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Rajkumar Subash. Situations Who is he? Another Situation Who is he? Complex Situation Rapid Decision Is he Smart? Is he brilliant? Is he an emotional.

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Presentation on theme: "Rajkumar Subash. Situations Who is he? Another Situation Who is he? Complex Situation Rapid Decision Is he Smart? Is he brilliant? Is he an emotional."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rajkumar Subash

2 Situations Who is he?

3 Another Situation Who is he? Complex Situation Rapid Decision Is he Smart? Is he brilliant? Is he an emotional intelligent? “ Deep Smart ” Good Judgment Others could not diagnose

4 “ Go To People ” Dorothy Leonard & Walter Swap Rajkumar Subash Fall 2011 - MGMT 6600 – Study of Organization Prof: Dr. Thomas Li-Ping Tang Middle Tennessee State University

5 Authors

6 Author: Dorothy Leonard William J. Abernathy Professor of Business Administration Emerita, joined the Harvard faculty in 1983 3 yrs of teaching at the Sloan School of Management, MIT Has taught MBA courses in managerial leadership, corporate capabilities, new product and process design, technology strategy and innovation management Also served as a Director of Research for the Harvard Business School and Director of Research and Knowledge Programs for Harvard Business School's non-profit organization, HBS Interactive Education – M. A. Harvard University (Honorary), 1992 – Ph.D. Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 1979 – M.A. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 1968 – B.A. Principia College, Elsah, IL, summa cum laude, 1963 Served as Board of Directors in – American Mgmt Systems, Fairfax, VA – 1992-2004 – Gannett Communications, 1997-99 Been in Advisory Boards of – Prod Dev & Mgmt Association – 2002-Present – Creative Realities – 2004-Present – Ash Foundation – 2004-Present – Daimler-Chrysler, Stuttgart, Germany – 1999-2001 – ViOS – 1999-2000 & Nordia – 1999-2001 Journals Published 36 Chapter Written 20

7 Author: Walter Swap Professor of Psychology Emeritus Former chairman of the Psychology Department of Tufts University Was also a professor of Gordon institute at Tufts- offers degree of engineering management at practicing engineers and scientists. Served for 9 yrs as the Dean of the colleges Education – Bachelors from Harvard – Ph.D in Social psychology – University of Michigan Has written numerous chapters and journals Author of – When Sparks Fly: Igniting Creativity in Groups (1999) – Groups Decision Making (1984)

8 Research 2000 - First Wave – US and Asia: India, Singapore, Hong Kong - 125 individual Mentor Capitalists, Venture Capitalists, Incubator Managers, paired with the Entrepreneurs/Teams being coached in 35 companies, plus informants in industry – Longitudinal Studies: 1 VC-coached, 1 MC-coached companies – In-depth HBS case studies: 1 Incubator, 2 VC-backed startups, 1 MC-backed startup (A & B cases) 2001 - Second Wave – US and Asia: interviews in same 35 companies, with Coaches and Entrepreneurs – What have you learned? 2002-2003 – Details case studies of knowledge transfer in large, established organizations e.g., NASA/JPL, Best Buy, Whirlpool 2004-2006 – Further Research: Raytheon, Large Software Company, US Forest Service

9 Deep Smarts What are Deep Smarts? A Potent Form of expertise, based on first-hand life experiences, providing insights drawn from tacit knowledge, shaped by beliefs and social forces Know-How more than know-that Interactive relationship and Make Swift Expert decisions based on system level comprehension Connects with experiences Develops based on observations Much organizational capability is in the heads and hands

10 Can MBA help you to be a DEEP SMART? Deep Smarts cannot be attained through a formal education alone but, Can be deliberately nourished and grown and transferred or re-created with DEDICATION

11 Technical Deep Smart 1980, 2 companies were competing for a multi-billion dollar government contract for tactical missiles Stalemate situation A scientist from one of the companies – a technical wizard – 20 yrs experience For several hours – enthralled the team with complete design changes The company won the project – 400 people team for 1.5 years long More than 20 yrs, it is still reaping the harvest sown by this man with deep smarts

12 Managerial Deep Smart 1997 – Intuit sold off its bill-paying operations A serious situation – requires strategic solution CEO Bill Campell persuaded the board members and the next few months proved him right Course set out in board meeting was successful Campell’s promise to employees was fulfilled

13 Technical & Managerial Deep Smarts Technical deep smarts are most easily recognized Managerial deep smarts are harder to identify Technical deep smarts are most easily recognized Managerial deep smarts are harder to identify

14 Other Examples Dr. Neil Clark Warren, Founder Dr. Warren is a clinical psychologist with 35 years of counseling thousands of married couples, Dr. Warren observed a set of characteristics that seemed to be present in all successful relationships. He called them the 29 Dimensions of Compatibility. Ten years later, eHarmony's compatibility matching is responsible for nearly 5% of U.S. marriages Reed Hastings, Founder Mr. Hastings established Netflix in 1997 and reached peak customer volume in Q1 of 2011. He recently increased pricing of DVD-by-mail and Streaming by 60%. It upsets many customers. Last week, it announced splitting DVD-by-mail as a separate company as Qwikster. Couple of very bold decisions by Mr. Hastings. Stock price moved south more than 50% - unknown future Experts are good Experts are good Not all – sometimes over-confident 

15 Why do we care about Deep Smart? When Deep Smart leaves the company or moves to the different group – the experience goes with them Takes at least 10 years to develop through unusual situations They recognize bear traps because of their pattern-recognition. They make decision swiftly because of their expertise. They recognize context because of their conditionalized knowledge. They extrapolate alternatives because of their experience. They make fine distinctions that are indistinguishable to an untrained eye or ear. They know what they don't know when they encounter an unusual situation. They know when rules don't apply because no two situations are exactly the same

16 Experience Repertoire The science behind Deep Smarts It control the center of the board - Chess Menu of familiar options Faced with wide variety of situations A pattern matching mechanism “Gut Feel” is really a form of “Gut Knowledge” Most Common Experiences Rare Experiences

17 Cultivating and Transferring Deep Smarts Knowledge Framing Beliefs & Assumptions Knowledge Filtering Social Influences Knowledge Building Experience & Expertise Knowledge Transferring Coaching & Guided Experience External Influences (Other People) Shaping Deep Smarts Internal Influences (Self) Acquiring Deep Smarts

18 Nine Dimensions of Deep Smarts 1.Skills & Know how 2.System thinking 3.Swift, Wise Decision-making 4.Ability to take context into account 5.Networks 6.Distinguishing Signal from Noise 7.Pattern Recognition 8.Ability to Deal with Novelty 9.Enthusiasm/Passion for the domain knowledge

19 Sink or Swim In America, it requires 2 weeks notice for many resignation New people are thrown into Sink or Swim situation An inefficient and ineffective strategy

20 Transfer Techniques SINK or SWIM is inefficient and ineffective Need various techniques Mentoring? Constant reinventing? Storytelling? Someone who never played video games may not understand the concept of Multiuser Domain

21 Ladder of Expertise Novice (Beginner) Apprentice (Intermediate) Jouneyman (Advanced) Expert (Master) From To

22 Knowledge Transfer - Techniques Know-How Know-Who Know-What Know-When Know-Where Learning by doing – Guided Experience

23 Difference Between Novice and Expert ExpertsNovicesLimitations Speed of Decision-Making Make Decisions swiftly, efficiently, without reviewing basic facts Need to review all facts, choose among alternatives Over-confidence; expert may ignore relevant data Context Take context into account: knowledge is "contextualized" Rely on rules of thumb that minimize context Difficult to transfer contextualized knowledge Tacit Knowledge Extensive tacit knowledge drives decision making Knowledge is largely explicit Difficult to access tacit knowledge, so transfer difficult Pattern-recognition ability Have large inventory of patterns drawn from experience Limited experience constrains number of patters When no patterns exist, expert may be no better than novice

24 Modes of Knowledge Transfer Passive Reception Active Learning Guided Experience (Learning by Doing) Socratic Questioning Stories with a Moral Rules of Thumb Directives, Presentations, Lectures

25 Guided Experience (Learning by doing) Practice Experimentation Problem-Solving Observation Guided…

26 Modes of Knowledge Transfer Passive Reception Active Learning Guided Experience (Learning by Doing) - Guided Practice - Guided Problem-Solving - Guided Observation - Guided Experimentation Socratic Questioning Stories with a Moral Rules of Thumb Directives, Presentations, Lectures

27 Guided Practice Practice does make perfect Examples Music Sports Driving See one Lead one Teach one Novice’s performance is observed by the coach, who provides helpful feedback

28 Guided Observation Just listen and learn Pattern Recognition Highly Contextual Examples Apprentice Internship Observing by shadowing a coach and follow up discussion on what had occurred

29 Guided Problem-Solving Expert and novice tackle actual problems facing the company, with the expert sharing perspectives and thought processes along the way Experienced Approach Experience enhances organizational know- how, alters belief systems and contributes to technical expertise Focusing attention, sharpening process skills, giving feedback, mimic an expert and building experience repertoire

30 Guided Experimentation Testing new products in pilot markets Coaches offer good advice about where and how much to experiment and improve the team attitude Costly approach

31 Are they Deep Smarts? William Wang Larry Page & Eric Schmidt Steve Jobs Mark Zuckerberg James Sinegal Frederick W. Smith

32 Strategies for building Deep Smarts Coaching Buddy-Mentor System Learning by doing with simulations Capturing knowledge and Documenting best practices Team learning and Practice Participation in conferences Discussing knowledge gained and lessons learned after every project Rewards and incentives Collaborative portals to capture problems/issues and their solutions (Oracle-Online forums to capture external tacit knowledge) Informal sessions with experienced team members Shadowing systems Apprenticeships and Internships Creating an attitude towards knowledge growing by sharing Experts Connect – ability to identify and quickly reach tacit knowledge Putting in place the right KPIs to measure and reward contributions Motivating talent to stay, share and grow within the organization

33 Future Trends Deep Smarts are always there Technological advancements help deep smarts Past studies help growing deep smarts Challenges for smaller companies

34 References Gary, Loren: Build Your Company’s Deep Smarts, Harvard Management Update – Article Reprint No. U0508C Jenner, Mark: Out-of-Classroom Experience, Oxford Leadership Journal – Dec 2009, Volume 1, Issue 1 Web References: – – – – %20Applying%20Deep%20Smarts.pdf %20Applying%20Deep%20Smarts.pdf

35 Questions

36 Rajkumar Subash Thank You

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