Presentation on theme: "H IGH F RUCTOSE C ORN S YRUP Michelle Trunk"— Presentation transcript:
H IGH F RUCTOSE C ORN S YRUP Michelle Trunk
T ODAY … What is HFCS? How is it made? When did HFCS become such a big part of our diet? Why is it controversial? What are some of the benefits of HFCS?
W HAT IS IT ? Artificial sweetener Product of acid hydrolysis of Sucrose Monosaccharide HFCS-55 or HFCS-42
H OW IS IT MADE / PROCESSED ? Starch GlucoseFructose Extraction Hydrolyze Enzymatic Isomerization Video Other unit operations used: -Pulping -Clarification -Evaporation -Carbon treatment -Ion exchange -Centrifugation -Filtration -Enzyme treatment
S UCROSE VS. F RUCTOSE Sucrose hydrolyzes over time in acidic soft drinks changing flavor profile Sugar cane grown in unstable geographical and political regions Sucrose is a dry ingredient Sweetest in crystalline form, β-D-fructopyranose In solution, “mutarotates” into α-D-fructopyranose, β-D-fructofuranose Most commonly used in liquid form FructoseSucrose
HFCS IS FOUND IN EVERYTHING FROM KETCHUP TO YOGURT.
W HY IS IT CONTROVERSIAL ?
W HY IS IT THOUGHT TO CAUSE OBESITY ? Consumption of HFCS grew from 0.5 lbs per person to 62.4 lbs per person between 1970 and 1997 Consumption of soft drinks grew from 28 gallons per person in 1986 to 41 gallons per person in 1997 In 1997, each American consumed an average of 53 teaspoonfuls of added sugar per day USDA recommends: 1600 calorie diet: 6 teaspoons 2200 calorie diet: 12 teaspoons 2800 calorie diet: 18 teaspoons
T HE J OURNAL OF N UTRITION DOES NOT CONTRIBUTE THE RISE IN OBESITY TO HFCS.
A RGUMENT #1: A MERICANS CONSUME LARGE AMOUNT OF SOFT DRINKS. Beverage industry is the largest user of HFCS Low satiety after consuming beverages containing HFCS Your body has energy but needs more energy (or food) to feel full Energy in ≠ Energy out Therefore you get accumulation of energy, which is stored as fat.
O NE STUDY COMPARED BEVERAGES CONTAINING HFCS AND ASPARTAME. Sample group consisted of people with sugar- containing diets Gave group beverages sweetened with HFCS and aspartame, non-calorie-containing sweetener Results: Significant weight gain in subjects who drank HFCS-sweetened beverages.
A RGUMENT #2: F RUCTOSE IS METABOLIZED DIFFERENTLY. Fructose transported into enterocyte via GLUT5 Diffuses into liver via GLUT2 Rapidly metabolized to fructose-1- phosphate Fructose-1-P converted to triose-P unregulated by insulin Free phosphate depletion and decreased ATP in liver cells A portion of triose-P converted to lactate and released into circulation Lactate is precursor for de novo lipogenesis, favoring production of triglycerides and fatty acids Glucose enters body, insulin is released Increase in insulin causes increase in leptin Insulin carries glucose across cell membrane Glucose is broken down into Pyruvic acid and energy is released FructoseGlucose
O THER O PINIONS American Medical Association (AMA) released a statement in 2008 saying, “…high fructose corn syrup does not appear to contribute more to obesity than other caloric sweeteners.” American Dietetic Association stated, “High fructose corn syrup may be used as a sweetener in processed foods and beverages and is nutritionally equivalent to sucrose. Both sweeteners contain the same number of calories (4 per gram) and consist of about equal parts of fructose and glucose. Once absorbed into the blood stream, the two sweeteners are indistinguishable.
I F HFCS IS SO CONTROVERSIAL, THEN WHY DO WE USE IT ? Cheaper because its made from corn It is slightly sweeter than sucrose Easier to mix into products because it is a liquid Replaces other unwanted ingredients such as propylene glycol for moisture retention
O THER BENEFITS …
R EFERENCES syrup-in-america.html Le, Kim-Anne and Luc Tappy “Metabolic Effects of Fructose and the Worldwide Increase in Obesity.” Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology and Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. The American Physiological Society, January 2010, Vol. 90. Bray, George A., Samara Joy Nielsen, and Barry M. Popkin “Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity.” American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Downloaded on: April 5, White, John S “Misconceptions about High Fructose Corn Syrup: Is it Uniquely Responsible for Obesity, Reactive Dicarbonyl Compounds, and Advanced Glycation Endproducts?” The Journal of Nutrition. April 22, 2009, pgs Jacques, Jacqueline, ND. “High Fructose Corn Syrup.” Obesity Action Coalition. Downloaded on: April 5, 2010 Kersting, Mathilde, and Lars Libuda “Soft drinks and body weigth development in childhood: is there a relationship?” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. Downloaded on: April 6, 2010.