatment for hot- and cold-weather- related injuries or ailments.
First Aid Skills 25 RAP ABCH Review 1.Safety is the primary concern. 2.R = Responsiveness (Is the victim conscious?) 3.A = Activate EMS or P = Position (no spinal injury, position according to injury) 5.A = Airway (is it blocked? Check head position) DR Workbook MWS 3, Pg. 201
First Aid Skills 26 RAP ABCH Review 6.B = Breathing (is the victim breathing? Check!) 7.C = Circulation (Is there a pulse? Check!) 8.H = Hemorrhaging (Is the victim bleeding?) 9.Perform secondary survey. Examine the victim for other injuries and wait for medical attention to arrive. DR Workbook MWS 3, Pg. 201
First Aid Skills 27 Heimlich Maneuver Used only when the victim is conscious and is unable to breath or cough. Victim coughing, encourage to continue. If the victim goes unconscious, use Abdominal Thrusts
First Aid Skills 28 Heimlich Maneuver DR Workbook Requirement 7a, Page Stand behind victim. 2.Wrap arms around victim’s waist and not around the ribs. 3.Make a fist and place the thumb side of your fist just slightly above the navel. 4.Grab your fist with your other hand.
First Aid Skills 29 Heimlich Maneuver DR Workbook Requirement 7a, Page Press into the victim’s stomach with five quick upward thrusts. Each thrust should have a pause in between. 6.After every five thrusts, recheck the victim. Repeat until the object has been dislodged of until the victim loses consciousness. Time To Practice!
First Aid Skills 30 Abdominal Thrusts DR Workbook Requirement 7b, Page Place victim on his or her back. 2.Straddle the victim by sitting on their thighs. 3.Place the heel of one hand just slightly above their navel. Your fingers should be angled slightly upward, pointed toward the victim’s head.
First Aid Skills 31 Abdominal Thrusts DR Workbook Requirement 7b, Page Grasp your hand by placing your other hand on top and lacing your fingers into the first hand. 5.Press inward and upward with five quick thrusts. Each thrust should have a pause in between.
First Aid Skills 32 Abdominal Thrusts DR Workbook Requirement 7b, Page After every five thrusts, recheck the victim. Repeat until the object has been dislodged or until you are relieved by another person or an EMT. 7.Perform finger sweep after each set of five thrusts. Time To Practice!
First Aid Skills 33 Preserve Body Heat Head and Shoulders Eight to Twelve Left Small Water Fluids Conscious Burned Page 202
First Aid Skills 34 Preserve body heat by placing a blanket or cover over the victim. Provide insulation, or move the victim, if possible, to a warmer environment. Shock - Treatment DR Workbook, Question 5a, Page 195 & Question 11, Page 201
First Aid Skills 35 Shock - Treatment
First Aid Skills 36 First Question: Is shock the result of an allergic reaction? If the shock is the result of an allergic reaction, then follow victim's instructions for treating allergy and monitor the "ABCH’s" until medical attention arrives. Shock - Treatment Shock - Treatment Allergic Reaction DR Workbook, Requirement 5b, Page 196
First Aid Skills 37 Shock - Treatment Shock - Treatment Spinal injury – do not move the victim. If result of a head injury or if victim has difficulty breathing, elevate head and shoulders by placing a pillow or blanket under head. If the victim is unconscious or vomiting, then turn the victim on their left side so the stomach is on the left side of the body. DR Workbook, Requirement 5b, Page 196
First Aid Skills 38 Shock - Treatment Shock - Treatment If no, elevate legs eight to twelve inches off the ground. If less then two hours from medical care, then do not give fluids (except to those who are conscious and are severely burned). If no, give small and periodic amounts of water (only if conscious). Wait for medical attention to arrive. DR Workbook, Question 5b, Page 196
First Aid Skills 39 Weather Related Emergencies Weather related emergencies include: Hyperthermia: Heat related, body unable to cool itself Heat Exhaustion: Skin cold & clammy, person alert Heatstroke: Skin hot, altered state of awareness Hypothermia: Cold related, body unable to warm itself Frostbite: Freezing of the extremities (fingers & toes) Frostnip: First stage of freezing outer layers of skin
First Aid Skills 40 Move person into a cool place; remove any excess clothing; cool victim with either water, fanning, or cool packs under the armpits or groin; wait for medical attention, in the case of heatstroke. Treatment for Hyperthermia Weather Related Emergencies Question 13. Pg. 201 “The body is unable to itself.” List below on page 196, Requirement 6a. COOL
First Aid Skills 41 Weather Related Emergencies Treatment for Hypothermia “The core body temperature drops below degrees.” Ninety-five DR Workbook Question 14, pg. 201
First Aid Skills 42 Weather Related Emergencies Treatment for Hypothermia Move the victim out of the cold; handle the victim carefully; replace wet clothes with dry clothes. You may need to be forceful verbally to get the individual to comply; Insulate from the cold with layered clothing and/or an insulated sleeping bag. DR Workbook Question 6b, Pg. 196
First Aid Skills 43 Lesson 2 Review Questions T F 15. Hyperthermia occurs when the body loses the ability to cool itself and overheats. T F 16. When you have frostbite, rub the hands together slowly to warm them up. T F 17. Hypothermia occurs when the body loses its ability to keep itself warm. T F 18. Shock may occur with any injury, illness, or trauma. True-False Questions MWS 3, Pg. 201
First Aid Skills 44 Lesson 2 Review Questions T F 19. Itching eyes is a sign of hypothermia. T F 20. Clammy skin is a sign of heat exhaustion. 21. Describe the treatment needed for the following scenario: You have come to an accident scene, and the victim is sitting on the curb. He of she seems a little upset, is shivering, and there is some discoloration of the skin. How do you treat this person? Check “RAP ABCH”. Cover with blanket. Ask if it is an allergic reaction. Seek medical attention. True-False Questions MWS 3, Pg. 201
First Aid Skills 45 Lesson Three
First Aid Skills 46 Lesson Three – Objectives 1.Explain and demonstrate first aid for a cut. 2.Explain how to treat a blister. 3.Explain and demonstrate first aid for a puncture wound. 4.Explain and demonstrate first aid for arterial bleeding of an arm or leg. 5.Explain and demonstrate how to stop bleeding.
First Aid Skills 47 Remove the object or clothing that is causing the blister. Wash with warm water and soap. Use a sterile needle to pop the blister at its base and drain. Place a donut-shaped piece of mole foam around it to keep it from further irritation. Blister Treatment DR Workbook, Requirement 8b, page 196
First Aid Skills 48 Blister Treatment DR Workbook, Page 203 “Bleeding and Wounds” 1.Treating a Blister a.Remove footwear then b.The best place to pop the blister is c. tear off the roof of the blister. d.The best way to prevent blisters is to wear fitted footwear. wash the blister with warm water and soap. at the base. Do not properly
First Aid Skills 49 Larger wounds - never remove barriers (may cause wound to bleed again). Wash gently with outward strokes to move dirt and bacteria away from wound. Use a stream of water to flush it out. Dry carefully, apply antibacterial ointment (for small wounds) and sterile bandage. Puncture Wound Treatment Dr Workbook, Requirement 8c, page 197
First Aid Skills 50 Puncture Wound Treatment DR Workbook, Page 203 Question 2 2.Treating punctures: a.If the object has already been removed, treat the wound based on the type of that has occurred. b.The object acts as a and should not be c.The most important thing is to keep the object from bleeding plug removed. moving.
First Aid Skills 51 Wash hands with soap and water. Apply direct pressure to the cut until it stops bleeding. Gently wash with soap and water and rinse it for a few minutes. Pat dry and add a bandage with small dab of ointment on it. Minor Cut Treatment DR Workbook, Requirement 8a, page 196
First Aid Skills 52 Check RAP ABCH first. Try to stop the bleeding using direct pressure. If the bleeding stops, treat for shock. If not, then: Elevate that part of the body above the victim's heart and continue with direct pressure. Arterial Bleeding DR Workbook Requirement 8d, page 197
First Aid Skills 53 Arterial Bleeding If the bleeding stops, treat for shock. If not, then: Locate a pressure point and continue to apply direct pressure. The pressure points are located in the upper arm and where the leg joins the hip. DR Workbook Requirement 8d, page 197
First Aid Skills 54 Arterial Bleeding If the bleeding stops, treat for shock. If not, then: Seek immediate medical assistance. Never use a tourniquet. This is no longer a recommended treatment. DR Workbook Requirement 8d, page 197
First Aid Skills 55 Preventing Infection DR Workbook, Page 203 Question 3 3.How to prevent infection and treat bleeding. a.The best way to prevent infection is to the wound. b.Fill out the flow chart (next slide). c. use a tourniquet. wash Never
First Aid Skills 56 Direct Pressure Clean Do Not Victim’s Heart Pressure Point Shock Danger Page 204
First Aid Skills 57 Lesson 3 Review Questions True or False, MWS 5, Page 203 T F 4. A foot blister occurs because of the constant rubbing of clothing of equipment against the skin. T F 5. Most wounds can be card for by applying direct pressure, cleaning, applying medicine, and applying a bandage. T F 6. A tourniquet is a good and safe way to control bleeding at a camp-out. T F 7. Arterial bleeding is considered a simple wound.
First Aid Skills 58 Lesson 3 Review Questions True or False, MWS 5, Page 203 T F 8. A deep puncture wound is not serious and does not need to be treated by a doctor. T F 9. Applying ointment is not a method to control bleeding from a large wound. Let’s Practice
First Aid Skills 59 Lesson Four
First Aid Skills 60 Lesson Four – Objectives 1.Explain and demonstrate how to respond to poisonings. 2.Explain and demonstrate first aid for insect bites. 3.Explain how to remove a splinter from a finger. 4.Explain how to treat poisonings.
First Aid Skills 61 Poisons Poisons can enter the body one of four ways: 1. Inhalation 2. Ingestion 3. Injection 4. Absorption Use MWS 8: “Poisons and Bites Flowchart”, Pg. 206
First Aid Skills 62 Page 195
First Aid Skills 63 Absorbed, like Poison ivy, Immediately wash the area with soap and water. Then take a cool bath and apply calamine lotion. If it spreads and painful, then seek medical attention. Poisoning Treatment DR Workbook Question 9c, Page 197
First Aid Skills 64 Poisoning Treatment DR Workbook Question 9c, Page 197 Poisonous injections: i.e. Snakebites, Identify the snake, if possible. Then clean the bite with soap and water and keep bite below heart level. Seek medical attention.
First Aid Skills 65 Poisoning Treatment DR Workbook Question 9c, Page 197 If the poison is inhaled or swallowed; Check "ABCH" and treat for shock. Seek medical attention and call the Poison Control Center
First Aid Skills 66 If possible, try to catch the spider or insect without risk to you. Check to see if the stinger is in the skin. If not, Clean the area, apply ice to reduce swelling. Insect Bite or Sting Treatment DR Workbook Question 9a, Pg. 197
First Aid Skills 67 Insect Bite or Sting Treatment DR Workbook Question 9a, Pg. 197 If stinger is found, gently scrape the stinger out of the wound using a plastic card or fingernail, pulling away from the wound to minimize amount of toxin released into the body. Do not squeeze stinger. Treat wound as a minor cut.
First Aid Skills 68 Insect Bite or Sting Treatment DR Workbook Question 9a, Pg. 197 Next, check to see if the victim is allergic to the bite. Look for signs of shock and swelling. If no, then seek medical attention or an adult for assistance. If yes, check “ABCH,” treat for shock, and immediately seek medical attention.
First Aid Skills 69 Use tweezers to carefully remove. If splinter breaks, use sterilized tweezers. Remove remainder of splinter, and treat wound as a minor cut. Splinters and Ticks - Treatment DR Workbook Question 9b, Pg. 197
First Aid Skills 70 1.Treating a splinter. a.Remove as much of the splinter as b.If the splinter breaks off, sterilize the c. cut into the skin. Splinters and Ticks - Treatment DR Workbook MWS 7, Question 1, Pg. 205 possible. tweezers. Do not
First Aid Skills 71 2.Treating a tick. a.Do not yank the tick out, but pull it out. b.After removing the tick, the area and watch for c.Contact medical attention if swelling, or persists. Splinters and Ticks - Treatment DR Workbook MWS 7, Question 2, Pg. 205 slowly clean infection. redness, itching
First Aid Skills 72 Page 195 Wash Calamine Identify ABCH Clean Remove Shock
First Aid Skills 73 Lesson 4 Review Questions True or False, MWS 7, Page 205 T F 3. To remove a tick, just yank it off of your body. T F 4. Call the Poison Control Center if poison is swallowed or inhaled. T F 5. For a snakebite, slice the wound, suck out the venom, and spit it out. T F 6. To remove the oils that rub onto the body from poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac, you should change your clothes and wash thoroughly.
First Aid Skills 74 Lesson 4 Review Questions True or False, MWS 7, Page 205 T F 7. Tweezers are needed to remove a splinter. T F 8. A plastic card could be used to remove a stinger from an insect bite. Let’s Play the Progressive Skills Game
First Aid Skills 75 Lesson Five
First Aid Skills 76 Lesson Five – Objectives 1.Demonstrate and explain first aid for simple burns. 2.Assemble a personal first aid kit. 3.Learn where a first aid kit should be stored.
First Aid Skills 77 Degree of Burn First Degree Burn Second Degree Burn Third Degree Burn Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis
First Aid Skills 78 Burns – Degrees of Burns DR Workbook MWS 9: Question 1, Pg First-degree burn a.Only the top layer of skin is b.The skin is only mildly c.There is only a little d.These burns usually within a week. burned. discolored. swelling. heal
First Aid Skills 79 First-Degree Burn Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis First Degree Burn Damage to the outer layer of skin (epidermis), causing pain, redness, and swelling. Redness (Erythema)
First Aid Skills 80 Burns – Degrees of Burns DR Workbook MWS 9: Question 2, Pg Second-degree burn a. layers of skin are burned. b.The skin has a appearance. c.There is greater swelling, and there are d.These burns take up to three weeks to heal and should be attended by a Several spotty or blotchy blisters. physician.
First Aid Skills 81 Second-Degree Burn Second Degree Burn Damage to both outer skin and underlying tissue layers (epidermis and dermis), causing pain, redness, swelling, and blistering. Blisters (Bulla)
First Aid Skills 82 Burns – Degrees of Burns DR Workbook MWS 9: Question 3, Pg Third-degree burn a. layers of skin are burned. b.There is discoloration. c.Some skin may be d.These burns can be Many severe charred. life threatening.
First Aid Skills 83 Third-Degree Burn Third Degree Burn Damage extends deeper into tissues (epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis) causing extensive tissue destruction. The skin may feel numb. Full thickness burn with tissue damage
First Aid Skills 84 Heat Burn Treatment DR Workbook Question 10a, Pg. 197 Go through “RAP ABCH” first, then ask if burn was caused by heat. Determine degree and amount of burn. If it is a third-degree burn or large second- degree burn, use the “ABCH”, then treat for shock. Do not attempt to pull off the clothing because skin may come with it.
First Aid Skills 85 Heat Burn Treatment DR Workbook Question 10a, Pg. 197 Cut it off if attached to the skin. Apply a sterile dressing and elevate. Seek immediate medical attention. Burn is first-degree or small second-degree, apply cold water/compress until pain stops. If you must use ice, provide a barrier. Do not apply an ointment.
First Aid Skills 86 Chemical Burn Treatment DR Workbook Question 10b, Pg. 198 Determine if burn was caused by a dry chemical. If so, brush it off, remove clothing, wash area fifteen to twenty minutes. If not caused by dry chemical, remove clothing and jewelry, wash area for fifteen to twenty minutes. Seek medical attention in both cases.
First Aid Skills 87 Electrical Burn Treatment DR Workbook Question 10c, Pg. 198 If burn is not chemical, then it’s an electrical burn. Is victim in contact with electrical source, are you at risk. If yes, ask adult to turn off power. May entail calling 911 to have then call appropriate person. Treatment same as heat burn.
First Aid Skills 88 Electrical Burn Treatment DR Workbook Question 10c, Pg. 198 In all cases, monitor wound for signs of infection. Large wounds – seek medical attention to reduce risk of infection. Serious burn, monitor for signs of shock.
First Aid Skills 89 SafetyShock Cold Wash Before Wash Power Pg. 209
First Aid Skills 90 Container – To keep all first aid items in one common container. Gauze Pads -To cover wounds and prevent infection. Roll Bandage -To stabilize strains and sprains and cover wounds. Triangular Bandage -To cover wounds and prevent infection. First Aid Kit DR Workbook MWS 9, Pg. 207
First Aid Skills 91 Bandages -To stop minor bleeding and prevent infection. Adhesive Tape -To secure bandages to wounds. Antibacterial Ointment -To prevent infection on small cuts. First Aid Kit DR Workbook MWS 9, Pg. 207
First Aid Skills 92 Calamine Lotion -To prevent itching. Soap -To clean minor wounds and cuts and to prevent infection. Latex Gloves -To protect the rescuer from infection and blood pathogens. First Aid Kit DR Workbook MWS 9, Pg. 207
First Aid Skills 93 Bandage Scissors -To cut gauze and bandages. Tweezers -To pull splinters. Moleskin -To protect blisters and prevent infection. First Aid Kit DR Workbook MWS 9, Pg. 207 Now transfer to page 198, Question 11a
First Aid Skills 94 It should be placed in a visible location near the center of the activities. Everyone should be aware of its location. First Aid Kit DR Workbook Question 11b, Pg. 198 Where should a first aid kit be placed?
First Aid Skills 95 Lesson 5 Review Questions True or False, MWS 9, Page 208 T F 17. A first-degree burn should be cooled using ice, not water. T F 18. When helping a victim with a chemical burn, quickly rinse the burn for a few seconds. T F 19. You should remove clothing from a burn, even if it is sticking, so you can treat it more effectively. T F 20. When approaching a victim or electrical burns, you should make sure the power is off.
First Aid Skills 96 Lesson 5 Review Questions True or False, MWS 9, Page 208 T F 21. Duck tape is an important item in a first aid kit. T F 22. Large second-degree burns are just as dangerous as third-degree burns. Let’s Play Scenarios
First Aid Skills 97 Summary Make sure all work is completed in your Workbook. Have your commander sign off on each completed advancement. God Bless You and let’s pray!