Presentation on theme: "Paraeducator Supervision Academy Created by: Nancy K. French, Ph.D. Associate Research Professor The University of Colorado at Denver Director, The PAR2A."— Presentation transcript:
Paraeducator Supervision Academy Created by: Nancy K. French, Ph.D. Associate Research Professor The University of Colorado at Denver Director, The PAR2A Center 1380 Lawrence Street, Suite 650 Denver, CO Phone: FAX: Website: Presented by: Your name here Your affiliation here Your contact information here
2 Job Titles Para… means “along side of” Most commonly used titles Paraprofessional – Instructional Assistant – Educational Assistant – Teaching Assistant – Instructional Aide – Aide – Paraeducator –
3 Definitions A paraeducator provides instructional services to students and works under the supervision or direction of a certified or licensed professional who is ultimately responsible for the students and the program.
4 Paraeducators: Who are they? Activity: Think about the paraeducators you work with. How old are they? How much money do they make? What are their educational backgrounds? What other characteristics are true of them? Where did they come from? How were they hired? What implications do these characteristics have for what we, as professionals, do to direct their work?
5 Who are Paraeducators? Gender 97% female Experience / Training > 10 years experience no formal training Median Age 40 Work Schedules Range from hours per week to 37 hours per week 60% work full time, 40% part time Education College degrees - 10% Some College - 50% Salaries Hourly, benefits some places, none in others Higher in urban areas, but generally the lowest in the district Racial Characteristics African-American and Latino heritage highly represented among paraeducators, but not among teachers
6 Contributions of Paraprofessionals Activity: With a partner jot down several possible answers to one of the following questions… What contributions do we expect paraeducators to make to the educational process ? Why do we employ paraeducators in schools?
7 Top 10 Reasons To Employ Paraeducators 1. Complex student population 2. Need for instructional support 3. Cost effectiveness 4. Instructional effectiveness 5. Community connections 6. Individualized support 7. Need to provide related services 8. Improved teacher-student ratio 9. Shortages of fully-qualified professionals 10. Legislation allows/ requires it
IDEA Amendments Part B, Section 612 (a) (15) - Personnel Standards State agency establishes and maintains standards to assure that all personnel are adequately and appropriately trained. Paraprofessionals who are adequately trained and supervised may assist in the delivery of special education and related services.
9 Case Law Pertaining to 1997 IDEA Amendments Paraeducator services must be provided to students with disabilities (including 1:1 services) if such services are necessary for a student to receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE). Legal decisions have indicated that the individualized education plan (IEP) team holds the responsibility to make the determination whether a paraeducator is necessary for a ‘free appropriate public education.’ Schools must provide ‘related services’ required to assist students with disabilities to benefit from special education. Related services may include health care, therapy, psychological services according to the individual needs of students.
10 No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 Title I specifies that paraprofessionals must have Two years of college, or An associates degree, or Pass a rigorous assessment of skills equivalent to two years of college, AND Demonstrate the ability to assist in literacy and math instruction Must work under ‘direct’ supervision of fully qualified teacher May only provide instruction if it doesn’t prevent the child from receiving instruction by a teacher Job duties are limited to individual tutoring
11 Liability Activity: Discuss with a partner what the word liability means to you Jot down three words that relate to issues of reliability
12 Liability: Paraprofessional Responsibilities Understand and apply written safety procedures Carry out and support all classroom rules, routines, procedures Use prudent judgment relative to the safety and welfare of students Implement the written instructional, curricular and adaptations plan as directed Take data, keep appropriate records and documentation Communicate observations, insights, or information about students to professionals Be aware of and heed the physical, behavioral, emotional, and educational needs of students that may affect their safety and welfare
13 Liability: Supervising Professional Responsibility Review procedures and policies that protect student safety and welfare. Orient paraeducator to classroom rules, routines, procedures and practices Determine risks and limitations for students Provide written plans Maintain a record keeping system Use effective adult communications Review confidential information that may affect student safety or welfare
14 Liability: Administrator Responsibilities Develop and disseminate written safety procedures and policies for all types of instructional programming Provide district level and building level orientation to new and returning paraeducators Provide appropriate ongoing, systematic in-service training to all those who carry out the instructional program Establish an environment that supports effective interpersonal communication and teamwork among team members Provide mentoring and guidance to professionals who supervise paraeducators
15 Potential Problems: One-to-one dedicated paraprofessionals Become the primary service provider Lack specific training on purposes of inclusion Lack supervision Develop “ownership” of the child Communicate directly with families, leaving teacher out Foster overdependence on adults Create “learned helplessness” Fail to provide specific behavioral or academic data to professional Relieve general ed teachers of responsibility for student Give student the “answers” Create social barriers between students Lose perspective
16 Potential Problems: Title I Paraeducators Are inadequately or poorly trained Have inadequate supervision from qualified reading teachers Pull students out of class- limiting time with teacher Become primary service provider for certain students Assume responsibilities of teachers Use poor grammar / lack literacy & math skills Use inappropriate teaching methods
17 Potential Problems: ESL / Bilingual Paraeducators Lack training in ESL and instructional methods, language acquisition, behavior management, etc. Have inadequate supervision from fully qualified teachers or administrators Assume full responsibility for teaching ELLs Plan lessons Assess language competence, academic progress Provide concurrent translation during English instruction Relieve classroom teacher of responsibility for instructing ELLs Become primary liaison with families, leaving teacher out Create overdependence and “learned helplessness” Become social barriers between native English speakers and ELLs
18 Potential Problems: Library – Media Paraeducators Lack preparation in the breadth of the curriculum Lack preparation for teaching students to conduct research, use media to it’s fullest potential, select materials wisely etc. Assume full responsibility for the collection Lack supervision from fully qualified L-M specialist Fail to provide appropriate curricular support to teachers
19 Potential Problems: Classroom paraeducators Hired with no minimum qualifications or prior training Lack appropriate training in curriculum, instruction, behavior management, classroom organization Lack appropriate direction or guidance from teacher Teachers feel threatened by the presence of another adult in the room Become sole service provider for certain students Perform only clerical work
20 Shifting Roles Professional Status and Supervision the changing role of the teacher signifies a shift toward a more professional status for teachers Teacher As Executive Classrooms are workplaces and the person who runs the workplace must perform a number of executive functions Teachers must assure completion of and remain accountable for their five primary responsibilities Principals and District Administrators As teacher roles shift, so do the roles of administrators who become ‘chief executives,’ coordinating, coaching and guiding the work of multiple ‘executives’ who supervise paraeducators
21 Professions Professions are characterized by the following attributes: The obligations of service to others, as in a "calling" Understanding of a scholarly or theoretical kind A domain of skilled performance or practice The exercise of judgment The need for learning from experience as theory and practice interact A professional community to monitor quality and aggregate knowledge Shulman, L. (1998) Elementary School Journal,, 98(5), p. 516
22 Ethical Considerations Preparation Consider paraeducator competencies and skills Consider paraeducator preferences and confidence When you can’t provide training, finding someone who can, or a class the paraeducator can take Scope of Responsibility Consider whether the task is legitimately within paraeducator scope of responsibility Direction Written plans, meetings, task monitoring, coaching of skills Professional maintains responsibility for student outcomes
23 Professional Responsibilities Planning curriculum and instruction for students Assessment for program eligibility and for ongoing progress monitoring Instruction teaching or causing instruction to happen Collaboration with other professionals and families Supervision characterized by seven functions
24 Working ‘Smarter’ – Not Harder Delineation of Roles and Responsibilities Consideration 1: Legislation Consideration 2: Liability Consideration 3: Ethics Scheduling / Improving Time Use Sphere of influence Self-Management
25 Instruction Data collection / reporting Activity preparation / follow-up Team participation / membership Clerical work Ethical practice Supervision of groups of students Health / personal related services Other tasks ( assigned in accordance with legal, liability, ethical considerations) Paraeducator Responsibility Categories
26 Executive Functions of Paraeducator Supervision 1. Providing Orientation 2. Planning 3. Scheduling 4. Delegating 5. Training 6. Monitoring task performance 7. Managing the workplace
27 Providing Orientation Stage 1 – Get Acquainted Introductions Policy and Procedure Orientation Confidentiality
28 Providing Orientation Stage 2 - Establish The Supervisory Relationship Structured Initial Conversation (next slide) Work Style / Preferences Analysis Defining the Job Job definition step 1 – Create Master List of Tasks & Duties Master List of Tasks & Duties Job definition step 2 – Determine Paraeducator Skills Paraeducator Skills Job definition step 3 – “needs vs. preferences" analysis Job definition step 4 - create Personalized Job Description Personalized Job Description Job definition step 5 - list Training Needs Training Needs
29 Structured Initial Conversation 1. Why have you decided to work as a paraeducator / teacher? 2. What are your recreational activities / hobbies? 3. Which of your teachers made the biggest positive impact on you? 4. What other skills do you have that we might incorporate into the classroom? 5. What is your understanding of this position? 6. What do you think are the goals of education? 7. What other teams have you participated on? Sports? Work? 8. What talents and skills do you bring to the team? 9. How do you think teams function best? 10. How can we assure that we will work well together?
30 Providing Orientation Stage 3 – Keep the Momentum review training plan review a list of all personnel – finish introductions
31 Team vs. Individual Supervision Activity: Stop and think about your situation. Briefly describe the way paraprofessionals are used in your school. Where are they located throughout the day? Who are they with? What impact / effect does that have on the supervision provided to them? Who supervises?
32 Paraeducators in Typical Teams Example 1: General Education Teams ( grade-level or subject area) Together, provide orientation, develop personalized job description, clarify training they’ll provide Plan together, determine the paraeducator’s schedule, delegate tasks, and monitor the work of the paraeducator. periodically meet with the paraeducator to communicate team and student needs, explain how to perform tasks, resolve problems and conflicts, and provide performance feedback
33 Paraeducators in Typical Teams Example 2: Special - General Education Teams in Inclusion various professionals – e.g. school psych, PT, OT, SLP, nurse, sped teacher & classroom teacher share assessment and planning for students students receive most of their education in a general education classroom many team members are itinerant day-to-day scheduling, direction and monitoring of the paraeducator shared by general ed teacher and special ed teacher teachers share the daily functions of supervision itinerant professionals provide plans, direction, on-the job training, and periodic monitoring of paraeducator’s task performance
34 Paraeducators in Typical Teams Example 3: Paraeducator Supports Students Individual or groups of students receiving specific program services Spends time in general education classes Classroom teacher plans instruction for class Consulting teacher consults with classroom teacher plans individualized adaptations or instruction provides specialized materials provides training to the paraeducator monitors student outcomes
35 Supervision Decisions for Teams 1. Who plans the curriculum and instruction (including adaptations)? 2. Who directs the paraeducator on a daily basis? 3. Who provides training for assigned duties? 4. Who observes and documents task performance?
36... What you’re putting off
37 Five Major Reasons Confusion Lack of mental organization Lack of clear goals Resentment of Authority Lack of control / Demands seem unjust Lack of Self-Confidence Unsure you can do it / Lack of skills Self-Sabotage Mixed emotions... about supervising, about inclusion, collaboration Fear of failing / fear of looking bad or foolish Pleasure Priority Put enjoyment ahead of ambition / professional growth
Adapted from Roland Barth “For those of you traveling with small children, in the event of an oxygen failures, first place the oxygen mask on your own face and then – and only then – place the mask on your child’s face”. The fact is, the adult must be alive in order to help the child. In schools we spend a lot of time placing oxygen masks on other people’s faces while we ourselves are suffocating. Instructions given by flight attendants to airline passengers:
39 Time Use Matrix Two continuums Importance of tasks Urgency of tasks Time Use Matrix for School Professionals
40 Managing Your Time Activity: Take a few minutes to plan how you want to manage your time Some questions to consider… How will you take charge of your day and your time? Can you schedule tasks at times that suit you, rather than handling them as interruptions? How will you help yourself think about the questions of urgency and importance at the moment of an interruption or request? How will you make time for things that are truly important? What will you say to others when they tell you, or ask you to do something that you consider less important than what is already scheduled?
41 What is Delegation? Delegation is... l the process of getting things done through others who have the skills to handle the tasks the act of entrusting enough authority to another to get tasks done without giving up responsibility. an executive function that is fundamentally important to the professional behavior and time use of school professionals and to the supervision of paraeducators
42 What Delegation Is Not Dumping minimizes the paraeducator role shows disrespect ignores paraeducator abilities shows disorganization, lack of skill to run the program or classroom Puppeteering fails to give authority to carry out the task micro- manages provides too much detail Passing the buck blames the paraeducator for failures Punishment mean-spirited assignments diminishes initiative and ownership
43 Why Delegate? As David Letterman would say, these are the top10 reasons to delegate… 1. It makes the most of your time 2. Creates teams 3. Empowers paraeducators 4. It means you don’t have to do everything yourself 5. Maximizes use of your personal resources 6. Gives paraeducators what they need 7. Challenges paraeducators 8. Avoids the creation of indispensable people 9. Gives schools a better return on personnel dollars 10. Minimizes physical limitations
44 Why School Professionals Fail to Delegate Top 10 reasons school professionals fail to delegate. 1. I can do it faster myself 2. I am a perfectionist – I want to be sure it gets done ‘right’ 3. I have no time to train the paraeducator 4. Teaching is for teachers, Speech Language therapy is for therapists, etc. 5. The paraeducator isn’t qualified to do the job 6. Paraeducators are paid too little / work too hard for their pay 7. It’s not part of the paraeducator’s job description 8. Some parts of teaching are my “occupational hobby” 9. I’m not confident of the paraeducator’s work 10. I don’t want to be “bossy” – I want paraeducators to like me
45 Effective Delegation Like a legal contract, delegation... Specifies the scope of the task May be only a part of a larger task or the whole task Tells what is involved Specifies goals or objectives to be reached The eventual goal, purpose or outcome How this task is related to others or builds up to the goal Specifies the time frame How urgent it is How much detail or time to spend on it Specifies the authority to carry out the task 4 levels of authority Specifies how the performance will be judged
46 The Seven-Step Delegation Method Overview 1. Set clear objectives 2. Select the right person 3. Train the paraeducator to carry out the tasks. 4. Get input from the paraeducator. 5. Set deadlines, time frames, and follow up dates. 6. Specify the level of authority 7. Guide and monitor tasks
47 Step 1: Set Clear Objectives The purpose of the activity or lesson The eventual outcomes How / where this activity fits with others to reach the intended outcomes
48 Step 2: Select the right person Consider all available people for each task (e.g. peer assistant, classroom teacher, volunteer) Take the skills and preferences of paraeducators into consideration Provide opportunities for paraeducators to learn new skills Rotate and balance assignment of unpleasant tasks Consider workload and other responsibilities
49 Step 3: Provide Training Consider what you already know about the paraeducator’s skills and confidence on various tasks, Provide training on tasks that are new, have new variations, or for which they had little skill or confidence. Consider who else might be able to train the paraeducator to do the task. It may be a better use of your time to ask another paraeducator to teach a skill, demonstrate a technique, or explain a procedure than it is for you to do it. Plan time for training sessions for new tasks.
50 Step 4: Get Input From The Paraeducator To increase paraeducators’ commitment to their work and to the best outcomes for students ask them what they think, about what approach to take with a particular child, what materials they would use.
51 Step 5: Set Deadlines & Follow Up Dates Minimizes the chance of miscommunication or conflict Establish checkpoints or follow up dates Review data on student outcomes Delegated tasks are being carried out correctly They are having the desired effects
52 Step 6: Specify The Level Of Authority Level 1: full authority to take action, use judgment, make decisions Level 2: authority to take action, but requires frequent contact, specifies how often she will stay in touch and who initiates contact. Level 3: Requires approval before taking action, or moving on to next step. Level 4: Requires strict adherence to the plan, no leeway for independent decision-making
53 Step 7: Guide And Monitor Tasks Amount and intensity of monitoring depend on the history of the working relationship. Scheduled time for monitoring and feedback Focus on objectives, rather than the perfect execution of prescribed actions. Don’t hover Causes loss of self-confidence Consider work style differences Note and recognize good performance and improvement Documentation of performance should be specific to the objectives of the task and the specifications of the plan.
54 The Importance of Planning The most effective teachers plan Know what outcomes they expect from students Know what methods they’ll use to achieve those outcomes Some teachers try to “wing it” Experience matters Carry ideas in their heads, make it through a day without written plans Paraeducators are not teachers Should not be forced into taking on teaching responsibilities Legally/ethically don’t make decisions about curriculum or pedagogy Cannot ‘read’ teachers’ minds who should be making the decisions
55 Adapting Curriculum & Instruction Required by law (IDEA & 504) for persons with disabilities Illegal and unethical for paraeducators to determine adaptations Adaptation plan should contain long-range goals for the student specific types of adaptations for all types of instruction Adaptation plan has multiple purposes Serves as communication tool Special ed – General ed teachers Teachers and paraeducators Teachers and volunteers or peer assistants Related services providers, families To provide written data about student progress Aram’s Adaptation Plan Daily communication sheet for Aram
56 The Paraeducator’s Role in Adapting Curriculum & Instruction To follow written plans and oral directions! Provided by any school professional On behalf of Students with disabilities Students with other special learning needs (e.g. ESL) Students with health issues The general welfare and safety of all the students in the school
57 Planning Variables Paraeducator experience, skill and training Complexity of the task Risk Increased by: Lack of structure Distance
58 Efficiency Activity: Name the problems that keep you from providing written plans to the paraeducator? Time? Hassle? Lack of a system? Disorganization? What would help? Something that would be time efficient and yet get the job done?
59 Planning Form / Format Criteria Easy to use Readily available The simplest design that covers the components Brief User-friendly Visual appeal Reads quickly White space and/or graphics
60 Components of Plans Purpose of task, lesson or adaptation Long term student goals, short term objectives Specific student needs / strengths Materials / Resources Sequence of actions, use of cues or prompts, permissible adaptations Data structure for documenting student performance
61 Build Your Own Plan Forms or Formats Activity: As we look at the following examples, discuss with a partner which of the components are demonstrated Consider the needs of your students – are there similarities? Consider which features you could use in your plan forms What other types of plan forms would be useful to you? Make sketches of the types of forms you might use. Examples: Sean Ashley 7 th grade vocabulary procedures Calvin
62 Scheduling Differs from planning in that it tells Where each person should be The time frame Who they are with (students and teachers) Generally what they are doing
63 Paraeducator Growth & Development Planning for Growth & Development Two Key Reasons: 1. A gap exists between programmatic needs and the skills or confidence level of the paraeducator 2. Life long learning - continual renewal and refinement of skills and keeping current with new ideas / technologies.
64 Paraeducator Training Needs Assessment Completed by paraeducators: Identifies preferences and desires Acknowledges importance of paraeducator role Markets upcoming training Shows district’s concern Doesn’t necessarily identify all the training needs that exist Completed by supervisors: Encourages reflection Creates awareness of training needs Acknowledges that some training can be provided in groups – not just on the job Demonstrates administrative support for teachers’ work with paraeducators Doesn’t necessarily identify all the training needs that exist Needs Assessment Example
65 Content or Curriculum Look for: Need Consistency Integrity Relevance Depth Role legitimacy Practicality Instructional quality Accountability Cost
66 The Range of Training Formats Training formats: l Telling, mentioning, suggesting l Thorough explanation during team meetings l Demonstrating during student contact time l Using videos or other demonstrations during meetings l Attending workshops, seminars l Taking courses l Attending conferences l Reading flyers, brochures, other print materials
67 Providing Training Training methods vary according to purpose: l For information / awareness - choose conferences, print, telling, Internet resources l For skill development select courses, workshops, demonstrations, on the job training with students, and coaching
68 Training Components Theory : skill, strategy, or concept is clearly explained or described Demonstration: skill, strategy, or concept is modeled or shown, so trainee sees or hears how it works in real situations Practice: trainee tries out the skill, strategy, or concept in a controlled or safe place Feedback: trainer provides information to the trainee about how well the trainee performs the skill or strategy, or understands the concept Coaching: on the job while the paraeducator works with students
69 Documenting Training A safeguard for three situations / reasons: The paraeducator doesn’t meet the employment standards Protects the safety and welfare of students Provides a basis for legal defense if necessary
70 Changing Role For Teachers ‘Monitoring’ implies deliberate, purposeful observations Equates teachers to team leaders in business Little precedent for this role Therefore requires Administrative support On the job training of teachers in this role Coaching Feedback to teachers Accountability
71 Unfocused Observation Methods Include Consideration of Multiple Variables such as: personal style components voice, gestures, delivery content of lesson interactions with students organization of lesson or materials time use use of behavior management techniques Examples Include: l audio, video recording l scripting l notes on significant events
72 Focused Observation Methods Checklist l Identifies / Tallies the Presence or Absence of Specific Behaviors Useful to Assess the Overall Use of Specified Techniques in a variety of instructional or consultative / collaborative instances Selective Verbatim l Captures word for word certain, pre-selected, events Useful for understanding questioning levels, frequency of questions, amount of teacher talk, clarity of directions, etc..
73 Formative Feedback Five guiding principles: Performance rather than personal characteristics Specificity rather than generalities Honesty rather than pretense, but cushioned with tact Frequency the more the better Consistency versus playing professionals against one another
74 Five Facts of Paraeducator Evaluation School professionals often contribute to evaluation ratings Recognizes high quality work Recognizes the need for training or coaching Evaluation requires judgement Fair evaluation is based on facts rather than opinions standards rather than interpersonal comparisons first-hand knowledge (observations) rather than hearsay, multiple data collection points
75 Independent - performs task, as taught, without guidance Developing - performs task, as taught, but relies on cues or prompts for portions of the performance Emerging - performs parts of task or tries to perform but requires substantial guidance to complete all aspects Unable to Perform - Does not know how to perform the task Unwilling to Perform - Unwilling to perform the task Sample form Rubric for Judging Level of Task Independence
76 Holding Meetings Considerations: l Finding a time Establishing group norms Establishing a functional location l Facilitation l Reviewing meeting effectiveness Using an agendaagenda Developing the agenda Agenda content Following the agenda Documenting group decisions / plansdecisions
77 Problem Solving Step I. Recognize the existence of and define the problem ç Describe, what the problem is ç in terms of needs - not in terms of competing solutions. ç Write the problem down ç Tell who it involves ç Describe when and where it happens / patterns that appear. ç Decide how serious it is. ç Determine causes, contributing factors.
78 Problem Solving (continued) Step II. Decide whether or not to try to solve the problem, Step III. Decide the criteria for a successful solution. ç Determine the standards that absolutely must be met ç Be sure that the standards are consistent with your values (if team members disagree on the values, now is the time to say so and to negotiate which values will apply). ç Identify circumstances or standards that would turn an acceptable solution into an ideal one
79 Problem Solving (continued) Step IV. Generate possible alternative solutions ç If only one solution is generated, stop and reexamine the problem, as stated ç If any team member suggests that there only one solution, sound the alarm! ç Generate a list of at least three alternatives without evaluating them ç Employ every creative idea-generating strategy that you can find.
80 Problem Solving (continued) Step VI. Select one or more alternatives to implement ç Write down the alternatives that are selected and the rationale for each selection. Be specific about what exactly is going to be done ç Determine who will do what ç Establish the timeline for the implementation of the alternative
81 Problem Solving (continued) Step VII. Plan how to monitor and evaluate the solution ç Determine what would constitute sufficient evidence that the solution is or isn't working ç Establish a timeline ç Establish a meeting time to discuss the results
82 Conflict The Circle of Conflict Values Relationships Data Structural Issues Interests
83 Five Factors that Cause Conflict 1. Relationships - history of strong emotions, misperceptions, stereotypes, poor communication, negative repetitive behaviors
84 Five Factors that Cause Conflict 2. Values - Preferences Deep seated beliefs that guide actions Long-standing habits that control behaviors Values can be acknowledged, understood, maybe even influenced, but probably not changed
85 Five Factors that Cause Conflict 3. Data – Lack of information Different information Different interpretation
86 Five Factors that Cause Conflict 4. Structural Issues – Roles and responsibilities Time Schedule Resources Space
87 Five Factors that Cause Conflict 5. Interests – Psychological (status, power, respect, control, recognition), Substantive (resources, materials, space), Procedural (how decisions are made, steps taken to reach a goal)
88 Managing vs. Resolving Conflict Resolving conflict is only possible if the nature of the conflict is in the bottom half of the circle Structural Issues Interests Conflict Resolution - when the conflict is settled to the extent that it no longer consumes energy of the group or individuals
89 Managing vs. Resolving Conflict Often, the very best we can do in relationship, values, and data conflicts is manage it Conflict Management - the conflict is identified, acknowledged, assessed, steps are taken to address some of the most serious aspects or side effects, options are generated.
90 Caring Confrontation Three steps: Message of positive care and concern Observation of specific behavior Statement of feelings Example: Beth, it’s important to me that we work well together, even when we have differences. Today, in the meeting you said something offhand to the effect that I didn’t have an area of expertise. That hurt my feelings.
91 Resolving Conflicts If resolution seems possible and conflict is in bottom half of circle, and you are willing to devote the time it takes, then do this: Gain agreement to resolve the conflict Identify interests find out what each needs to get out of it in the end Generate options select options only if they allow the interests of each party to be met Select a solution gain agreement from both parties to adhere to the selected solution create a solution plan E.g. who does what, where, when, how Gain agreement to adhere to the plan.