Presentation on theme: "Paraeducator Supervision Academy"— Presentation transcript:
1Paraeducator Supervision Academy Created by: Nancy K. French, Ph.D.Associate Research ProfessorThe University of Colorado at DenverDirector, The PAR2A Center 1380 Lawrence Street, Suite 650 Denver, CO Phone: FAX:Website:Presented by:Your name hereYour affiliation hereYour contact information here
2Job Titles Para… means “along side of” Most commonly used titles Paraprofessional –Instructional Assistant –Educational Assistant –Teaching Assistant –Instructional Aide –Aide –Paraeducator –
3A paraeducator provides instructional services to students DefinitionsA paraeducator provides instructional services to studentsandworks under the supervision or direction of a certified or licensed professional who is ultimately responsible for the students and the program.
4Paraeducators: Who are they? Activity:Think about the paraeducators you work with.How old are they?How much money do they make?What are their educational backgrounds?What other characteristics are true of them?Where did they come from? How were they hired?What implications do these characteristics have for what we, as professionals, do to direct their work?
5Who are Paraeducators? Gender Experience / Training Median Age 97% femaleExperience / Training> 10 years experienceno formal trainingMedian Age40Work SchedulesRange from hours per week to 37 hours per week60% work full time, 40% part timeEducationCollege degrees - 10%Some College - 50%SalariesHourly, benefits some places, none in othersHigher in urban areas, but generally the lowest in the districtRacial CharacteristicsAfrican-American and Latino heritage highly represented among paraeducators, but not among teachers
6Contributions of Paraprofessionals Activity: With a partner jot down several possible answers to one of the following questions…What contributions do we expect paraeducators to make to the educational process ?Why do we employ paraeducators in schools?
7Top 10 Reasons To Employ Paraeducators Complex student populationNeed for instructional supportCost effectivenessInstructional effectivenessCommunity connectionsIndividualized supportNeed to provide related servicesImproved teacher-student ratioShortages of fully-qualified professionalsLegislation allows/ requires it
81997 IDEA AmendmentsPart B, Section 612 (a) (15) - Personnel StandardsState agency establishes and maintains standards to assure that all personnel are adequately and appropriately trained.Paraprofessionals who are adequately trained and supervised may assist in the delivery of special education and related services.
9Case Law Pertaining to 1997 IDEA Amendments Paraeducator services must be provided to students with disabilities (including 1:1 services) if such services are necessary for a student to receive a free appropriate public education (FAPE).Legal decisions have indicated that the individualized education plan (IEP) team holds the responsibility to make the determination whether a paraeducator is necessary for a ‘free appropriate public education.’Schools must provide ‘related services’ required to assist students with disabilities to benefit from special education.Related services may include health care, therapy, psychological services according to the individual needs of students.
10No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 Title I specifies that paraprofessionals must haveTwo years of college, orAn associates degree, orPass a rigorous assessment of skills equivalent to two years of college, ANDDemonstrate the ability to assist in literacy and math instructionMust work under ‘direct’ supervision of fully qualified teacherMay only provide instruction if it doesn’t prevent the child from receiving instruction by a teacherJob duties are limited toindividual tutoring
11LiabilityActivity:Discuss with a partner what the word liability means to youJot down three words that relate to issues of reliability
12Liability: Paraprofessional Responsibilities Understand and apply written safety proceduresCarry out and support all classroom rules, routines, proceduresUse prudent judgment relative to the safety and welfare of studentsImplement the written instructional, curricular and adaptations plan as directedTake data, keep appropriate records and documentationCommunicate observations, insights, or information about students to professionalsBe aware of and heed the physical, behavioral, emotional, and educational needs of students that may affect their safety and welfare
13Liability: Supervising Professional Responsibility Review procedures and policies that protect student safety and welfare.Orient paraeducator to classroom rules, routines, procedures and practicesDetermine risks and limitations for studentsProvide written plansMaintain a record keeping systemUse effective adult communicationsReview confidential information that may affect student safety or welfare
14Liability: Administrator Responsibilities Develop and disseminate written safety procedures and policies for all types of instructional programmingProvide district level and building level orientation to new and returning paraeducatorsProvide appropriate ongoing, systematic in-service training to all those who carry out the instructional programEstablish an environment that supports effective interpersonal communication and teamwork among team membersProvide mentoring and guidance to professionals who supervise paraeducators
15Potential Problems: One-to-one dedicated paraprofessionals Become the primary service providerLack specific training on purposes of inclusionLack supervisionDevelop “ownership” of the childCommunicate directly with families, leaving teacher outFoster overdependence on adultsCreate “learned helplessness”Fail to provide specific behavioral or academic data to professionalRelieve general ed teachers of responsibility for studentGive student the “answers”Create social barriers between studentsLose perspective
16Potential Problems: Title I Paraeducators Are inadequately or poorly trainedHave inadequate supervision from qualified reading teachersPull students out of class- limiting time with teacherBecome primary service provider for certain studentsAssume responsibilities of teachersUse poor grammar / lack literacy & math skillsUse inappropriate teaching methods
17Potential Problems: ESL / Bilingual Paraeducators Lack training in ESL and instructional methods, language acquisition, behavior management, etc.Have inadequate supervision from fully qualified teachers or administratorsAssume full responsibility for teaching ELLsPlan lessonsAssess language competence, academic progressProvide concurrent translation during English instructionRelieve classroom teacher of responsibility for instructing ELLs Become primary liaison with families, leaving teacher outCreate overdependence and “learned helplessness”Become social barriers between native English speakers and ELLs
18Potential Problems: Library – Media Paraeducators Lack preparation in the breadth of the curriculumLack preparation for teaching students to conduct research, use media to it’s fullest potential, select materials wisely etc.Assume full responsibility for the collectionLack supervision from fully qualified L-M specialistFail to provide appropriate curricular support to teachers
19Potential Problems: Classroom paraeducators Hired with no minimum qualifications or prior trainingLack appropriate training in curriculum, instruction, behavior management, classroom organizationLack appropriate direction or guidance from teacherTeachers feel threatened by the presence of another adult in the roomBecome sole service provider for certain studentsPerform only clerical work
20Shifting Roles Professional Status and Supervision the changing role of the teacher signifies a shift toward a more professional status for teachersTeacher As ExecutiveClassrooms are workplaces and the person who runs the workplace must perform a number of executive functionsTeachers must assure completion of and remain accountable for their five primary responsibilitiesPrincipals and District AdministratorsAs teacher roles shift, so do the roles of administrators who become ‘chief executives,’ coordinating, coaching and guiding the work of multiple ‘executives’ who supervise paraeducators
21Professions The obligations of service to others, as in a "calling" Professions are characterized by the following attributes:The obligations of service to others, as in a "calling"Understanding of a scholarly or theoretical kindA domain of skilled performance or practiceThe exercise of judgmentThe need for learning from experience as theory and practice interactA professional community to monitor quality and aggregate knowledge Shulman, L. (1998) Elementary School Journal,, 98(5), p. 516
22Ethical Considerations PreparationConsider paraeducator competencies and skillsConsider paraeducator preferences and confidenceWhen you can’t provide training, finding someone who can, or a class the paraeducator can takeScope of ResponsibilityConsider whether the task is legitimately within paraeducator scope of responsibilityDirectionWritten plans, meetings, task monitoring, coaching of skillsProfessional maintains responsibility for student outcomes
23Professional Responsibilities Planningcurriculum and instruction for studentsAssessmentfor program eligibility and for ongoing progress monitoringInstructionteaching or causing instruction to happenCollaborationwith other professionals and familiesSupervisioncharacterized by seven functions
24Working ‘Smarter’ – Not Harder Delineation of Roles and ResponsibilitiesConsideration 1: LegislationConsideration 2: LiabilityConsideration 3: EthicsScheduling / Improving Time UseSphere of influenceSelf-Management
25Paraeducator Responsibility Categories InstructionData collection / reportingActivity preparation / follow-upTeam participation / membershipClerical workEthical practiceSupervision of groups of studentsHealth / personal related servicesOther tasks (assigned in accordance with legal, liability, ethical considerations)
26Executive Functions of Paraeducator Supervision Providing OrientationPlanningSchedulingDelegatingTrainingMonitoring task performanceManaging the workplace
27Providing Orientation Stage 1 – Get AcquaintedIntroductionsPolicy and Procedure OrientationConfidentiality
28Providing Orientation Stage 2 - Establish The Supervisory RelationshipStructured Initial Conversation (next slide)Work Style / Preferences AnalysisDefining the JobJob definition step 1 – Create Master List of Tasks & DutiesJob definition step 2 – Determine Paraeducator SkillsJob definition step 3 – “needs vs. preferences" analysisJob definition step 4 - create Personalized Job DescriptionJob definition step 5 - list Training Needs
29Structured Initial Conversation Why have you decided to work as a paraeducator / teacher?What are your recreational activities / hobbies?Which of your teachers made the biggest positive impact on you?What other skills do you have that we might incorporate into the classroom?What is your understanding of this position?What do you think are the goals of education?What other teams have you participated on? Sports? Work?What talents and skills do you bring to the team?How do you think teams function best?How can we assure that we will work well together?
30Providing Orientation Stage 3 – Keep the Momentumreview training planreview a list of all personnel – finish introductions
31Team vs. Individual Supervision Activity:Stop and think about your situation.Briefly describe the way paraprofessionals are used in your school.Where are they located throughout the day?Who are they with?What impact / effect does that have on the supervision provided to them?Who supervises?
32Paraeducators in Typical Teams Example 1: General Education Teams (grade-level or subject area)Together, provide orientation, develop personalized job description, clarify training they’ll providePlan together, determine the paraeducator’s schedule, delegate tasks, and monitor the work of the paraeducator.periodically meet with the paraeducator to communicate team and student needs, explain how to perform tasks, resolve problems and conflicts, and provide performance feedback
33Paraeducators in Typical Teams Example 2: Special - General Education Teams in Inclusionvarious professionals – e.g. school psych, PT, OT, SLP, nurse, sped teacher & classroom teacher share assessment and planning for studentsstudents receive most of their education in a general education classroommany team members are itinerantday-to-day scheduling, direction and monitoring of the paraeducator shared by general ed teacher and special ed teacherteachers share the daily functions of supervisionitinerant professionals provide plans, direction, on-the job training, and periodic monitoring of paraeducator’s task performance
34Paraeducators in Typical Teams Example 3: Paraeducator Supports StudentsIndividual or groups of students receiving specific program servicesSpends time in general education classesClassroom teacher plans instruction for classConsulting teacherconsults with classroom teacherplans individualized adaptations or instructionprovides specialized materialsprovides training to the paraeducatormonitors student outcomes
35Supervision Decisions for Teams 1. Who plans the curriculum and instruction (including adaptations)?2. Who directs the paraeducator on a daily basis?3. Who provides training for assigned duties?4. Who observes and documents task performance?
36...What you’re putting off Procrastination...What you’re putting off
37Five Major Reasons Confusion Resentment of Authority Lack of mental organizationLack of clear goalsResentment of AuthorityLack of control / Demands seem unjustLack of Self-ConfidenceUnsure you can do it / Lack of skillsSelf-SabotageMixed emotions... about supervising, about inclusion, collaborationFear of failing / fear of looking bad or foolishPleasure PriorityPut enjoyment ahead of ambition / professional growth
38Adapted from Roland Barth Instructions given by flight attendants to airline passengers:“For those of you traveling with small children, in the event of an oxygen failures, first place the oxygen mask on your own face and then – and only then – place the mask on your child’s face”.The fact is, the adult must be alive in order to help the child. In schools we spend a lot of time placing oxygen masks on other people’s faces while we ourselves are suffocating.Adapted from Roland Barth
39Time Use Matrix Two continuums Importance of tasks Urgency of tasks Time Use Matrix for School Professionals
40Managing Your Time Activity: Take a few minutes to plan how you want to manage your timeSome questions to consider…How will you take charge of your day and your time?Can you schedule tasks at times that suit you, rather than handling them as interruptions?How will you help yourself think about the questions of urgency and importance at the moment of an interruption or request?How will you make time for things that are truly important?What will you say to others when they tell you, or ask you to do something that you consider less important than what is already scheduled?
41What is Delegation? Delegation is... the process of getting things done through others who have the skills to handle the tasksthe act of entrusting enough authority to another to get tasks done without giving up responsibility.an executive function that is fundamentally important to the professional behavior and time use of school professionals and to the supervision of paraeducators
42What Delegation Is Not Dumping Puppeteering Passing the buck minimizes the paraeducator roleshows disrespectignores paraeducator abilitiesshows disorganization, lack of skill to run the program or classroomPuppeteeringfails to give authority to carry out the taskmicro- managesprovides too much detailPassing the buckblames the paraeducator for failuresPunishmentmean-spirited assignmentsdiminishes initiative and ownership
43Why Delegate?As David Letterman would say, these are the top10 reasons to delegate…It makes the most of your timeCreates teamsEmpowers paraeducatorsIt means you don’t have to do everything yourselfMaximizes use of your personal resourcesGives paraeducators what they needChallenges paraeducatorsAvoids the creation of indispensable peopleGives schools a better return on personnel dollarsMinimizes physical limitations
44Why School Professionals Fail to Delegate Top 10 reasons school professionals fail to delegate.I can do it faster myselfI am a perfectionist – I want to be sure it gets done ‘right’I have no time to train the paraeducatorTeaching is for teachers, Speech Language therapy is for therapists, etc.The paraeducator isn’t qualified to do the jobParaeducators are paid too little / work too hard for their payIt’s not part of the paraeducator’s job descriptionSome parts of teaching are my “occupational hobby”I’m not confident of the paraeducator’s workI don’t want to be “bossy” – I want paraeducators to like me
45Effective Delegation Like a legal contract, delegation... Specifies the scope of the taskMay be only a part of a larger task or the whole taskTells what is involvedSpecifies goals or objectives to be reachedThe eventual goal, purpose or outcomeHow this task is related to others or builds up to the goalSpecifies the time frameHow urgent it isHow much detail or time to spend on itSpecifies the authority to carry out the task4 levels of authoritySpecifies how the performance will be judged
46The Seven-Step Delegation Method Overview Set clear objectivesSelect the right personTrain the paraeducator to carry out the tasks.Get input from the paraeducator.Set deadlines, time frames, and follow up dates.Specify the level of authorityGuide and monitor tasks
47Step 1: Set Clear Objectives The purpose of the activity or lessonThe eventual outcomesHow / where this activity fits with others to reach the intended outcomes
48Step 2: Select the right person Consider all available people for each task (e.g. peer assistant, classroom teacher, volunteer)Take the skills and preferences of paraeducators into considerationProvide opportunities for paraeducators to learn new skillsRotate and balance assignment of unpleasant tasksConsider workload and other responsibilities
49Step 3: Provide Training Consider what you already know about the paraeducator’s skills and confidence on various tasks,Provide training on tasks that are new, have new variations, or for which they had little skill or confidence.Consider who else might be able to train the paraeducator to do the task.It may be a better use of your time to ask another paraeducator to teach a skill, demonstrate a technique, or explain a procedure than it is for you to do it.Plan time for training sessions for new tasks.
50Step 4: Get Input From The Paraeducator To increase paraeducators’ commitment to their work and to the best outcomes for studentsask them what they think,about what approach to take with a particular child,what materials they would use.
51Step 5: Set Deadlines & Follow Up Dates Minimizes the chance of miscommunication or conflictEstablish checkpoints or follow up datesReview data on student outcomesDelegated tasks are being carried out correctlyThey are having the desired effects
52Step 6: Specify The Level Of Authority Level 1: full authority to take action, use judgment, make decisionsLevel 2: authority to take action, but requires frequent contact, specifies how often she will stay in touch and who initiates contact.Level 3: Requires approval before taking action, or moving on to next step.Level 4: Requires strict adherence to the plan, no leeway for independent decision-making
53Step 7: Guide And Monitor Tasks Amount and intensity of monitoring depend on the history of the working relationship.Scheduled time for monitoring and feedbackFocus on objectives, rather than the perfect execution of prescribed actions.Don’t hoverCauses loss of self-confidenceConsider work style differencesNote and recognize good performance and improvementDocumentation of performance should be specific to the objectives of the task and the specifications of the plan.
54The Importance of Planning The most effective teachers planKnow what outcomes they expect from studentsKnow what methods they’ll use to achieve those outcomesSome teachers try to “wing it”Experience mattersCarry ideas in their heads, make it through a day without written plansParaeducators are not teachersShould not be forced into taking on teaching responsibilitiesLegally/ethically don’t make decisions about curriculum or pedagogyCannot ‘read’ teachers’ minds who should be making the decisions
55Adapting Curriculum & Instruction Required by law (IDEA & 504) for persons with disabilitiesIllegal and unethical for paraeducators to determine adaptationsAdaptation plan should containlong-range goals for the studentspecific types of adaptations for all types of instructionAdaptation plan has multiple purposesServes as communication toolSpecial ed – General ed teachersTeachers and paraeducatorsTeachers and volunteers or peer assistantsRelated services providers, familiesTo provide written data about student progressAram’s Adaptation PlanDaily communication sheet for Aram
56The Paraeducator’s Role in Adapting Curriculum & Instruction To follow written plans and oral directions!Provided by any school professionalOn behalf ofStudents with disabilitiesStudents with other special learning needs (e.g. ESL)Students with health issuesThe general welfare and safety of all the students in the school
57Planning Variables Paraeducator experience, skill and training Complexity of the taskRiskIncreased by:Lack of structureDistance
58EfficiencyActivity:Name the problems that keep you from providing written plans to the paraeducator?Time?Hassle?Lack of a system?Disorganization?What would help?Something that would be time efficient and yet get the job done?
59Planning Form / Format Criteria Easy to useReadily availableThe simplest design that covers the componentsBriefUser-friendlyVisual appealReads quicklyWhite space and/or graphics
60Components of Plans Purpose of task, lesson or adaptation Long term student goals, short term objectivesSpecific student needs / strengthsMaterials / ResourcesSequence of actions, use of cues or prompts, permissible adaptationsData structure for documenting student performance
61Build Your Own Plan Forms or Formats Activity:As we look at the following examples, discuss with a partner which of the components are demonstratedConsider the needs of your students – are there similarities?Consider which features you could use in your plan formsWhat other types of plan forms would be useful to you?Make sketches of the types of forms you might use.Examples:SeanAshley7th grade vocabulary proceduresCalvin
62Scheduling Differs from planning in that it tells Where each person should beThe time frameWho they are with (students and teachers)Generally what they are doing
63Paraeducator Growth & Development Planning for Growth & DevelopmentTwo Key Reasons:1. A gap exists between programmatic needs and the skills or confidence level of the paraeducator2. Life long learning - continual renewal and refinement of skills and keeping current with new ideas / technologies.
64Paraeducator Training Needs Assessment Completed by paraeducators:Identifies preferences and desiresAcknowledges importance of paraeducator roleMarkets upcoming trainingShows district’s concernDoesn’t necessarily identify all the training needs that existCompleted by supervisors:Encourages reflectionCreates awareness of training needsAcknowledges that some training can be provided in groups – not just on the jobDemonstrates administrative support for teachers’ work with paraeducatorsNeeds Assessment Example
65Content or Curriculum Look for: Need Consistency Integrity Relevance DepthRole legitimacyPracticalityInstructional qualityAccountabilityCost
66The Range of Training Formats Telling, mentioning, suggestingThorough explanation during team meetingsDemonstrating during student contact timeUsing videos or other demonstrations during meetingsAttending workshops, seminarsTaking coursesAttending conferencesReading flyers, brochures, other print materials
67Providing Training Training methods vary according to purpose: For information / awareness - choose conferences, print, telling, Internet resourcesFor skill development select courses, workshops, demonstrations, on the job training with students, and coaching
68Training ComponentsTheory: skill, strategy, or concept is clearly explained or describedDemonstration: skill, strategy, or concept is modeled or shown, so trainee sees or hears how it works in real situationsPractice: trainee tries out the skill, strategy, or concept in a controlled or safe placeFeedback: trainer provides information to the trainee about how well the trainee performs the skill or strategy, or understands the conceptCoaching: on the job while the paraeducator works with students
69Documenting Training A safeguard for three situations / reasons: The paraeducator doesn’t meet the employment standardsProtects the safety and welfare of studentsProvides a basis for legal defense if necessary
70Changing Role For Teachers ‘Monitoring’ implies deliberate, purposeful observationsEquates teachers to team leaders in businessLittle precedent for this roleTherefore requiresAdministrative supportOn the job training of teachers in this roleCoachingFeedback to teachersAccountability
71Unfocused Observation Methods Include Consideration of Multiple Variables such as:personal style componentsvoice, gestures, deliverycontent of lessoninteractions with studentsorganization of lesson or materialstime useuse of behavior management techniquesExamples Include:audio, video recordingscriptingnotes on significant events
72Focused Observation Methods ChecklistIdentifies / Tallies the Presence or Absence of Specific BehaviorsUseful to Assess the Overall Use of Specified Techniques in a variety of instructional or consultative / collaborative instancesSelective VerbatimCaptures word for word certain, pre-selected, eventsUseful for understanding questioning levels, frequency of questions, amount of teacher talk, clarity of directions, etc..
73Formative Feedback Five guiding principles: Performance Specificity rather than personal characteristicsSpecificityrather than generalitiesHonestyrather than pretense, but cushioned with tactFrequencythe more the betterConsistencyversus playing professionals against one another
74Five Facts of Paraeducator Evaluation School professionals often contribute to evaluation ratingsRecognizes high quality workRecognizes the need for training or coachingEvaluation requires judgementFair evaluation is based onfacts rather than opinionsstandards rather than interpersonal comparisonsfirst-hand knowledge (observations) rather than hearsay,multiple data collection points
75Rubric for Judging Level of Task Independence Independent - performs task, as taught, without guidanceDeveloping - performs task, as taught, but relies on cues or prompts for portions of the performanceEmerging - performs parts of task or tries to perform but requires substantial guidance to complete all aspectsUnable to Perform - Does not know how to perform the taskUnwilling to Perform - Unwilling to perform the taskSample form
76Holding Meetings Considerations: Finding a time Establishing group normsEstablishing a functional locationFacilitationReviewing meeting effectivenessUsing an agendaDeveloping the agendaAgenda contentFollowing the agendaDocumenting group decisions / plans
77Problem SolvingStep I. Recognize the existence of and define the problemDescribe, what the problem isin terms of needs - not in terms of competing solutions.Write the problem downTell who it involvesDescribe when and where it happens / patterns that appear.Decide how serious it is.Determine causes, contributing factors.
78Problem Solving (continued) Step II. Decide whether or not to try to solve the problem,Step III. Decide the criteria for a successful solution.Determine the standards that absolutely must be metBe sure that the standards are consistent with your values (if team members disagree on the values, now is the time to say so and to negotiate which values will apply).Identify circumstances or standards that would turn an acceptable solution into an ideal one
79Problem Solving (continued) Step IV. Generate possible alternative solutionsIf only one solution is generated, stop and reexamine the problem, as statedIf any team member suggests that there only one solution, sound the alarm!Generate a list of at least three alternatives without evaluating themEmploy every creative idea-generating strategy that you can find.
80Problem Solving (continued) Step VI. Select one or more alternatives to implementWrite down the alternatives that are selected and the rationale for each selection. Be specific about what exactly is going to be doneDetermine who will do whatEstablish the timeline for the implementation of the alternative
81Problem Solving (continued) Step VII. Plan how to monitor and evaluate the solutionDetermine what would constitute sufficient evidence that the solution is or isn't workingEstablish a timelineEstablish a meeting time to discuss the results
82Conflict Interests The Circle of Conflict Relationships Values Data StructuralIssues
83Five Factors that Cause Conflict Relationships - history of strong emotions, misperceptions, stereotypes, poor communication, negative repetitive behaviors
84Five Factors that Cause Conflict Values -PreferencesDeep seated beliefs that guide actionsLong-standing habits that control behaviorsValues can be acknowledged, understood, maybe even influenced, but probably not changed
85Five Factors that Cause Conflict Data –Lack of informationDifferent informationDifferent interpretation
86Five Factors that Cause Conflict Structural Issues –Roles and responsibilitiesTimeScheduleResourcesSpace
87Five Factors that Cause Conflict Interests –Psychological (status, power, respect, control, recognition),Substantive (resources, materials, space),Procedural (how decisions are made, steps taken to reach a goal)
88Managing vs. Resolving Conflict Resolving conflict is only possible if the nature of the conflict is in the bottom half of the circleStructural IssuesInterestsConflict Resolution - when the conflict is settled to the extent that it no longer consumes energy of the group or individuals
89Managing vs. Resolving Conflict Often, the very best we can do in relationship, values, and data conflicts is manage itConflict Management - the conflict is identified, acknowledged, assessed, steps are taken to address some of the most serious aspects or side effects, options are generated.
90Caring Confrontation Three steps: Message of positive care and concern Observation of specific behaviorStatement of feelingsExample: Beth, it’s important to me that we work well together, even when we have differences. Today, in the meeting you said something offhand to the effect that I didn’t have an area of expertise. That hurt my feelings.
91Resolving ConflictsIf resolution seems possible and conflict is in bottom half of circle, and you are willing to devote the time it takes, then do this:Gain agreement to resolve the conflictIdentify interestsfind out what each needs to get out of it in the endGenerate optionsselect options only if they allow the interests of each party to be metSelect a solutiongain agreement from both parties to adhere to the selected solutioncreate a solution planE.g. who does what, where , when, howGain agreement to adhere to the plan.