Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Secondary Literature 1. 2 Introduction Secondary literature indexingabstracting Primary literature services.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Secondary Literature 1. 2 Introduction Secondary literature indexingabstracting Primary literature services."— Presentation transcript:

1 Secondary Literature 1

2 2 Introduction Secondary literature indexingabstracting Primary literature services

3 Secondary Literature 3 Introduction An indexing System provides only bibliographic information that is indexed by topic System provides only bibliographic information that is indexed by topic An abstracting Service provides a brief description (abstract) of information contained in a specific citation Service provides a brief description (abstract) of information contained in a specific citation

4 Secondary Literature 4 Introduction Indexing and abstracting provide access to primary literature each covers –different biomedical journals, –meeting abstracts –newsletters –textbooks –other publications therefore, use of more than one of these resources often allows for more thorough information retrieval.

5 Secondary Literature 5 Availability CD-ROM format (IDIS) Internet, such as Grateful Med or PubMed from the National Library of Medicine ( >). Internet, such as Grateful Med or PubMed from the National Library of Medicine ( >).

6 Secondary Literature 6 achieve rapid access to literature information (any accumulated data..) literature source are organized by subject headings(… search the system and recover data pertaining directly to the information needed) key indexing terms … consists of the following: –Primary indexing terms –Descriptive modifying terms –Access numbers Indexing:

7 Secondary Literature 7 Constitute the appropriate key term under which the information is filled in the relevant literature sources. It provides the searcher with an efficient method to identify and locate information or answers pertaining directly to the type of information needed. Primary indexing terms

8 Secondary Literature 8 ……..primary indexing term being as specific as possible and use the generic name of the drug where feasible. Depending on the origin in addition to the generic name of drug or other key indexing terms may be used, the most common terms frequently used are listed as follows: Depending on the origin in addition to the generic name of drug or other key indexing terms may be used, the most common terms frequently used are listed as follows: Primary indexing terms(cont.)

9 Secondary Literature 9 Trade name, this used only, if the drug under which the information required to be filled is a combination product ( e.g. MAALOX The name of therapeutic or chemical class of drugs, if the information concerning a class of drugs rather than a single drug (e.g. Corticosteroids and Anti-inflammatory agents). The name of specific disease when the question or the information pertains to a drug related aspects of disease states (e.g. Leukemia and Hypertension). Primary indexing terms

10 Secondary Literature 10 In case that the information is about investigational drugs, letters and/or numbers can be used as primary index, e.g. A Information related to specific subject rather than a specific drug, a name of noun can be used as a primary index. For example information about insulin pump is indexed under pump, insulin. Information related to specific subject rather than a specific drug, a name of noun can be used as a primary index. For example information about insulin pump is indexed under pump, insulin. Primary indexing terms(cont.)

11 Secondary Literature 11 In certain situations information are difficult or not suitable for indexing under one of the previously mentioned primary indexing terms. In order to provide uniformity in assigning primary indexing terms a more specific term can be used in indexing of these information as the following examples: Primary indexing terms

12 Secondary Literature 12 –Availability of particular drug. –General information concerning drug abuse. –Drug packaging information, this is usually indexed under drug container and closures name in accordance to terms used by Index Medicos. –Legal matters dealing with drugs (e.g. regulation). Primary indexing terms

13 Secondary Literature 13 Is a term used to modify or describe the primary indexing term. It should be specific and concise as possible to be accessible one. It is usually consists of one or two word phrases describing briefly the nature of the requested information. It is often includes terms such as: –Dose: Mefinamic acid- dosage, normal adults -- Descriptive modifying terms Descriptive modifying terms –Pharmacokinetics: Bacoarnpicillin - Drug concentration level, therapeutics, –Interaction: Becampicillin - Erythromycin, interaction --- Erythromycin - Bacompicillin, interaction Descriptive modifying term

14 Secondary Literature 14 Used to locate the information or request pertaining to the modifying term. Example: –A question was received in a drug information center regarding the adult dose of Ibuprofen to be used by a patient with renal failure. –Such question will be indexed as follows: –Ibuprofen - Renal Failure, dosage (Adult) ….464 Access number –Primary indexing term Hyphen Descriptive modifying indexing term Access number

15 Secondary Literature 15 Abstracts are summaries of the content of information appearing in published articles, constructed to be a major device for information storage, or retrieval system. main types of abstracts: 1. Indicative abstracts (Non-evaluative or Descriptive abstracts) These are brief outlines of the subjective materials in an articles in which details are omitted.( wards) These are brief outlines of the subjective materials in an articles in which details are omitted.( wards) 2. Informative Abstracts (evaluative abstracts) These should contain all key concepts and important information mentioned in the article. (about 250 wards) These should contain all key concepts and important information mentioned in the article. (about 250 wards) Abstracting

16 Secondary Literature 16 To indicate to readers quickly whether the full article would be useful to read To be extracted (or abstracted) from the article for separate publication (e.g., by Biological Abstracts or Chemical Abstracts) To provide terminology to assist in literature searches by individuals or by literature retrieval specialists for indexes and computer banks.(Key Words) Purposes Of Abstract Purposes Of Abstract

17 Secondary Literature 17 Informative self-explanatory without referring to the main text. self-explanatory without referring to the main text. generally restricted in length (not exceeds 250 words) complete abstract should state clearly the objective of the study and summarizing the procedure results and author’s conclusion. Materials to be abstracts usually falls into one of the following classes: Ideal Abstract

18 Secondary Literature 18 Concisely state the objectives, method (procedure) main results (including specific data and their significance if possible) and principal conclusion. 1-Research Report

19 Secondary Literature 19 Concisely state the purpose of the study (if not clear from the title) type of the study (double blind, cross over etc.---) And its durationConcisely state the purpose of the study (if not clear from the title) type of the study (double blind, cross over etc.---) And its duration Number of subjects and ages, if stated, number of those completing the studyNumber of subjects and ages, if stated, number of those completing the study Reasons for withdrawalsReasons for withdrawals Disease (s), drug (s) usedDisease (s), drug (s) used DoseDose Route of administration and formulationsRoute of administration and formulations Clinical resultsClinical results Adverse effects and interactionsAdverse effects and interactions Method of statistical analysis (if relevant) and author’s conclusion.Method of statistical analysis (if relevant) and author’s conclusion. 2-Clinical and Comparative Studies

20 Secondary Literature 20 Concisely state number of subjects and age (if stated) Drug (s) usedDrug (s) used DoseDose Route of administrationRoute of administration FormulationFormulation DiseaseDisease Clinical resultsClinical results Adverse effects and author’s conclusion.Adverse effects and author’s conclusion. 3-Case Reports

21 Secondary Literature 21 Concisely state the purpose of the programs, how the program work and conclusion. 5-letters One should state briefly what was done followed by the main results. A brief conclusion should also be included. One should state briefly what was done followed by the main results. A brief conclusion should also be included. 4-Descriptive Reports

22 Secondary Literature 22 Concisely identifies the main topic covered in the review (if not clear from the title) Concisely identifies the main topic covered in the review (if not clear from the title) Type (e.g. Literature evaluation)Type (e.g. Literature evaluation) HistoricalHistorical Coverage (e.g. Subheadings)Coverage (e.g. Subheadings) Data coveredData covered Number of referencesNumber of references Summary of the major pointsSummary of the major points Author’s conclusion (if any) and critical comments etc....Author’s conclusion (if any) and critical comments etc Review Articles and Editorials

23 Secondary Literature 23 Key Words Keywords are used in referencing and indexing. Usually not more than 10 words are included. Keywords generally appear immediately below the abstract.

24 Secondary Literature 24 SINGLE DOSE PREOPERATIVE PROPHYLAXIS IN TRANSURETHRAL SURGERY: CIPROFL0XACrN VERSUS CEFOTAXIME CIPROFL0XACrN VERSUS CEFOTAXIME Christensen, M.M., Nielsen, K.T., Knes, J. and Madsen, P.O. Am. J. Med. 87:258S-260S (Nov 30 Supply) Christensen, M.M., Nielsen, K.T., Knes, J. and Madsen, P.O. Am. J. Med. 87:258S-260S (Nov 30 Supply) Indicative Abstract Single dose intravenous (IV) ciprofloxacin (I) and cefotaxime (II) are evaluated in a double blind study in male patients, 37 receiving, (1),300 mg, and 39 receiving II, 1.0 g, for preoperative prophylaxis in transurethral surgery. Single dose intravenous (IV) ciprofloxacin (I) and cefotaxime (II) are evaluated in a double blind study in male patients, 37 receiving, (1),300 mg, and 39 receiving II, 1.0 g, for preoperative prophylaxis in transurethral surgery. Examples of indicative and informative absttacts REPORT

25 Secondary Literature 25 Single dose intravenous (JV) ciprofloxacin (I) and cefotaxime (II) are evaluated in a double blind study in male patients, 37 receiving, 1,300 mg, and 39 receiving II, 1.0 g, for preoperative prophylaxis in transurethral surgery. There were no symptomatic urinary tract infections or other infections after prostate and bladder surgery and no serious post surgery complications in any of the patients. Serum and prostatic tissue levels, as well as the tissue/serum ratios are included for 13 I patients. The most common side effect was postoperative nausea in 15 patients, 111 and 4 II patients. It is concluded that both drugs are effective and safe in reducing tree frequency of bacteriuria following transurethral surgery; there is no significant different between the 2 groups. (13 references). Informative Abstract (example)

26 Secondary Literature 26 Guidelines For Informative Abstracts

27 Secondary Literature 27 –Purpose of study (if not clear from title). –Type of study (double—blind, cross—over, etc.) and duration. –Number of subjects (age, if stated). –Number of completers of the study. –Reasons for withdrawals. –Diseases. –Drug (s) used — dose, route of administration, formulation. –Clinical results. –adverse effects and interactions. –Statistical methods of analysis (if relevant). –Author’ s conclusions. Clinical Trials And Comparative Studies

28 Secondary Literature 28 –Number of subjects (age if stated). –Drug (s) used — dose, route of administration, formulation. –Disease. –Clinical results. –Adverse effects. –Author’ s conclusions. Case Report

29 Secondary Literature 29 –Subject (if not clear from title). –Type, e.g. Literature evaluation, historical. –Coverage, e.g. subheadings. –Dates covered (references). –Number of references. –Author’s conclusions (if any). –Critical comments — Author’ s bias, omissions, etc. Reviews And Editorials

30 Secondary Literature 30 abstract (original study)

31 Secondary Literature 31 Report abstract.

32 Secondary Literature Objective(s). State an objective, not necessarily a hypothesis. Hypothesis testing does not fit the design of many studies and sometimes leads to simplistic thumbs-up or “To determine whether drug A, a new antiviral agent, reduced morbidity related to the common cold.” Writing Informative Abstracts (Journal Articles)

33 Secondary Literature Design. “Case-control study.” “Randomized controlled trial.” “Prospective cohort study.” Not every study can be neatly summarized by a widely understood label; a brief description of what you did may be necessary. Writing Informative Abstracts (Journal Articles)

34 Secondary Literature Setting. place and time; where and when the study participants were selected. Try to be specific without being wordy. “Three general pediatric practices in Kansas City, Mo, from January 1990 to December 2001.” Writing Informative Abstracts (Journal Articles)

35 Secondary Literature Participants. Who was studied, and how many were studied? Describe important eligibility criteria. Refusal to participate, dropouts, and missing information are potential sources of bias. “A random sample of children admitted to the intensive care unit for bronchiolitis (N=201).” Writing Informative Abstracts (Journal Articles)

36 Secondary Literature Intervention (s) or Main exposure (s). It includes interventions that were controlled by the investigators or exposures. “Oral acyclovir, 15 mg/kg 5 times per day for 5 days.” Writing Informative Abstracts (Journal Articles)

37 Secondary Literature Main outcome measure (s). ” Given this objective, the main outcome was death prior to hospital discharge” Writing Informative Abstracts (Journal Articles)

38 Secondary Literature Results. Give the main numerical results with estimates of precision, such as confidence intervals. “The intervention arm had better outcomes; P=.01 for all comparisons,” Writing Informative Abstracts (Journal Articles)

39 Secondary Literature Conclusion(s). “The risk of drowning was less among children wearing life vests, compared with those without vests (adjusted risk ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, ).” ’ s “If the association estimated in our study is causal, our results provide evidence that about half of child drowning’ s can be prevented if children wear life vests.” Writing Informative Abstracts (Journal Articles)

40 Secondary Literature 40 Sources

41 Secondary Literature 41 Anti-infectives Today Adis International, Inc., Langhorne, PA. An indexing and abstracting service that summarizes current Literature on drug therapy and management of infections. Available as newsletter and a variety of electronic formats. Published monthly.

42 Secondary Literature 42 BIOSIS Previews BIOSIS, Philadelphia. A major comprehensive resource that covers all areas of biological research, including the biomedical sciences. Meeting and conference citations include the basic sciences; may be more comprehensive than MEDLINE.

43 Secondary Literature 43 Cancer Today Adis International, Inc., Langhorne, PA. An indexing and abstracting service that summarizes current literature on the use of drugs in the management of cancer. Available as newsletter and a variety of electronic formats. Published monthly.

44 Secondary Literature 44 ClinAlert Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA. A secondary system of adverse drug reaction case reports including herbal products and literature citations including herbal products. Available as a newsletter, CD-ROM, and on the Internet. Available as a newsletter, CD-ROM, and on the Internet. Published semimonthly. Reviews about 100 journals; about $lOO/year

45 Secondary Literature 45 CNS Disorders Today Adis International, Inc., Langhorne, PA. An indexing and abstracting service that summarizes current literature on all aspects of drug therapy and disease management of psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Available as newsletter and a variety of electronic formats. Published monthly.

46 Secondary Literature 46 Current Contents Institute for Scientific Information, Philadelphia. A system that provides tables of contents for numerous medical and life sciences publications. Two versions useful to pharmacists, Current Contents Life Sciences and Current Contents Clinical Medicine, are available. Author abstracts and author reprint addresses for journal articles also provided. Use of specific search terms enables specific information retrieval. Available as index ($442/year), CD-ROM $I,OOO/year, online, and Internet formats. Published weekly. Provides table of contents for more than 7500 different journals;

47 Secondary Literature 47 Embase Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. A very complete abstracting source for the medical literature. Covers approximately 4500 periodicals. This publication is in many ways similar to Medline, however, it covers more international journals and meeting abstracts. Available in CD-ROM, network, and on-line formats. (Printed version is called Excerpta Medica.) (Printed version is called Excerpta Medica.) Drugs and Pharmacology, a subset of this database, is of particular interest to pharmacists.

48 Secondary Literature 48 Index Medicus U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. An index to the biomedical literature that references over 3000 journals. Note that this is a printed subset of MEDLINE

49 Secondary Literature 49 Adis International, Inc., Langhorne, PA. An indexing and abstracting service that summarizes current literature related to pharmacotherapy. Available in newsletter, CD-ROM, on-line, Intranet, and Internet formats. Published weekly. Reviewing about 1500 journal. Lag time 2weeks-2 months. InPharma Weekly InPharma Weekly

50 Secondary Literature 50 International Pharmaceutical Abstracts American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Bethesda, MD. The most comprehensive abstracting service for international information relevant to pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. Provides access to both journal articles and pharmacy meeting abstracts. Available as a print index, CD-ROM formats, and as an on-line service. Published twice a month or updated monthly. Covers about 800 journals

51 Secondary Literature 51 Iowa Drug Information System (IDIS) College of Pharmacy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City. An indexing service that allows retrieval of complete articles from over 180 biomedical journals. Information can be searched by keywords, generic drug name, disease classification, journal of publication, year of publication, authors, title, and type of study design.

52 Secondary Literature 52 Iowa Drug Information System (IDIS) Available in microfiche, CDROM, and on-line formats. Articles published prior to 1998 are only available in microfiche format. After 1998, the articles are available in a microfiche format and a CD-ROM full-text version. Updated monthly. We have the system starting from Jan 1998.

53 Secondary Literature 53 Journal Watch Massachusetts Medical Society, Waltham, MA. An abstracting service by the publishers of New England Journal of Medicine that includes recent citations from general medicine literature This newsletter is published semimonthly. Additional newsletters are available in specialty areas such as psychiatry, infectious disease, women’s health, and AIDS.

54 Secondary Literature 54 LEXIS-NEXIS Academic Universe, Dayton, OH. This indexing/abstracting service with some full-text features provides access to a wide range of news, business, legal, and reference information.

55 Secondary Literature 55 LEXIS-NEXIS This service includes coverage of government, business, communications, law, finance, health care and medical information news, medical and health care journals, Joint Commission for Accreditation of Healthcare Organization publications, and FDC publications including The Tan Sheets, The Pink Sheets, and Pharmaceutical Approvals Monthly. Available for a fee at > >

56 Secondary Literature 56 MEDLINE National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD. Medline is bibliographic database containing more than 12 million citations and author abstracts from over 4800 biomedical journals published in the United States and 70 other countries. Medline covering extends back to the early 1950’s and up to now with new data added weekly.. Available on CD-ROM or via on-line services including the Internet as Grateful Med or part of PubMed <>

57 Secondary Literature 57 Pediatrics Today Adis International, Inc., Langhorne, PA. An indexing and abstracting service that summarizes current literature on the use of drugs in children. Available as newsletter and a variety of electronic formats. Published monthly.

58 Secondary Literature 58 PharmacoEconomics & Outcomes News Weekly Adis International, Inc., Langhorne, PA. An indexing and abstracting service that summarizes current literature on economic issues related to medicine, pharmacy, and health care. Available in newsletter, CD-ROM, and on-line formats. Published weekly.

59 Secondary Literature 59 Adis International, Inc., Langhorne, PA. An indexing and abstracting service that summarizes current literature on adverse drug reactions, drug interactions, herbal products, drug dependence, and toxicology. Available in newsletter, CD-ROM, on-line, Intranet, and Internet formats. Published weekly. An annual compilation is also published. Reviewing about 1500 journal. Lag time 1-2 months. Reactions Weekly

60 Secondary Literature 60 Institute for Scientific Information, Philadelphia. An index that notes citation frequency of authors and journal articles. Available in network, CD-ROM, on-line, and Internet formats. Science Citation Index


Download ppt "Secondary Literature 1. 2 Introduction Secondary literature indexingabstracting Primary literature services."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google