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Morphology and Word Formation Solutions to Test Paper tt
Word Formation ineffectualisation isn’t a word you meet every day. Argue that it nevertheless is a word, by splitting it up into morphemes according to type. Finally, draw a tree diagram for it, using the morpheme- type labels as the names of nodes.
Word Formation infectualisationis(e)ef
Word Formation inefualationis(e) A Suffix A stem Neg Prefix A Stem V Suffix V Stem N Affix N Stem fect N Prefix N Stem Bound Root
Compounds Form recognized compounds from the free morphemes below the table and insert them in the table according to the same principles as those behind the test samples. Use each morpheme only once: - Adjective- Noun- Verb Adjective - Bitter - -sweetPoor - -houseHigh - -born Noun - Verb - strongallAdjectives Nounsspoonpocketrainheadbow Verbswalksleeppickcarryfeed
Compounds Form recognized compounds from the free morphemes below the table and insert them in the table according to the same principles as those behind the test samples. Use each morpheme only once: Adjective Noun Verb Adjectivebittersweetpoorhousehighborn Noun Verb strongallAdjectives Nounsspoonpocketrainheadbow Verbswalksleeppickcarryfeed
Derivational Morphology Derivational morphemes convert members of (‘input’) word classes into members of the same or different (‘output’) word classes. For example, -ish turns 1) a N into an A: boy + ish boyish, or 2) an A into another A (with a different meaning): pink + ish pinkish. Judging from the list of words provided below, determine the input word class and the output word class for the following derivational affixes. Write the stem + input class label on the line to the left, the output class label on the line to the right of the arrow (note that the final vowel may diasappear or change shape, that the final consonant may double, and that the stem may otherwise change): a. _______ + -al ___; b. _______ + -ous ___ ; c. _______ + -ify ___; d. _______ +-ful ___; e. _______ + -ity ___ ; f. _______ +-en ___; g. _______ +-dom ___; h. _______ +-able ___; i. a- + _______ ___ ; j.ex- + _______ ___ ; k. sub- + _______ ___ ; l. re- + _______ ___ ; virtue, moral, health, wife, aquit, enemy, print, minimal, white, free, read, glory.
a. ____________ + -al ___ b. ____________ + -ous ___ c. ____________ + -ify ___ d. ____________ +-ful ___ e. ____________ + -ity ___ f. ____________ +-en ___ virtuemoralhealthwifeaquitenemy printminimalwhitefreereadglory t- V N acquittal e- NA virtuous VN glorify healthful NA enmity NN whiten AV
moralwife printminimalfreeread g. ____________ +-dom ___ h. ____________ +-able ___ i. a- + ____________ ___ j. ex- + ____________ ___ k. sub- + ____________ ___ l. re- + ____________ ___ freedom AN readable VA amoral AA exwife NN subminimal AA reprint VV
Derivational Morphology There are other possibilities: virtue N + al virtual A minimal A + ize minimalize V re + read V reread V glory N + ous glorious A wife N + dom wifedom N ….
Derivational Morphology … including some dubious, but potential, ones: sub +print VVN ? subprint N sub +white ? subwhite AA The crux of the matter is that derivational morphology is only partly subject to generalization