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1440s-early 1600s. End of the Italian Renaissance Two causes: Printing & gunpowder Printing: Allowed ideas and artistic movements to be transmitted en.

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Presentation on theme: "1440s-early 1600s. End of the Italian Renaissance Two causes: Printing & gunpowder Printing: Allowed ideas and artistic movements to be transmitted en."— Presentation transcript:

1 1440s-early 1600s

2 End of the Italian Renaissance Two causes: Printing & gunpowder Printing: Allowed ideas and artistic movements to be transmitted en masse  people stopped having to go to Italy to exchange ideas Other people started attracting Italian artists to court Art, philosophy and academia move away from Italy Gunpowder: Encouraged campaigning over long distances—more people were able to conquer places further from home (printing also allowed them to govern from afar) Caused larger states like France and HRE to grow in strength Causes them to attack into small Italian city-states and force concessions out of them = loss of political influence

3 Thesis A combination of the increased trade and a newfound emphasis on education (to combat superstition) led to a blossoming of Renaissance ideas in Northern Europe. However because it occurred much later and compounded with a series of political and religious tensions the Renaissance took more spiritual, ethical, introspective form in the North—one that would eventually go against the traditional Catholic Church. This, coupled with the rise of printing and subsequent flow over information led to unrest which would eventually lead to a series of violent upheavals known as the Reformation.

4 Northern Renaissance Beginnings started as a result of trade— Flemish, Dutch, and English merchants made money and began to patronize artists (see artist lecture notes) Church had more of an interest up north—caused Christian Humanism which is an attempt to boil down Christianity to help society Big Christian humanists: Erasmus of Holland and Thomas More of England. More wrote Utopia; Erasmus wrote Praise of Folly

5 Life in the North Politically Northern Europe had moved somewhat past the Middle Ages (into a weird sort of limbo); from a cultural standpoint it was a society in decline: Fake chivalry, bravery, and tournaments were still the norm (Blind King John of Bohemia) Also led to excess, fake courtly love Increased interest in the macabre—danse macabre style—and fascination with occult communication and resurrection Devils, witches, and increased superstition—Malleus Maleficarum New fascination with relics and idolatry

6 Trade The growth of cities and merchants had monumental impact on the economy Commercial Revolution: Money, guilds appear Cog was invented in 1200s, equated to modern invention of Jumbo Jet Northern coastal cities set up Hanseatic League of trade along the Baltic Sea centered at Lübeck Entrepreneurship developed, economy now based on money Salt, wool, amber, ale, etc. made up the trade market

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8 Riga

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10 Tallinn

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13 Powerful trading network First commodity exchange—even created own trade Parliament – Economics explanation Went for economic enterprise to political juggernaut (whoever has the gold makes the rules) Centered at Lübeck in modern day Germany Trade was based around Salt One of the first and only examples of complete capitalism and democracy within trade The Hanseatic League

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16 Politics Series of wars in the Late Middle Ages (Hundred Years’ War is the biggest) lead to knew sense of unity Groups of people begin to think of themselves as a unit Most of Europe though is still smaller states… But, as Machiavellian ideas spread north various leaders begin consolidation through violence and politics French monarchy consolidates old vassalages and grows in power with help of Estates-General Spain unifies in Reconquista Hapsburgs consolidate power over central Europe and HRE  do most of this through dynastic marriage Also marry into Spain and Low Countries In the East the real power is Lithuania, but Russia is emerging One exception is England, which is reeling from losing Hundred Years’ War (more on this in a couple weeks)

17 Religion after Avignon Needless to say this weakens the church, But first they need money, so they sell indulgences to get it back, no problem But then they want to be cool, so the church turns to the influence of Medicis and patronizes of the arts Church embraces Renaissance (Raphael, Michelangelo, etc.) build St. Peters, Sistine Chapel, etc. = Costs a lot of money And Medici’s get elected Pope (Leo X, Clement VII) and run through treasury (and are nepotists) Again uses indulgences to raise cash but this time it upsets people since it is more for material gain First person to complain about this is Jan Hus—excommunicated and burned Then English scholar John Wycliffe mentions the church may be out of touch and maybe they should reform (More & Erasmus like this) But compatriot William Tyndale takes this too far—he wants the Bible published in English and plans to mass produce it on the new printing press—ohh the heresy!!!! END RESULT, CHRUCH IN NORTH IS BORDERLINE MESS

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19 Academia & Philosophy Thomas Aquinas’s 13 th century Scholasticism: Summa Theologica human reason can embrace all truth and reconcile differences—but all this is a gift from God Led to nominalists, who focused on the way the world was described, and what could be seen. The universe should be interpreted through direct experience. Leader was William of Ockham: Ockham’s razor— between two explanations, the simpler is always preferred Eventually led to appeal to (spiritual) logic and reason known loosely as Neoplatonism Oxford and Paris Universities took the lead

20 Erasmus and More Erasmus is Dutch  considered greatest thinker of his age; educated by monks Tried to use ideas of knowledge and religion to take people past the middle ages This does NOT mean he liked the church, he saw it as uneducated, corrupt, and broken Used satire to criticize corruption and vice Praise of Folly Emphasized inner piety  tried to go back to scriptures to find God More was English, received classical education at Oxford Good close personal friend of Henry VIII (and Erasmus) Rose to the position of Lord Chancellor Wanted to reform the church to created idealistic life— theme of Utopia Hardcore Catholic to the end—would lose his head for this

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22 Printing Arguably the single most important development in the history of Europe Developed: Movable type by Johannes Gutenberg in late 1440s in Mainz, Germany, imported from China (kinda). Gutenberg Bible printed The spread to rest of HRE, Italy, Low Countries and Britain Works by having blocks of letter that you put in order and then reprint First printed advertisements seen in 1466 Allowed the masses to be educated, read, and form opinions—greatly hurts priests and helps class mobility— people begin to question wisdom and education of the church Led directly to social upheaval in a massive, massive way, most notably the Reformation

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