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Pragmatics, timeline and major players 语用学:历史线条与主要代表 Shaozhong Liu, Ph.D. (Pragmatics) / Ph.D. (Higher Education) School of Foreign Studies, Guilin University.

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Presentation on theme: "Pragmatics, timeline and major players 语用学:历史线条与主要代表 Shaozhong Liu, Ph.D. (Pragmatics) / Ph.D. (Higher Education) School of Foreign Studies, Guilin University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pragmatics, timeline and major players 语用学:历史线条与主要代表 Shaozhong Liu, Ph.D. (Pragmatics) / Ph.D. (Higher Education) School of Foreign Studies, Guilin University of Electronic Technology Homepage: Blog: Email: 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 20131

2 Teaching Plan Objectives 1) To familiarize students with the big picture of pragmatics so that they know who are there and where they are. 2) To impress students with a vertical knowledge of the field so that they know the most recent developments. 2) To create a sense of urgency so that students know what to do in the days to come. Content 1) Timeline 2) Most influential names 3) Most influential works / projects 4) Current status / enterprises, if possible. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 20132

3 Strategies 1) lecture 2) Pictures 3) Scripts 4) Video-clips 5) Discussions 6) Assignment 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 20133

4 Timeline of pragmatics As a word, pragmatics appeared 2000 years ago. Back there, it was spelt as pragmaticus in Greek and pragmaticos in Latin. As a term, it was initially employed by Charles William Morris. In 1938, this American professor of philosophy published an article entitled The Foundations of the Theory of Signs. This is often referred to as the modern use of the word pragmatics. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 20134

5 There have been several boosters to elevate pragmatics towards an independent discipline. These include, among other things, John Austin’s William James Lectures at Harvard University in 1955. In 1962, his lectures sheets were collected and reprinted as a pamphlet entitled How to Do Things with Words. John Searle, professor of philosophy at the University of California at Berkeley, continued Austin’s discussion and published Speech Acts (1969) and Indirect Speech Acts (1975). Herbert Paul Grice who gave a serial of speeches at the William James Lectures at Harvard University in 1967 about “Logic and Conversation” (which appeared in 1975) was also one of the pioneers that help boost the development of pragmatics. Pragmatics was established as an independent discipline with the publishing of the Journal of Pragmatics co-edited by Hartmut Haberland and Jacob L. Mey in 1977. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 20135

6 Afterward reinforcers or events that helped to strengthen pragmatics as a branch of linguistics include: Stephen Levinson’s Pragmatics (1983); Geoffrey Leech’s Principles of Pragmatics (1983); the publishing of the International Pragmatics Association’s (IPrA) official organs Pragmatics, and Pragmatics and Beyond, under the care of its General Secretary Jef Verschueren; Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson’s Relevance: Cognition and Communication (1986, 1995); Jef Verschueren’s Pragmatics as a Theory of Linguistic Adaptation (1987); Georgia M. Green’s Pragmatics and Natural Language Understanding (1989); Shoshana Blum-Kulka and Juliane House’s Cross-cultural Pragmatics (1989); 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 20136

7 Steven Davis’s Pragmatics: A Reader (1991); Gabriele Kasper, S. Blum-Kulka & J. House’s Interlanguage Pragmatics (1992); Jacob Mey’s Pragmatics: An Introduction (1993); Jenny Thomas’s Meaning in Interaction: An Introduction to Pragmatics (1995); George Yule’s Pragmatics (1996); and Jef Verschueren’s Understanding Pragmatics (2002). 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 20137

8 1930s As a term, it was initially employed by Charles William Morris. In 1938, this American professor of philosophy published an article entitled The Foundations of the Theory of Signs. This is often referred to as the modern use of the word pragmatics. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 20138

9 "Pragmatics" was defined by Charles W. Morris (1938) as the branch of semiotics that studies the relation of signs to interpreters, in contrast with semantics, which studies the relation of signs to designata. In practice, it has often been treated as a repository for any aspect of utterance meaning beyond the scope of existing semantic machinery, as in the slogan "Pragmatics = meaning minus truth conditions" (Gazdar 1979). There has been some doubt about whether it is a homogeneous domain (Searle, Kiefer, and Bierwisch 1980). 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 20139

10 Charles William Morris Dr. Charles Morris Born May 23, 1901 (1901-05-23) Denver, Colorado Denver NationalityUnited States Fields Semiotics Philosophy Institutions Rice University University of Chicago University of Florida Alma mater University of Chicago Northwestern University 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201310

11 Charles W. Morris (May 23, 1901, Denver, Colorado – January 15, 1979, Gainesville, Florida) was an American semiotician and philosopher.DenverGainesvillesemiotician philosopher 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201311

12 Background A son of Charles William and Laura (Campbell) Morris, Charles William Morris was born on May 23, 1901. Having briefly attended the University of Wisconsin, Morris studied engineering and psychology at Northwestern University, where he graduated with a B.S. in 1922. Later that same year, he entered the University of Chicago where he became a doctoral student in philosophy under the direction of George Herbert Mead. Morris completed his dissertation on a symbolic theory of mind and received a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1925. In the same year he married Gertrude E. Thompson, with whom he had a daughter, Sally Morris Petrilli. In 1951 he married his second wife, Ellen Ruth Allen (a psychologist). After his graduation, Morris turned to teaching, first at Rice University, and later at the University of Chicago. In 1958 he became Research Professor at the University of Florida. His students included semiotician Thomas A. Sebeok. In 1937 Morris presided over the Western Division of the American Philosophical Association, and was Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Charles William Morris died on January 15, 1979 in Gainesville, Florida.George Herbert MeadThomas A. Sebeok 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201312

13 Teaching and the Unity of Science Movement Morris was an instructor of philosophy for six years between 1925-1931 at Rice University in Houston, Texas. [1] After leaving Rice, he was associate professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago from 1931-1947. Morris became a lecturing professor at Chicago in 1948, occupying the position until 1958 when he received an offer for a special appointment as a Research Professor at the University of Florida, where he remained until his death. [1] 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201313

14 During his time at Rice University, Morris wrote and defended his philosophical perspective known as neo- pragmatism. He also worked on and published Six Theories of Mind. [2] At the end of his term at Rice, Morris returned to the University of Chicago. In the early 1930s, the University of Chicago's philosophy department was unstable, but in the midst of change and difficult economic times, Morris felt that philosophy would serve as a torch that would light the way to saving world civilization. [2] Morris had hoped to create an institute of philosophy at the University of Chicago, but his efforts to convince the university president of such a venture were unsuccessful. [2] 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201314

15 While on sabbatical from the University of Chicago in 1934, Morris traveled abroad, visiting Europe and meeting working philosophers such as Bertrand Russell and members of the Vienna Circle like Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath, and Moritz Schlick. Morris was greatly impressed with the logical positivist (logical empiricist) movement. While presenting a paper in Prague at the Eighth International Congress of Philosophy, he discussed his hopes for a union of pragmatism and positivism. [2] Sympathetic to the positivist's philosophical project, Morris became the number one American advocate for the "Unity of Science Movement" led by Otto Neurath. During the 1930s, Morris helped several German and Austrian philosophers emigrate to the United States, including Rudolf Carnap in 1936. As a part of the "Unity of Science Movement," Morris worked closely with Neurath and Carnap to produce the International Encyclopedia of Unified Science. As co-editor of the Encyclopedia, Morris procured publication in America from the University of Chicago Press. His involvement with the Encyclopedia spanned for ten years when the project lost momentum in 1943. [2] Both Morris and Carnap found it difficult to keep the Encyclopedia alive due to insufficient funds. In the latter part of the 1940s, Morris was finally able to secure funding that allowed the project to last until its final publication in the 1970s.Bertrand RussellVienna CircleRudolf Carnap Otto NeurathMoritz Schlick [2] 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201315

16 Morris and semiotics Morris's development of a behavioral theory of signs (semiotics) is partly due to his desire to unify logical positivism with behavioral empiricism and pragmatism. [3] Morris's union of these three philosophical perspectives eventuated in his claim that symbols have three types of relations:semioticslogical positivismbehavioral empiricismpragmatism [3] to objects, to persons, and to other symbols. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201316

17 He later called these relations "semantics", "pragmatics", and "syntactics". [3] Viewing semiotics as a way to bridge philosophical outlooks, Morris grounded his sign theory in Mead's social behaviorism. In fact, Morris's interpretation of an interpretant, a term used in the semiotics of Charles Sanders Peirce, has been understood to be strictly psychological. [4] Morris's system of signs emphasizes the role of stimulus and response in the orientation, manipulation, and consummation phases of action. His mature semiotic theory is traced out in Signs, Language, and Behavior. Morris's semiotic is concerned with explaining the tri-relation between syntactics, semantics, and pragmatics in a dyadic way, which is very different from the semiotics of C.S. Peirce. This caused some to argue that Morris misinterpreted Peirce by converting the interpretant into a logically existent thing. [4] [3]Charles Sanders Peirce [4] 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201317

18 Morris Collection at the Institute for American Thought at IUPUI Toward the end of his life in 1976, Morris sent two installments of his work to the Institute for American Thought (IAT) at Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI). Three years later in 1979, Morris's daughter, Sally Petrilli, arranged to have additional installments of his work sent to IUPUI. In 1984 Italian philosopher Ferruccio Rossi-Landi added to the Morris collection at IUPUI by sending his correspondence with Charles W. Morris. Among the vast Morris collection at the IAT are 381 titles of books and journal articles regarding pragmatism, logical empiricism, poetry, ethics, and Asian studies. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201318

19 References American philosophy List of American philosophers ^ Reisch, George A. “Morris, Charles William (1901-79)”. Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers Vol. 3. Ed. Shook. England. Thoemmes. 2005. ^ ^ a b c d Reisch, George A. Guide to the Charles W. Morris Collection at the Peirce Edition Project, IUPUI. Created for the Indiana Scholarly Editions Consortium. Unpublished manuscript. 2001. a b c d ^ a b Posner, Roland. “Charles Morris and the Behavioral Foundations of Semiotics.” Classics of Semiotics. Ed. Krampen. Plemun Press. New York: 1987. pp. 25. a b ^ a b Dewey, John. “Peirce's Theory of Linguistic Signs, Thought, and Meaning.” The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 43, No. 4 (Feb. 14, 1946), pp.85-95. a b 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201319

20 Bibliography of Charles W. Morris Institute for American Thought 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201320

21 1940s Yehoshua Bar-Hillel Rudolph Carnap 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201321

22 Yehoshua Bar-Hillel Yehoshua Bar-Hillel (Hebrew: יהושע בר - הלל ‎; 1915 in Vienna – 1975 in Jerusalem) was an Israeli philosopher, mathematician, and linguist at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, best known for his pioneering work in machine translation and formal linguistics.HebrewViennaJerusalem Israeliphilosophermathematician linguistHebrew University of Jerusalem machine translationlinguistics 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201322

23 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201323

24 Biography Born Oscar Westreich, he was raised in Berlin. In 1933 he emigrated to Palestine with the Bnei Akiva youth movement, and briefly joined the kibbutz Tirat Zvi before settling in Jerusalem and marrying Shulamith.BerlinPalestine Bnei AkivakibbutzTirat Zvi During World War II, he served in the Jewish Brigade of the British Army. He fought with the Haganah during the Israeli War of Independence, losing an eye.World War IIJewish BrigadeHaganahIsraeli War of Independence 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201324

25 Bar-Hillel received his PhD in Philosophy from the Hebrew University where he also studied mathematics under Abraham Fraenkel, with whom he eventually coauthored Foundations of Set Theory (1958, 1973).Hebrew University Abraham Fraenkel Bar-Hillel was a major disciple of Rudolf Carnap, whose Logical Syntax of Language much influenced him. He began a correspondence with Carnap in the 1940s, which led to a 1950 postdoc under Carnap at the University of Chicago, and to his collaborating on Carnap's 1952 An Outline of the Theory of Semantic Information.Rudolf CarnapUniversity of Chicago Bar-Hillel then took up a position at MIT, leaving in 1953 just before Noam Chomsky's arrival. At MIT, Bar-Hillel was the first academic to work full-time in the field of Machine Translation; he organised the first International Conference on Machine Translation in 1952. Later he expressed doubts that general-purpose fully automatic high-quality machine translation would ever be feasible. [1][2] He was also a pioneer in the field of information retrieval.MITNoam ChomskyMachine Translation [1][2]information retrieval 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201325

26 In 1953, Bar-Hillel joined the philosophy department at the Hebrew University, where he taught until his untimely death at age 60. His teachings and writings strongly influenced an entire generation of Israeli philosophers and linguists, including Asa Kasher and Avishai Margalit. In 1953, he founded a pioneering algebraic-computational linguistic group, and in 1961 he contributed to the proof of the pumping lemma for context-free languages (sometimes called the Bar-Hillel lemma). Bar-Hillel helped found the Hebrew University's department of Philosophy of Science. From 1966 to 1968 Bar- Hillel presided over the International Association of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science.philosophyHebrew UniversityAsa KasherAvishai Margalitpumping lemmacontext-free languages Philosophy of Science 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201326

27 Bar-Hillel's daughter Maya Bar-Hillel is a cognitive psychologist at the Hebrew University, known for her collaborations with Amos Tversky and for her role in critiquing Bible code study. His other daughter, Mira Bar-Hillel, is the property and planning correspondent for the London Evening Standard. His granddaughter, Gili Bar-Hillel, is the Hebrew translator of the Harry Potter series.cognitive psychologistHebrew UniversityAmos TverskyBible codeEvening StandardGili Bar-HillelHarry Potter Related terms Categorial grammar Indexical expression 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201327

28 Selected bibliography 1954 - Indexical Expressions, in: Mind, Vol. 63, Pp. 359– 379. 1958 - (with Abraham Fraenkel) Foundations of Set Theory. 2nd ed. (also with Azriel Levy and Dirk van Dalen), 1973.Abraham FraenkelAzriel LevyDirk van Dalen 1964 - Language and Information 1970 - Aspects of Language: Essays and Lectures on Philosophy of Language, Linguistic Philosophy and Methodology of Linguistics 1972 - Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science (Editor) 1975 - Pragmatics of Natural Languages (Editor) 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201328

29 Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: Out of the Pragmatic Wastebasket. Linguistic Inquiry, Vol. 2, No. 3 (Summer, 1971), pp. 401-407. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201329

30 Links "Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: A Philosopher's Contribution to Machine Translation"Yehoshua Bar-Hillel: A Philosopher's Contribution to Machine Translation "Bar-Hillel and Machine Translation: Then and Now."Bar-Hillel and Machine Translation: Then and Now. Bar-Hillel Colloquium. Translation Trouble: Time Magazine article from 1954. Translation Trouble Categories: 1915 births | 1975 deaths | Austrian Jews | Hebrew University of Jerusalem alumni | Hebrew University of Jerusalem faculty | Jews in Ottoman and British Palestine | Israeli Jews | Israeli linguists | Israeli philosophers | Jewish philosophers | Philosophers of language | Mathematical logicians | Members of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities Categories1915 births1975 deathsAustrian Jews Hebrew University of Jerusalem alumniHebrew University of Jerusalem facultyJews in Ottoman and British PalestineIsraeli JewsIsraeli linguistsIsraeli philosophersJewish philosophersPhilosophers of languageMathematical logiciansMembers of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201330

31 Rudolph Carnap Full nameRudolf Carnap Born May 18, 1891(1891-05-18) Ronsdorf, Lennep, Düsseldorf, Rhine, Prussia, Germany RonsdorfLennepDüsseldorfRhinePrussiaGermany Died September 14, 1970(1970-09-14) (aged 79) Santa Monica, California, USA Santa Monica, CaliforniaUSA Era20th-century philosophy RegionWestern Philosophy SchoolAnalytic Main interestsLogicLogic, Epistemology, Philosophy of Science, SemanticsEpistemologyPhilosophy of ScienceSemantics Notable ideas PhysicalismPhysicalism, Phenomenalism, Analytic-synthetic distinction, Modal Logic, Constructed language, Conceptual Schemes, Logical PositivismPhenomenalismAnalytic-synthetic distinction Modal LogicConstructed languageConceptual Schemes Logical Positivism Influenced by[show] Gottlob Frege, Immanuel Kant, Albert Einstein, Ernst Mach, Bertrand Russell, Edmund Husserl, Ludwig Wittgenstein Gottlob FregeImmanuel KantAlbert EinsteinErnst MachBertrand RussellEdmund HusserlLudwig Wittgenstein Influence on[show 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201331

32 Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was an influential German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. He was a major member of the Vienna Circle and an advocate of logical positivism.German philosopherEuropeUnited StatesVienna Circlelogical positivism 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201332

33 Life and work Carnap was born to a west German family that had been humble until his parents' generation. He began his formal education at the Barmen Gymnasium. From 1910 to 1914, he attended the University of Jena, intending to write a thesis in physics. But he also studied carefully Kant's Critique of Pure Reason during a course taught by Bruno Bauch, and was one of very few students to attend Gottlob Frege's courses in mathematical logic. After serving in the German army during World War I for three years, he was given permission to study physics at the University of Berlin, 1917–18, where Albert Einstein was a newly appointed professor. Carnap then attended the University of Jena, where he wrote a thesis defining an axiomatic theory of space and time. The physics department said it was too philosophical, and Bruno Bauch of the philosophy department said it was pure physics. Carnap then wrote another thesis, with Bauch's supervision, on the theory of space in a more orthodox Kantian style, and published as Der Raum (Space) in a supplemental issue of Kant-Studien (1922). In it he makes the clear distinction between formal, physical and perceptual (e.g., visual) spaces.Barmen GymnasiumUniversity of Jena KantCritique of Pure ReasonBruno BauchFrege mathematical logicWorld War I University of BerlinAlbert EinsteinUniversity of Jenaaxiomatic theoryspace timeBruno BauchKantian visual 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201333

34 In 1921, Carnap wrote a letter to Bertrand Russell, who responded by copying by hand long passages from his Principia Mathematica for Carnap's benefit, as neither Carnap nor Freiburg could afford a copy of this epochal work. In 1924 and 1925, he attended seminars led by Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, and continued to write on physics from a logical positivist perspective.Bertrand RussellPrincipia MathematicaEdmund Husserlphenomenologylogical positivist Carnap discovered a kindred spirit when he met Hans Reichenbach at a 1923 conference. Reichenbach introduced Carnap to Moritz Schlick, a professor at the University of Vienna who offered Carnap a position in his department, which Carnap accepted in 1926. Carnap thereupon joined an informal group of Viennese intellectuals that came to be known as the Vienna Circle, directed largely by Moritz Schlick and including Hans Hahn, Friedrich Waismann, Otto Neurath, and Herbert Feigl, with occasional visits by Hahn's student Kurt Gödel. When Wittgenstein visited Vienna, Carnap would meet with him. He (with Hahn and Neurath) wrote the 1929 manifesto of the Circle, and (with Hans Reichenbach) initiated the philosophy journal Erkenntnis.Hans ReichenbachMoritz SchlickUniversity of ViennaVienna CircleMoritz SchlickHans HahnFriedrich WaismannOtto NeurathHerbert FeiglKurt GödelWittgensteinHans ReichenbachErkenntnis 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201334

35 In 1928, Carnap published two important books: The Logical Structure of the World (German: "Der logische Aufbau der Welt"), in which he developed a rigorous formal version of empiricism, defining all scientific terms in phenomenalistic terms. The formal system of the Aufbau (as the work is commonly termed) was grounded in a single primitive dyadic predicate, which is satisfied if "two" individuals "resemble" each other. The Aufbau was greatly influenced by Principia Mathematica, and warrants comparison with the mereotopological metaphysics A. N. Whitehead developed over 1916-29. It appears, however, that Carnap soon became somewhat disenchanted with this book. In particular, he did not authorize an English translation until 1967.Principia MathematicamereotopologicalA. N. Whitehead Pseudoproblems in Philosophy asserted that many philosophical questions were meaningless, i.e., the way they were posed amounted to an abuse of language. An operational implication of this opinion was taken to be the elimination of metaphysics from responsible human discourse. This is the statement for which Carnap was best known for many years.metaphysics 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201335

36 In February 1930 Tarski lectured in Vienna, and during November 1930 Carnap visited Warsaw. On these occasions he learned much about Tarski's model theoretic method of semantics. In 1931, Carnap was appointed Professor at the German language University of Prague. There he wrote the book that was to make him the most famous logical positivist and member of the Vienna Circle, his Logical Syntax of Language (Carnap 1934). In this work, Carnap advanced his Principle of Tolerance, according to which there is not any such thing as a "true" or "correct" logic or language. One is free to adopt whatever form of language is useful for one's purposes. In 1933, W. V. Quine met Carnap in Prague and discussed the latter's work at some length. Thus began the lifelong mutual respect these two men shared, one that survived Quine's eventual forceful disagreements with a number of Carnap's philosophical conclusions.TarskiTarski'smodel theoretic semanticsUniversity of Praguelogical positivistW. V. Quine 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201336

37 Carnap, whose socialist and pacifist beliefs made him at risk in Nazi Germany, emigrated to the United States in 1935 and became a naturalized citizen in 1941. Meanwhile back in Vienna, Moritz Schlick was murdered in 1936. From 1936 to 1952, Carnap was a professor of philosophy at the University of Chicago. Thanks partly to Quine's help, Carnap spent the years 1939-41 at Harvard, where he was reunited with Tarski. Carnap (1963) later expressed some irritation about his time at Chicago, where he and Charles W. Morris were the only members of the department committed to the primacy of science and logic. (Their Chicago colleagues included Richard McKeon, Mortimer Adler, Charles Hartshorne, and Manley Thompson.) Carnap's years at Chicago were nonetheless very productive ones. He wrote books on semantics (Carnap 1942, 1943, 1956), modal logic, being very similar in Carnap (1956) to the now- standard possible worlds semantics for that logic Saul Kripke proposed starting in 1959, and on the philosophical foundations of probability and induction (Carnap 1950, 1952).socialistpacifistUnited States naturalized citizenMoritz SchlickUniversity of ChicagoTarskiCharles W. Morris Richard McKeonMortimer AdlerCharles HartshorneManley Thompsonsemanticsmodal logicpossible worldsSaul Kripke probabilityinduction 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201337

38 After a stint at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he joined the philosophy department at UCLA in 1954, Hans Reichenbach having died the previous year. He had earlier refused an offer of a similar job at the University of California, because accepting that position required that he sign a loyalty oath, a practice to which he was opposed on principle. While at UCLA, he wrote on scientific knowledge, the analytic - synthetic dichotomy, and the verification principle. His writings on thermodynamics and on the foundations of probability and induction, were published posthumously as Carnap (1971, 1977, 1980).Institute for Advanced Study Princetonphilosophy department at UCLAHans ReichenbachUniversity of CaliforniaUCLA analyticsyntheticverification principlethermodynamicsprobabilityinduction 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201338

39 Carnap taught himself Esperanto when he was a mere fourteen years of age, and remained very sympathetic to it (Carnap 1963). He later attended the World Congress of Esperanto in 1908 and 1922, and employed the language while traveling.EsperantoWorld Congress of Esperanto Carnap had four children by his first marriage, which ended in divorce in 1929. His second wife committed suicide in 1964. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201339

40 Logical Syntax Carnap's Logical Syntax of Language can be regarded as a response to Wittgenstein 's Tractatus.Tractatus Carnap elaborated and extended the concept of logical syntax proposed by Wittgenstein in the Tractatus (Section 3.325).Wittgenstein 3.325. In order to avoid such errors we must make use of a sign-language that excludes them by not using the same sign for different symbols and by not using in a superficially similar way signs that have different modes of signification: that is to say, a sign-language that is governed by logical grammar—by logical syntax....... — Wittgenstein, Section 3.325, Tractatus 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201340

41 However, Wittgenstein stated that propositions cannot represent logical form. 4.121. Propositions cannot represent logical form: it is mirrored in them. What finds its reflection in language, language cannot represent. What expresses itself in language, we cannot express by means of language. Propositions show the logical form of reality. They display it. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201341

42 Carnap disagreed. Wittgenstein proposed the idea of logical syntax. It is Carnap who designed, formulated and implemented the details of logical syntax in philosophical analysis. Carnap defined logical syntax as: By the logical syntax of a language, we mean the formal theory of the linguistic forms of that language -- the systematic statement of the formal rules which govern it together with the development of the consequences which follow from these rules. A theory, a rule, a definition, or the like is to be called formal when no reference is made in it either to the meaning of the symbols (for examples, the words) or to the sense of the expressions (e.g. the sentences), but simply and solely to the kinds and order of the symbols from which the expressions are constructed. — Carnap, Page 1, Logical Syntax of Language In the U.S, the concept of logical syntax helped the development of natural language processing and compiler design (the Parrot virtual machine and LLVM). natural language processingcompilerParrot virtual machineLLVM 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201342

43 The purpose of logical syntax The purpose of logical syntax is to provide a system of concepts, a language, by the help of which the results of logical analysis will be exactly formulable. Carnap stated : Philosophy is to be replaced by the logic of science -- that is to say, by the logical analysis of the concepts and sentences of the sciences, for the logic of science is nothing other than the logical syntax of the language of science. — Carnap, Foreword, Logical Syntax of Language......According to this view, the sentences of metaphysics are pseudo- sentences which on logical analysis are proved to be either empty phrases or phrases which violate the rules of syntax. Of the so-called philosophical problems, the only questions which have any meaning are those of the logic of science. To share this view is to substitute logical syntax for philosophy. — Carnap, Page 8, Logical Syntax of Language Carnap wanted only to end metaphysics but not philosophy. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201343

44 The Rejection of Metaphysics Carnap, in his book Philosophy and Logical Syntax, used the concept of verifiability to reject metaphysics. The function of logical analysis Carnap used the method of logical analysis to reject metaphysics. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201344 “ The question is : What reasons can there be to assert this proposition; or: How can we become certain as to its truth or falsehood? ”

45 The function of logical analysis is to analyse all knowledge, all assertions of science and of everyday life, in order to make clear the sense of each such assertion and the connections between them. One of the principal tasks of the logical analysis of a given proposition is to find out the method of verification for that proposition. — Carnap, P. 9-10, Philosophy and Logical Syntax 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201345

46 Selected bibliography 1922. Der Raum: Ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftslehre, Kant- Studien, Ergänzungshefte, no. 56. His Ph.D. thesis. 1926. Physikalische Begriffsbildung. Karlsruhe: Braun. 1928. Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie (Pseudoproblems of Philosophy). Berlin: Weltkreis-Verlag. 1928. Der Logische Aufbau der Welt. Leipzig: Felix Meiner Verlag. English translation by Rolf A. George, 1967. The Logical Structure of the World. Pseudoproblems in Philosophy. University of California Press. 1929. Abriss der Logistik, mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Relationstheorie und ihrer Anwendungen. Springer. 1934. Logische Syntax der Sprache. English translation 1937, The Logical Syntax of Language. Kegan Paul. 1996 (1935). Philosophy and Logical Syntax. Bristol UK: Thoemmes. Excerpt.Excerpt. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201346

47 1939, Foundations of Logic and Mathematics in International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, Vol. I, no. 3. University of Chicago Press. 1942. Introduction to Semantics. Harvard Uni. Press. 1943. Formalization of Logic. Harvard Uni. Press. 1956 (1947). Meaning and Necessity: a Study in Semantics and Modal Logic. University of Chicago Press.Meaning and Necessity: a Study in Semantics and Modal Logic 1950. Logical Foundations of Probability. University of Chicago Press. Pp. 3-15 online.Pp. 3-15 online. 1950. "Empiricism, Semantics, Ontology", Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4: 20-40.Empiricism, Semantics, Ontology 1952. The Continuum of Inductive Methods. University of Chicago Press. 1958. Introduction to Symbolic Logic with Applications. Dover. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201347

48 1963, "Intellectual Autobiography" in Schilpp (1963: 1-84). 1966. Philosophical Foundations of Physics. Martin Gardner, ed. Basic Books. Online excerpt.Online excerpt. 1971. Studies in inductive logic and probability, Vol. 1. University of California Press. 1977. Two essays on entropy. Shimony, Abner, ed. University of California Press. 1980. Studies in inductive logic and probability, Vol. 2. Jeffrey, R. C., ed. University of California Press. 2000. Untersuchungen zur Allgemeinen Axiomatik. Edited from unpublished manuscript by T. Bonk and J. Mosterín. Darmstadt: Wissenschftliche Buchgesellschaft. 167 pp. ISBN 3-534-14298-5.ISBN 3-534-14298-5 Online bibliography. Under construction, with no entries dated later than 1937. Online bibliography. A more complete list of publications. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201348

49 1950s John Austin’s 1955 William Lectures at Harvard 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201349

50 William James Lectures The William James Lectures are a series of invited lectureships at Harvard University sponsored by the Departments of Philosophy and Psychology, who alternate in the selection of speakers. The series was created in honor of the American Pragmatist philosopher William James, a former faculty member at that institution. It was endowed through a 1929 bequest from Edgar Pierce, a Harvard Alumnus, who also funded the prestigious Edgar Pierce Chair in Philosophy and Psychology. Pierce stipulated that the delivered lectures be open to the public and subsequently published by the Harvard University Press. [1] The program was initiated in 1930 and has continued to the present. Its invited lecturers have included some of the most influential thinkers of the 20th century. In some cases, the selection of lecturer has generated considerable controversy. [2][3] The next lectures will be given in 2012 by Ned Block.William JamesHarvard University Press [1] [2][3] Ned Block 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201350

51 Chronological list of invited lectureships [4] [4] John Dewey (’30-’31) "Art as Experience“ John Dewey Arthur Lovejoy (’32-’33) "The Great Chain of Being: A Study of the History of an Idea" Arthur Lovejoy Wolfgang Köhler (’34-’35) "The Place of Value in a World of Facts" Wolfgang Köhler Étienne Gilson (’36-’37) "The Unity of Philosophical Experience" Étienne Gilson Kurt Goldstein (’38-’39) "Human Nature in the Light of Psychopathology" Kurt Goldstein Bertrand Russell (’40-41) "An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth" Bertrand Russell E. L. Thorndike (’42-’43) "Human Nature and Human Institutions" E. L. Thorndike William E. Hocking (’46-’47) "Issues in Contemporary Philosophy of Law" William E. Hocking 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201351

52 B. F. Skinner (’47-’48) "Verbal Behavior" B. F. Skinner Karl R. Popper (’49-’50) "The Study of Nature and Society" Karl R. Popper Frank A. Beach (’51-’52) "A Biological Approach to Psychology" Frank A. Beach J. L. Austin (’54-’55) "How to Do Things with Words" J. L. Austin Robert Oppenheimer (’56-’57) "The Hope of Order" Robert Oppenheimer Donald B. Lindsley (’58-’59) "Brain Organization and Behavior" Gabriel Marcel (’61-’62) "The Existential Background of Human Dignity" Gabriel Marcel Herbert A. Simon (’62-’63) "Symbolic Processes in Human Behavior" Herbert A. Simon Edwin H. Land (’66-’67) "Color Vision from Retina to Retinex" Edwin H. Land 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201352

53 H. Paul Grice (’66-’67) "Logic and Conversation" H. Paul Grice A.J. Ayer (1970) "Russell and Moore: The Analytical Heritage" A.J. Ayer Donald Broadbent (1971) "In Defense of Empirical Psychology" Donald Broadbent Jeffrey Satinover (1974) "Imagination in Art and Religion" Jeffrey Satinover Michael Dummett (1976) "The Logical Basis of Metaphysics" Michael Dummett Donald T. Campbell (1977) "Descriptive Epistemology: Psychological, Sociological, Evolutionary" Donald T. Campbell Richard Wollheim (1982) "The Thread of Life" Richard Wollheim Allen Newell (1987) "Unified Theories of Cognition" Allen Newell Roger N. Shepard (1994) "Mind and World: Principles of Perception" Roger N. Shepard 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201353

54 Published versions of the lectures Austin, J.L. (1962). How to do things with words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Ayer, A.J. (1971). Russell and Moore: The analytical heritage. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Broadbent, D.E. (1934). In defense of empirical psychology. London: Methuen. Campbell, D.T. (1988). Methodology and epistemology for social science: Selected papers (E. Samuel Overman, Ed.). NY: Minton, Balch & Company. Dewey, J. (1934). Art as experience. NY: Minton, Balch & Company. Dummett, M. (1991). The logical basis of metaphysics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Gilson, E. (1937). The unity of philosophical experience. NY: C. Scribner’s Sons. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201354

55 Goldstein, K. (1940). Human nature in the light of psychopathology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Grice, H. P. (1989). Studies in the way of words. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Köhler, W. (1938). The place of value in a world of facts. NY: Liveright Publishing. Lovejoy, A.O. (1934). The great chain of being: A study of the history of an idea. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press Marcel, G. (1963). The existential background of human dignity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Newell, A. (1990). Unified theories of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Russell, B. (1940). An inquiry into meaning and truth. NY: W.W. Norton. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201355

56 Simon, H. (1979). Models of thought. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Skinner, B.F. (1957). Verbal behavior. NY: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Thorndike, E.L. (1943). Man and his works. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Wollheim, R. (1984). The thread of life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201356

57 John Austin Full nameJohn Langshaw Austin Born March 26, 1911 Lancaster Lancaster Died February 8, 1960(1960-02-08) (aged 48) Oxford Oxford Era20th-century philosophy RegionWestern Philosophy School Ordinary language philosophyOrdinary language philosophy, Linguistic philosophy, Analytic philosophyLinguistic philosophyAnalytic philosophy Main interests Philosophy of languagePhilosophy of language, Philosophy of mind, Ethics, Philosophy of perceptionPhilosophy of mindEthicsPhilosophy of perception Notable ideas Speech actsSpeech acts, Performative utterance Ordinary language philosophyPerformative utterance Ordinary language philosophy Influenced by[show] G. E. Moore, Bertrand Russell, Gilbert Ryle G. E. MooreBertrand RussellGilbert Ryle Influence on[show] 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201357

58 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201358

59 John Langshaw Austin (March 26, 1911 [1] – February 8, 1960) was a British philosopher of language, born in Lancaster and educated at Shrewsbury School and Balliol College, Oxford University. Austin is widely associated with the concept of the speech act and the idea that speech is itself a form of action. Consequently, in his understanding, language is not just a passive practice of describing a given reality, but a particular practice that can be used to invent and affect realities. His work in the 1950s provided both a theoretical outline and the terminology for the modern study of speech acts developed subsequently, for example, by John R. Searle (the Oxford-educated American philosopher), François Récanati, Kent Bach, Robert M. Harnish, and William P. Alston. [1]Britishphilosopher of language LancasterShrewsbury SchoolBalliol College, Oxford Universityspeech actsJohn R. SearleKent BachWilliam P. Alston 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201359

60 He occupies a place in philosophy of language alongside Wittgenstein and his fellow Oxonian, Ryle, in staunchly advocating the examination of the way words are ordinarily used in order to elucidate meaning, and avoid philosophical confusions. Unlike many ordinary language philosophers, however, Austin disavowed any overt indebtedness to Wittgenstein's later philosophy, calling Wittgenstein a "charlatan". [citation needed][2] His main influence, he said, was the exact and exacting common-sense philosophy of G. E. Moore. His training as a classicist and linguist influenced his later work. [3]WittgensteinRyleordinarily meaningcitation needed[2]G. E. Moore [3] 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201360

61 Austin made another significant contribution to philosophy, as well, of a very different sort. In 1950, he published a translation of Gottlob Frege's Foundations of Arithmetic. [4] Together with Peter Geach and Max Black's book Translations from the Philosophical Writings of Gottlob Frege, published in 1952, Austin's translation was what made Frege's writings available to the English-speaking world and thus helped establish Frege's important place in analytic philosophy. The translation is still widely used today.Gottlob FregeFoundations of Arithmetic [4]Peter GeachMax Black analytic philosophy 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201361

62 Biography The second son of Geoffrey Langshaw Austin (1884– 1971), an architect, and his wife Mary Bowes-Wilson (1883–1948), Austin was born in Lancaster. In 1922 the family moved to Scotland, where Austin's father became the secretary of St Leonard's School, St Andrews. Austin was educated at Shrewsbury School and Balliol College, Oxford, holding classical scholarships at both. He arrived at Oxford in 1929 to read Literae Humaniores ('Greats'), and in 1931 gained a First in classical moderations and also won the Gaisford Prize for Greek prose. Greats introduced him to serious philosophy and gave him a life-long interest in Aristotle. In 1933, he got first class honours in his Finals. [3]LancasterSt Leonard's SchoolSt AndrewsShrewsbury SchoolBalliol College, OxfordLiterae Humaniores Gaisford Prize [3] 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201362

63 After serving in MI6 during World War II, Austin became White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at Oxford. He began holding his famous "Austin's Saturday Mornings" where students and colleagues would discuss language usages (and sometimes books on language) over tea and crumpets, but published little. [5]MI6World War II White's Professor of Moral PhilosophyOxford [5] Austin visited Harvard and Berkeley in the mid-fifties, in 1955 delivering the William James Lectures at Harvard that would become How to Do Things With Words, and offering a seminar on excuses whose material would find its way into "A Plea for Excuses". [6] It was at this time that he met and befriended Noam Chomsky.HarvardHow to Do Things With Words [6]Noam Chomsky He was president of the Aristotelian Society from 1956 to 1957.Aristotelian Society Austin died at the age of 48 of lung cancer. At the time, he was developing a semantic theory based on sound symbolism, using the English gl-words as data.lung cancersemantic theorysound symbolism 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201363

64 Books Sense and Sensibilia. Ed. G. J. Warnock. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1964. Sense and Sensibilia Philosophical Papers. Ed. J. O. Urmson and G. J. Warnock. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1961, 1979.J. O. UrmsonG. J. Warnock How to do Things with Words: The William James Lectures delivered at Harvard University in 1955. Ed. J. O. Urmson, Oxford: Clarendon, 1962. ISBN 0-674-41152-8J. O. UrmsonISBN 0-674-41152-8 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201364

65 Papers "How to Talk: Some Simple Ways". Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society. 53 (1953): 227-246.Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society "Other Minds". In Austin, Philosophical Papers, ed. J. O. Urmson & G. J. Warnock. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961 [Originally published in 1946].J. O. UrmsonG. J. Warnock "Performative Utterances". In Austin, Philosophical Papers, ed. J. O. Urmson & G. J. Warnock. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961.J. O. UrmsonG. J. Warnock "A Plea for Excuses". In Austin, Philosophical Papers, ed. J. O. Urmson & G. J. Warnock. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961. "A Plea for Excuses".J. O. UrmsonG. J. Warnock "Performative-Constative". In The Philosophy of Language, ed. John R. Searle. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1971. 13-22.John R. Searle "Three Ways of Spilling Ink", The Philosophical Review, 75, no.4, (October 1966): 427-440.Philosophical Review 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201365

66 In translation Otras mentes. In Austin, Ensayos filosóficos. Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1975. 87-117. Un alegato en pro de las excusas. In Austin, Ensayos filosóficos. Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1975. 169-92. Quand dire c'est faire Éditions du Seuil, Paris. Traduction française de "How to do things with words" par Gilles Lane, 1970. Palabras y acciones: Cómo hacer cosas con palabras. Buenos Aires: Paidós, 1971. Cómo hacer cosas con palabras.: Palabras y acciones. Barcelona: Paidós, 1982. Performativo-Constativo. In Gli atti linguistici. Aspetti e problemi di filosofia del linguagio. Milano: Feltrinelli, 1978. 49-60. Ensayos filosóficos. Madrid: Revista de Occidente, 1975. Quando dire è fare (ed. Antonio Pieretti). Marietti, 1974. Come fare cose con le parole (eds. Carlo Penco & Marina Sbisà). Genova, Marietti, 1987. Kako delovati rečima. Novi Sad, Matica Srpska, 1994. Saggi filosofici (ed. Paolo Leonardi). Milano, Guerini, 1990. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201366

67 Secondary literature Berlin, Isaiah et al., ed. Essays on J.L. Austin. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1973. Berlin, Isaiah Cavell, Stanley. The Claim of Reason: Wittgenstein, Skepticism, Morality, and Tragedy (1979). New York: Oxford University Press, 1990. The major work by one of Austin's most prominent heirs. Takes ordinary language approaches to issues of skepticism, but also makes those approaches a subject of scrutiny. Fann, K.T., ed. Symposium on J.L. Austin. New York: Humanities Press, 1969. Kirkham, Richard (Reprint edition: March 2, 1995). Theories of Truth: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992. ISBN 0-262-61108-2. Chapter 4 contains a detailed discussion of Austin's theory of truth.ISBN 0-262-61108-2 Passmore, John. A Hundred Years of Philosophy, rev. ed. New York: Basic Books, 1966. Chapter 18 includes a perceptive exposition of Austin's philosophical project. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201367

68 Putnam, Hilary. "The Importance of Being Austin: The Need of a 'Second Näivetē'" Lecture Two in The Threefold Cord: Mind, Body, and World New York: Columbia University Press, 1999. In arguing for "naive realism", Putnam invokes Austin's handling of sense-data theories and their reliance on arguments from perceptual illusion in Sense and Sensibilia, which Putnam calls "one of the most unjustly neglected classics of analytics philosophy" (25). Searle, John. Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979. Searle, John. Speech Acts: An Essay in the Philosophy of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969. Searle's has been the most notable of attempts to extend and adjust Austin's conception of speech acts. Soames, Scott. Philosophical Analysis in the Twentieth Century: Volume II: The Age of Meaning. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2005. Contains a large section on ordinary language philosophy, and a chapter on Austin's treatment of skepticism and perception in Sense and Sensibilia. Warnock, G. J. J. L. Austin. London: Routledge, 1992. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201368

69 References Pitcher, George. "Austin: a personal memoir". Essays on J.L. Austin, ed. Isaiah Berlin et al. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1973. Warnock, G.J. "John Langshaw Austin, a biographical sketch". Symposium on J. L. Austin, ed. K.T. Fann. New York: Humanities Press, 1969. Warnock, G.J. Warnock, G.J. "Saturday Mornings". Essays on J.L. Austin, ed. Isaiah Berlin et al. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1973. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201369

70 Pragmatics? A more positive view emerges from the work of Herbert Paul Grice, whose William James Lectures (1967) are fundamental. Grice showed that many aspects of utterance meaning traditionally regarded as conventional, or semantic, could be more explanatorily treated as conversational, or pragmatic. For Gricean pragmatists, the crucial feature of pragmatic interpretation is its inferential nature: the hearer is seen as constructing and evaluating a hypothesis about the communicator's intentions, based, on the one hand, on the meaning of the sentence uttered, and on the other, on contextual information and general communicative principles that speakers are normally expected to observe. (For definition and surveys see Levinson 1983.) 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201370

71 1960s Herbert Paul Grice’s 1967 William James Lectures at Harvard University 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201371

72 Herbert Paul Grice Herbert Paul Grice (March 13, 1913, Birmingham, England – August 28, 1988, Berkeley, California), [1] usually publishing under the name H. P. Grice, H. Paul Grice, or Paul Grice, was a British-educated philosopher of language, who spent the final two decades of his career in the United States. Birmingham Berkeley, California [1]philosopher of language 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201372

73 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201373

74 Life Born and raised in the United Kingdom, he was educated at Clifton College and then at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. [1][2] After a brief period teaching at Rossall School, [2] he went back to Oxford where he taught until 1967. In that year, he moved to the United States to take up a professorship at the University of California, Berkeley, where he taught until his death in 1988. He returned to the UK in 1979 to give the John Locke lectures on Aspects of Reason. He reprinted many of his essays and papers in his valedictory book, Studies in the Way of Words (1989). [1]Clifton CollegeCorpus Christi College, Oxford [1][2] Rossall School [2]University of California, BerkeleyJohn Locke lectures [1] He was married and had two children. He and his wife lived in an old Spanish style house in the Berkeley Hills. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201374

75 Grice on meaning Grice's work is one of the foundations of the modern study of pragmatics.pragmatics Grice studied the differences and relationships between speaker meaning and linguistic meaning.meaninglinguistic meaning He explained nonliteral speech as the outcome of a cooperative principle, and some derived maxims of discourse. Speaker meaning is to induce a belief in one's hearers. cooperative principlemaxims of discourse For some of the inferences made when we listen, he proposed different kinds of implicatures. He used that term as he claimed that 'implication' was not the right word.implicatures 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201375

76 The distinction between natural and nonnatural meaning Grice understood "meaning" to refer to two rather different kinds of phenomena. Natural meaning is supposed to capture something similar to the relation between cause and effect as, for example, applied in the sentence "Those spots mean measles". This must be distinguished from what Grice calls nonnatural meaning, as present in "Those three rings on the bell (of the bus) mean that the bus is full". Grice's subsequent suggestion is that the notion of nonnatural meaning should be analysed in terms of speakers' intentions in trying to communicate something to an audience. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201376

77 Grice's Paradox In his book Studies in the Way of Words, he presents what he calls "Grice's Paradox". [3] In it, he supposes that two chess players, Yog and Zog, play 100 games under the following conditions: [3] (1) Yog is white nine of ten times. (2) There are no draws. And the results are: (1) Yog, when white, won 80 of 90 games. (2) Yog, when black, won zero of ten games. This implies that: (i) 8/9 times, if Yog was white, Yog won. (ii) 1/2 of the time, if Yog lost, Yog was black. (iii) 9/10 times, either Yog wasn't white or he won. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201377

78 From these statements, it might appear one could make these deductions by contraposition and conditional disjunction:contrapositionconditional disjunction ([a] from [ii]) If Yog was white, then 1/2 of the time Yog won. ([b] from [iii]) 9/10 times, if Yog was white, then he won. But both (a) and (b) are untrue—they contradict (i). In fact, (ii) and (iii) don't provide enough information to use Bayesian reasoning to reach those conclusions. That might be clearer if (i)-(iii) had instead been stated like so:Bayesian (i) When Yog was white, Yog won 8/9 times. (No information is given about when Yog was black.) (ii) When Yog lost, Yog was black 1/2 the time. (No information is given about when Yog won.) (iii) 9/10 times, either Yog was black and won, Yog was black and lost, or Yog was white and won. (No information is provided on how the 9/10 is divided among those three situations.) Grice's paradox shows that the exact meaning of statements involving conditionals and probabilities is more complicated than may be obvious on casual examination. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201378

79 Some distinctions introduced by Grice In the course of his investigation of speaker meaning and linguistic meaning, Grice introduced a number of interesting distinctions. For example, he distinguished between four kinds of content: encoded / non-encoded content and truth-conditional / non-truth-conditional content. [citation needed]citation needed Encoded content is the actual meaning attached to certain expressions, arrived at through investigation of definitions and making of literal interpretations. Non-encoded content are those meanings that are understood beyond an analysis of the words themselves, i.e., by looking at the context of speaking, tone of voice, and so on. Truth-conditional content are whatever conditions make an expression true or false. Non-truth-conditional content are whatever conditions that do not affect the truth or falsity of an expression. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201379

80 Sometimes, expressions do not have a literal interpretation, or they do not have any truth-conditional content, and sometimes expressions can have both truth-conditional content and encoded content. For Grice, these distinctions can explain at least three different possible varieties of expression: Conventional Implicature - when an expression has encoded content, but doesn't necessarily have any truth- conditions; Conversational Implicature - when an expression does not have encoded content, but does have truth-conditions (for example, in use of irony); Utterances - when an expression has both encoded content and truth-conditions. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201380

81 Selected writings 1941. "Personal Identity", Mind 50, 330-350; reprinted in J. Perry (ed.), Personal Identity, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1975, pp. 73–95. 1957, (with P F Strawson), ‘In Defence Of A Dogma’, Philosophical Review 65: 141-58. Reprinted in SWW. 1957. "Meaning," The Philosophical Review 66: 377-88.Meaning, 1961. "The Causal Theory of Perception", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 35 (suppl.), 121-52. 1968. "Utterer's Meaning, Sentence Meaning and Word Meaning", Foundations of Language 4, 225-242. 1969. "Vacuous Names", in D. Davidson and J. Hintikka (eds.), Words and Objections, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 118–145. 1969. "Utterer's Meaning and Intention," The Philosophical Review 78: 147-77. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201381

82 1971. "Intention and Uncertainty", Proceedings of the British Academy, pp. 263–279. 1975. "Method in Philosophical Psychology: From the Banal to the Bizarre", Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (1975), pp. 23–53. 1975a. "Logic and conversation". In Cole, P. and Morgan, J. (eds.) Syntax and semantics, vol 3. New York: Academic Press. 1975b, ‘Method in Philosophical psychology (From the Banal to the Bizarre)’, Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association, 48: 23-53. 1978. "Further Notes on Logic and Conversation", in P. Cole (ed.), Syntax and Semantics, vol. 9: Pragmatics, Academic Press, New York, pp. 113–128. 1981. "Presupposition and Conversational Implicature", in P. Cole (ed.), Radical Pragmatics, Academic Press, New York, pp. 183–198. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201382

83 1982, ‘Meaning Revisited’, in Mutual Knowledge, N.V. Smith (ed), New York: Academic Press, 223-43. Reprinted in SWW. 1989, Studies in the Way of Words (SWW), Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press; a collection including most of the important works published during his lifetime. 1991, The Conception of Value, New York: Oxford University Press; a posthumous publication of the John Locke Lectures, delivered in 1979. 1989. Studies in the Way of Words. Harvard University Press. 1991. The Conception of Value. Oxford University Press. His 1979 John Locke Lectures. 2001. Aspects of Reason (Richard Warner, ed.). Oxford University Press. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201383

84 Further readings on Grice Stanford Encyclopedia oа Philosophy: "[1]" -- by Richard E. Grandy & Richard E. Grandy.[1] MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences: "Grice." -- by Kent Bach.Grice. Dictionary of Philosophy of Mind: "Paul Grice" -- by Christopher Gauker.Paul Grice List of Grice links at La comunicación según Grice (Spanish) 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201384

85 Siobhan Chapman, Paul Grice: Philosopher and Linguist, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. ISBN 1403902976. Siobhan Chapman ISBN 1403902976 References ^ a b c Richard Grandy and Richard Warner. "Paul Grice". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. a b cRichard GrandyRichard Warner"Paul Grice" ^ a b a b ^ Paul Grice, Studies in the Way of Words (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991), pp. 78-79. ^ 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201385

86 1970s John Searle Penelope Brown Stephen Levinson 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201386

87 John Searle Homepage: 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201387

88 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201388

89 With john searle at wfu 1999 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201389

90 1980s Stephen Levinson Geoffrey Leech, 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201390

91 Stephen Levinson Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics PO Box 310, 6500 AH Nijmegen, The Netherlands Phone: +31-24-3521277 Fax: +31-24-3521213 Room: 227 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201391

92 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201392

93 My research focusses on language diversity and its implications for theories of human cognition. Language is the only animal communication system that differs radically in form and meaning across social groups of the same species, a fact that has been neglected in the cognitive sciences. My work attempts both to grasp what this diversity is all about, and to exploit it as a way of discovering the role that language plays in our everyday cognition. I am a recent recipient of an ERC Advanced Grant, which focusses on the interactional foundations for language. The project begins in June 2011. For more details about the project, please visit the following page:[…]/levinson-awarded-prestigious-erc- advance-grant More information about research jobs can be found here:[…]nal-foundations-of- language[…]/levinson-awarded-prestigious-erc- advance-grant[…]nal-foundations-of- language 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201393

94 Geoffrey Leech 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201394

95 Emeritus Professor of English Linguistics Degree: PhD, FilDr, DLitt, F.B.A., Member of the Academia Europaea Associated research centres and groups: Pragmatics and Stylistics Research Group (PaSTY), Theoretical Linguistics (RITL), University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language (UCREL)Pragmatics and Stylistics Research Group (PaSTY)Theoretical Linguistics (RITL)University Centre for Computer Corpus Research on Language (UCREL) Tel: +44 (0)1524 593036 Email: Room: County South, C09 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201395

96 1990s Dan Sperber Deidre Wilson Jenny Thomas Robyn Carston Gabriele Kasper Janet Holmes Anna Wierzbicka Juliane House Shoshan Blum-Kulka … 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201396

97 Dan Sperber New homepage of the French cognitive and social scientist Dan Sperber, with bio, links, and texts in English and French. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201397

98 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201398

99 Deidre Wilson Emeritus Professor of Linguistics Location:Room 114, Chandler House, 2 Wakefield Street, London WC1N 1PF Telephone: +44 (0) 207 679 4021 (x24021) Email: Website / guistics/People/linguistics-staff/ Website guistics/People/linguistics-staff/d_wilson 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 201399

100 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013100

101 With Deidre, 2003 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013101

102 Robyn Carston Professor of Linguistics Location: Room 107, Chandler House, 2 Wakefield Street, London WC1N 1PF Telephone: +44 (0) 207 679 4037 (x24037) Email: 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013102

103 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013103

104 Jenny Thomas cprag.php cprag.php 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013104

105 With Jenny, 2003 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013105

106 The New Millennium Pragmaticians: maticians.html maticians.html Pragmaticians: &c=fks_084067084094087074084086087095 083087082070087094081066 &c=fks_084067084094087074084086087095 083087082070087094081066 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013106

107 Summary Heroes find home at hectic times. 3/21/2013Essentials in Pragmatics, Spring 2013107 Embryonic StagePioneers 1930s-1960sMorris, Carnap, Bar-Hillel, Austin, Grice, Searle Birth StageEstablishers 1970sSearle, Gazdar Growing StageBoosters 1980sLevinson, Leech, Verschueren, Sperber, Wilson, Mey, Green Developing StageDevelopers 1990sMey, Verschueren, Thomas, Kasper, Blum-Kulka, House, Wierzbicka

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