Presentation on theme: "Early identification and prevention of difficulties of learning to read Heikki Lyytinen, Agora Human Technology Center & Dept. of Psychology University."— Presentation transcript:
Early identification and prevention of difficulties of learning to read Heikki Lyytinen, Agora Human Technology Center & Dept. of Psychology University of Jyväskylä & Niilo Mäki Institute, Jyväskylä, Finland For more: heikki.lyytinen.info; see also: Den Sjunde Nordiska Kongressen om Dyslexipedagogik, 15. August, 2014, Stockholm
Development of Nonword Reading accuracy during 1st Grade ( Scottish data up to 2nd grade ) COST A8 results, 1998
The development of reading accuracy (% correct) during the 1. grade in Finland Last week/1gr. +15 week +10 week. +5 week 1.week # of correct answers Percent correct The average development Tlask week +15 week +10 week +5 week 1.week # of correct answers Percent correct Individual development Aro et al., 2004
The Jyväskylä Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (JLD): An intensive follow-up of children at familial risk for dyslexia from birth > Graphogame (in Finland) Ekapeli/Graphogame (ks.www.lukimat.fi; Mikko Aro, Jane Erskine, Sini Hintikka/Huemer), Ritva Ketonen, Janne Kujala, Juha-Matti Latvala, Emma Ojanen, Mikko Pitkänen, Miia Ronimus, Niina Saine, Ulla Richrdsonwww.lukimat.fi Learning game programmers: Iivo Kapanen, Ville Mönkkönen, Miika Pekkarinen *Mikko Aro, *Timo Ahonen, Kenneth Eklund, Tomi Guttorm, *Leena Holopainen, Jarmo Hämäläinen, Ritva Ketonen, *Marja-Leena Laakso, Seija Leinonen, *Paavo Leppänen, ^Matti Leiwo, *Marja-Kristiina Lerkkanen, Kaisa Lohvansuu, ^Paula Lyytinen, Anna-Maija Oksanen, Kurt Muller, *Anna-Maija Poikkeus, Anne Puolakanaho, *Ulla Richardson, Paula Salmi, *Asko Tolvanen, *Minna Torppa, Helena Viholainen Jyväskylä Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (JLD) & Graphogame > JLD Supported by EU, Niilo Mäki Foundation, The Academy of Finland, Univ.of Jyväskylä,Tekes, RAY, Ministry of Foreign Affairs/ Education of Finland, Nokia Oy, Kone Oy, Wärtsilä Oy, Kela, The Finnish Cultural Funds
Something relevant we learned from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal study of Dyslexia (JLD) – a follow-up from birth to puberty of children at familial risk for dyslexia The JLD research group CoE of Learning and Motivation Research, Academy of Finland Department of Psychology, University of Jyväskylä..when biological factors compromise reading acquisition..
The goals of the JLD to identify (from children at familial risk for dyslexia) precursors of dyslexia predictors of compromised acquisition developmental paths leading to dyslexia The last step: the development of preventive measures
N = 108 N = 107 N = 107 N = 107 N = 107 N = 107 N = 95 N = 96 N = 94 N = 95 N = 93 N = month 2 years 2½ years 3½ years 4½ years 5 years 5½ years N = 107 N = 93 N = 108 N = 107 N = 112 Neo- natal 6 month 14 month N = 96 N = 94 N = 94 6½ years N = 107 N = 93 I grade II grade N = 108 N = 92 III grade N = 107 N = 92 I Screening II ScreeningIII Screening Short questionnaire administered at the maternity clinics N=8427 parents Compre- hensive questionnaire N=3146 parents Assessment of parents’ reading and spelling skills N=410 parents AT -RISK GROUP N=117 infants CONTROL GROUP N=105 infants Born at the hospitals of Central Finland during N= 9368 infants Number of children who have attended the last originally agreed assessment phase at the 3 rd grade AT -RISK GROUP N=108 children CONTROL GROUP N=92 children N = 1549 N = 108 N = 92 CLASSMATES N = 2641 VII grade N = 85 N = 66 VIII grade N = 101 N = 81 N = 1452 IX grade N = 88 N = 76 N = 1705 N = 1756
N=108 N = 38 1st gr 2nd gr At risk group Children with reading disability 3rd gr8th gr N=92 1st gr 2nd gr Control group 3rd gr8th gr N = 38 N = 36 N = 42 N = 10 N = 9 N = 10 N = 12
The reading status of children born at familial risk for dyslexia at school age Expectation of the genetic influences – > almost 1/2 affected (due to 1 parent’s dyslexia) The observed result: 33 fullfilled the criteria – compromised initial reading acquisition 42 / 107 – severe, persistent reading disorder 26 / 107
Age Variable 7 - yrs Reading accuracy & speed D 5 - yrs Naming speedP & D yrs Phonological manipulationP & D yrs Letter knowledgeP & D 5 - yrs Verbal memoryP & D yrs Phonological sensitivity P & D yrs Inflectional skills P & D yrs Articulation accuracy P 2 yrs Maximum sentence length P & D 6 mth Speech perception P & D Birth ERP to speech sound P & D IDENTIFYING & PREDICTING RISK a summary of significant measures P = Predictors D = Differences between groups Lyytinen et al., Annals of Dyslexia, 2004; Dyslexia, 2004; Sage Handbook of Dyslexia, 2008
1. Vocalizations which resemble sounds 2. Sustained vocalization 3. Cooing-like vocalization 4. Sustained vocalization with pauses 5. Two kinds of vocalizations 6. Imitates parents’ vocalization 7. Initiates redublicated babbling 8. Combines two different syllables 9. Uses gestures 10. Parallel pointing and vocalization when wants something 11. Uses word-like expressions Control group At-risk group Vocalization L i f e w e e k s Age (ordinal number of weeks of life) Milestones of vocal development Children with and Without familial risk for dyslexia do not differ
Raises head 2. Turns head towards parents 3. Rolls from stomach to back 4. Rolls from back to stomach 5. Crawls: stomach in contact with floor 6. Sits alone by taking support with hands 7. Sits alone without support 8. Raises self into a sitting position 9. Crawls on hands and knees 10. Pulls to stand by furniture 11. Moves around by holding onto furniture 12. Walks alone steps Control group At-risk group L i f e w e e k s Gross Motor 1. Both fists tightly clenched 2. Palmar grasp: holds finger tightly 3. Holds fists open or slightly clenched 4. Reaches with a half-open hand 5. Plays with hands 6. Brings toy to mouth 7. Reaches for an object to touch 8. Grasps an offered object 9. Transfers an object from hand to hand 10. Holds two objects at same time 11. Beginning thumb-forefinger grasp 12. Drops an object intentionally 13. Pincer grasp: straight forefinger & thumb 14. Bangs two objects together 15. Advanced pincer grasp: bends fingers Fine Motor L i f e w e e k s Control group At-risk group
Phonemic lenght in Finnish and dyslexia: summary Alteration of the duration of a phoneme changes the meaning > kuka(who) – kukka(flower); mato(worm) – matto(carpet); tuli(fire) – tuuli(wind) No concomitant change of e.g. stress or pitch Well defined in orthography (long=doubling the letter) Finnish dyslexic readers make a disproportionately high number of quantity-related errors when reading or spelling unfamiliar words > noted also in English (Steffens, et al. 1992, /sa/ to /sta/) Hypothesis: dyslexia may involve a difficulty in categorizing speech sound according to sub-phonemic features such as duration For details, see Lyytinen, et al. (2003)
CONSONANT DURATION CHANGE: BEHAVIORAL CONDITIONED HEAD-TURN EXPERIMENT The original stimulus taken from the speech of a female producing the pseudoword /ata/ Duration of the silent closure stage of the word (medial dental stop, the /t/- sound ) augmented in stepwise fashion Increments: 20 ms Total duration: ms The impression of the perceived stimulus shifted from ata to atta Richardson et. al., 2004, Developmental Neuropsychology
Head turn conditioning
The mean percentage of atta-categorizations in 6-month- old infants with high familial risk for dyslexia and control infants The groups differ in their responses to /ata/4 (x 2 = 23.32, p =.0000) At-risk infants require longer /t/ (silent gap) duration to categorize the stimulus as /atta/ Richardson et. al., 2003 Developmental Neuropsychology.
Verrokkiryhmä Riskiryhmä 2 vuotta 2.5 vuotta 3.5 vuotta 5 vuotta Ryhmäerot merkitseviä vaikka ÄO kontrolloitu Skaala: Z-arvot verrokkiryhmä n keskiarvon ja hajonnan pohjalta määritettynä
ERP difference waves between responses to repeated standard and infrequently presented deviant /ata/s. Note that the deflection of negative polarity called mismatch negativity (MMN) is present in both groups in the right hemisphere but is clearly smaller in the left hemisphere among at- risk children (see Leppänen & Lyytinen, 1997; Leppänen et al. 2002). At 6-month of age- ERPs to /ata/ - /atta/
Developmental differences between JLD at-risk children with (N=37) and without (N=66) reading impairement Developmental skill Observed p’s and powers of the differences Expressive language 1.5y Expressive language 2.5y Verbal short-term memory 3.5y Verbal short-term memory 5.0y Verbal short-term memory 6.5y Morphology 5.0y Phonology 4.5y Phonology 5.5y Phonology 6.5y Letter knowledge 4.5y Letter knowledge 5.0y Letter knolwedge 5.5y Letter knolwedge Rapid naming 5.5y Rapid naming 6.5y Verbal IQ 8.5y Lyytinen et al., 2008
Is reading acquisition associated with early language delays? Late talking – delay in the development of expressive language skills (assessed here at 2 years of age) – Similar numbers of children in both groups could be defined as late talkers – Do children with normal speaking at 2.5 years age differ from those who start speaking later (after 2.5 y of age) in their later language development? If so how? – Is late talking connected to reading acquisition If so how?
Development of language skills among late talkers of the risk and control groups 23 1/2 Z-score composite of language skills 25 Not late talkers Late talkers Not late talkers Late talkers Age (years) 3 1/25 At-riskControls Lyytinen P. et al., J. of Speech, Language & Hearing Res;2001
Development of receptive and expressive language skills by late-talking groups Mean z-score composite Late talkers2 at risk group (receptive and expressive delayed, N=12) Age (years) Receptive Expressive Late talkers1 at control group (expressive delayed, (N=10)) Late talkers1 at risk group (expressive delayed, N=10) Late talkers2 at control group (receptive and expressive delayed, N=3) Lyytinen, P. et al., Annals of Dyslexia, 2005, 55, 2,
,5 -0,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 Reading accuracy and speed by groups at the end of the first grade Remainders of the groups Late-talking groups Mean z- score composite At-risk groupControl group Remainder of the control group Late talkers1 control group (expressive delayed) Late talkers1 at-risk group (expressive delayed) Late talkers2 at-risk group (receptive and expressive delayed) Remainder of the at-risk group Late talkers2 control group (receptive and expressive delayed) Lyytinen, P. Eklund & Lyytinen, Annals of Dyslexia, 2005, 55, 2,
,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 -0,5 Spelling skills by groups at the end of the first grade Remainders of the groups Mean z- score composite Late-talking groups At-risk groupControl group Remainder of the control group Late talkers1 control group (expressive delayed) Late talkers1 at-risk group (expressive delayed) Late talkers2 at-risk group (receptive and expressive delayed) Remainder of the at-risk group Late talkers2 control group (receptive and expressive delayed) Lyytinen, P. Eklund & Lyytinen, Annals of Dyslexia, 2005, 55, 2,
,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 -0,5 Reading comprehension by groups at the end of the first grade Late-talking groups Remainders of the groups Remainder of the control group Late talkers1 control group (expressive delayed) Late talkers1 at-risk group (expressive delayed) Late talkers2 at-risk group (receptive and expressive delayed) Remainder of the at-risk group Late talkers2 control group (receptive and expressive delayed) Lyytinen, P. Eklund & Lyytinen, Annals of Dyslexia, 2005, 55, 2,
Age (years) ,85 2,68 3,74 6,21 14,03 3,09 10,41 13,57 16,59 25,41 Reading acquisition fails during 1. grade Reading acquisition normal during 1. grade The letter knowledge of year olds (JLD) and reading acquisition LettternamesknownLettternamesknown Lyytinen et al., (2007) Nordic Psychology
Reading composite 2. gr. Reading composite, 1. gr. IQ, 5 y. Letter knowledge 5.5 y. Letter knowledge, 5 y. Letter knowledge, 4.5 y. Letter knowledge, 3.5 y. Rapid naming, 6.5 y. Rapid naming, 5.5 y. Phonological skills, 5.5 y. Phonological skills, 4.5 y. Phonological skills, 3.5 y. Pseudoword repetition, 3.5 y. Receptive speech, 2.5 y z-score (mean = 0, sd =1) Individual profiles of the prediction measures of the JLD children whose reading acquisition was most severely compromised Lyytinen, et al. Scand. J. of Psychology, The JLD-follow-up from birth to school age of reading-related development
Observing developmental routes to dyslexia Predictive domains, assessment ages from y Alpha* – Receptive lang. 12,14,18mo, 2.5, 3.5, 5.0 y.78 – Expressive lang.12,14,18 mo,2.0, 2.5, 3.5, 5.5 y.93 – Morphology 2.5, 3.5, 5.0 y.76 – Verbal short term memory 3.5, 5.0, 5.5, 6,5 y.75 – Rapid serial naming 3.5, 5.5, 6.5 y.89 – Letter knowledge 3.5, 4.5,5.0, 6.5 y.72 – Phonological skills 3.5, 4.5, 5.5, 6.5 y.82 – IQ 5.0 Outcome measures used as a composite of the following measures: Reading accuracy (Aug.,Jan.,May), Fluency (Aug.,Dec.,April,May/1 gr, Nov/2.gr), Spelling (Dec., Apr,/1.gr Nov/2.gr) and Comprehension (Apr./1gr. And Nov/2.gr) Lyytinen et al., Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 2006
Profiling of the subgroups of the reading related developmental differences Method: Latent profile analysis – variances set as equal between groups Program: MPLUS (including imputing the missing data) Estimation method: Maximum likelhood parameters estimates with robust standard error Criterion: Bayesian information criterion N=199
-1,50 -1,00 -0,50 0,00 0,50 1,00 12,53,551,523,55,52,53,55 4,55,56,53,54,555,56,53,556,53,55,56,57,0 -8,0 Receptive speech Expressive speech Inflectional skills Phonological skills Letter knowledgeMemoryRapid naming Reading skills Phonol.impairm.TypicalNaming dysfluencyUnexpected Lyytinen et al., Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 2006 Subgroup members’ average performance across ages 1-6 years in the seven skill domains. Declining (phonological) N=35 (11risk+3controls with dyslexia); Typical N=85 (11r+4c); Naming dysfluency N=12 (8r+1c); Unexpected N=67 (14r+8c).
Rapid Naming 5 to 6.5 years Letter knowledge 4.5 to 6.6 years Reading fluency 8 th Grade, 15 years Phonological awareness 1 st Grade, 7.5 years R 2 =49.5% CFI= 0.98 TLI=0.98 RMSEA=.043, SRMR=.036 chi= (df=82), p=.004 N=200 Predicting reading fluency.52 Reading accuracy 1 st to 3 rd Grade 7 to 9 years.52.55
Vocabulary 5 y (R 2 =.65) y 5.5 y 6.5 y Rec..18 Mother’s education Father’s education Father’s reading model Exp Reading interest, 2 y HLE and interest Letter know. 4.5 y (R 2 =.09) Letter know. 5.5 y (R 2 =.69) Reading 6.5 y (R 2 =.36) Shared reading Level (R 2 =.43) Reading interest Level (R 2 =.42) 4 y 5 y6 y 4 y 5 y6 y 4 y 5 y6 y Access to print Level (R 2 =.34) Phon awareness Level (R 2 =.24) Phon awareness Trend Vocabulary 3.5 y (R 2 =.11) Mother’s reading model Shared reading, 2 y (a) model for At-risk group: shared reading associated with vocabulary development (Torppa et al., 2007) Effects of the environment
For more details, please, see.. Torppa, M., Poikkeus, A.-M., Laakso, M.-L., Leskinen, E., Tolvanen, A., Leppänen, P. H. T., Puolakanaho, A., Lyytinen, H. (2007). Modeling the early paths of phonological awareness and factors supporting its development in children with and without familial risk for dyslexia. Scientific Studies of Reading, 11(2), Torppa, M., Poikkeus, A.-M., Laakso, M.-L., Eklund, K., and Lyytinen, H. (2006). Predicting delayed letter name knowledge and its relation to grade 1 reading achievement in children with and without familial risk for dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 42(6), Torppa, M., Tolvanen, A., Poikkeus, A-M. Eklund, K., Lerkkanen, M-K., Leskinen, E., & Lyytinen, H. (2007). Reading Development Subtypes and Their Early Characteristics. Annals of Dyslexia, 57, 3-52.
Learning game and research environment for the acquisition of the basic reading skill: Graphogame helps learning the connections between spoken and written language
Important facts about reading acquisition Reading acquisition = learning to connect a spoken language to its written forms Written languages (orthographies) vary in terms of how this connection-building can be made New orthographies such as Finnish, Spanish and most African languages are consistent - the spoken language has not had time to change after the written language has been fixed to its present form
Reading acquisition and the consistency of the connections between spoken and written If the reading instruction is organized optimally the time child needs for the acquisition of the basic reading skill is the shorter – the more consistent the connections are because no complexities/alternatives need to be learned – the smaller the number of connections one has to learn
The consistency of the writing system In writing systems such as that of Finnish, Spanish and African languages (with new orthographies) – the connections are mostly symmetrically consistent at letter-phoneme level, ie. each letter represents only one phoneme and each phoneme has only one letter representing it; the connection building is 1 to 1, i.e.consistent to both reading and writing directions – therefore also the number of connections is small (mostly less than 30, ie.the number of phonemes)
Graphogame The task: Catch the letter that matches the sound you hear! Competitor’s catcher Player’s catcher Falling letters Correctly chosen letters Player’s results Competitor’s results Mouse pointer For description of the Graphogame, see Lyytinen et al. Scand.J.of Psychol. 2009, 50,
How and where Graphogame works Applies phonics by drilling connections between spoken and written items; the written item representing the spoken target is chosen from 2-8 alternatives Proceeds from small to larger units, from letter- sounds to written and spoken words Adapts automatically to individual skills level Its use is most uncomplicated in transparent orthographies such as Finnish and African writing systems which have regular letter-sound connections, 1 sound 1 letter
The cumulative number of learned items Hours of playing Exemplary learning curves of 4-8 year olds (N=726) Modelling: Janne Kujala
Screenin g test (N=166) CARRI group (n=25) Main- stream group (n=116) RRI group (n=25) Subtest 2 Subtest 3 Subtest 4 Subtest 5 Post test Follow- up 1 IQ Estimation Remedial reading intervention (RRI) (T1-T6) Remedial reading intervention and computer-assisted instruction (CARRI) (T1-T6) Screening August Grade 1 Groupping Septembe r Grade 1 T1 October Grade 1 T2 December Grade 1 T3 January Grade 1 T4 March Grade 1 T5 May Grade 1 T6 August Grade 2 T8 August Grade 3 CARRI group = Computer assisted remedial reading intervention group Mainstream group = Mainstream reading instruction group RRI group = Remedial reading intervention group T7 May Grade 2 Follow- up 2 Saine et al., (2011) Child Development, 2011, 82, (=1/4 of the remedial reading support session)
Saine et al., 2011, Child Development
Saine et al., Child Development, 2011, 82,
Successful preventive practice Massed practice following optimal phonics strategy helps at risk children if not started before 6.5y age >> played >1 x per day in subsequent days until the goal is reached – motivated to be used in an as ”active” form as possible – motivation to continue is guaranteed by rewarding via experience of success (~80% correct trials) – the role of parents: they show they very much like child plays GG See: (where Finnish children play)www.lukimat.fi (Swedish) graphogame.com for description and demo in English
Challenges Works without complications in consistent (gr>=
"name": "Challenges Works without complications in consistent (gr>=
A mimimun set of single letter-sounds selected to a version of the game – list of their sounds present in > 5% of the occurrence of the letter in English text (Cedex databasis, among 17 million words) Letter % of different / all words (exemplary word) i I (in) aI (i) (social) l l (all) d d (and) m m (from) b b (be) An example of the statistical approach to illustrate the problems associated with consistency (or the paucity of it)
Connection building of written and spoken units of English Alternative approaches: Small unit game: teaches graphemes of the most prototypical vowels, blends of CV and VC digraphs and combines into CVC words etc. Larger unit game: phoneme approach+large rime units, blends learned small set of ph/gr in CV rime units starting from most dense neigbourhoods with consistent spelling etc.
Results of the English Graphogame with Usha Goswami and Fiona Kyle, Cambridge University Reading gains in standard scores (SS) per hour of playing: – Phoneme game 0.47 SS points – Rime game 0.68 SS points Note: ~0.3 in the most promising earlier interventions (Hatcher et al. 2006) Only rime game elevated significantly the spelling skill Kyle, Goswami et al., Reading Res. Q. 2012, 48, 61-76
Practical facts about the game Available for free to all Finnish children – Playing via net with up-to-date information for teachers and parents about learning difficulties Very easy to use – children learn within minutes and can use without adults – 4-10 hours of playing helps most at risk for dyslexia Works also in Symbian & Android mobile phones Used in Finland also for learning L2 pronunciations
Graphogame – an enjoyable mobile or computer game for learning to read: How it helps at risk children to overcome the fuzziness of the phonemic representations with letters Description. In the game (left) the learner is choosing (in its classical version) from the falling balls the corresponding letter of the one s/he hears from headphones. The illustration (right ) shows an example of how results can be followed. Here we follow how /N/ sound (in the centre) which learner has heard in the game more than 100 trials at the moment this picture is printed from the game logs has made him/her to choose incorrect alternative letters (shown with the number of times these have occurred with the correct N-letter). The red distributions reveal that the learner has had difficulties in not to choose R and M during the first fourth of such trials, but became able to learn during the last fourth (with green distribution) that e.g.R does not represent the /N/ sound. For this learner acquiring that the /N/ sound is not represented by M-letter has been a real challenge as shown by the red and darker green distributions which reveal that most of the choices during the first and second fourths of trials (respectively) have ended up to this mistake. The learner has failed to learn to identify the correspondence of the /N/ sound during the whole session in trials where M has occurred (7 times) as an alternative. On the other hand s/he has not chosen e.g. S to represent the /N/ sound any more during the last fourth of the trials (no misidentifications during the 9 last of the 34 trials with S as an alternative). For more details, see Lyytinen et al., Scand.J.Psychol., 2009, 50, and for documentation of the efficiency of the game in supporting learning among at risk children, see eg. Saine et.al., Child Development, 82,3, Competitor’ Player’s catcher Falling letters Correctly chosen letters Player’s results Competitor’s results Mouse pointer
Illustration of the game developed byJanne Kujala
GG training of <5 hours affects brain Pre-Post GG: Children (n=15) before and after playing with Graphogame BA18/19 LG-FG, IFG No differenceCondition differences Post-pre interaction between groups playing Graphogame vs Mathgame (same with numbers): p<0.005 Condition differences Increased activation in occipito-temporal areas Words-False fonts HL and UR in collaboration with Swiss colleagues Daniel Brandeis, Sylvia Brehm Brem et al., PNAS, 2010, 107(17),
Graphogame as an assessment tool Dynamic assessment: – Online follow-up of the results of learning connections between spoken and written items – Immediate application of the observed results to guiding the training to bottleneck areas i.e. integrating assessment and intervention as made in the response-to-intervention model with the exception that the cycle of refocussing intervention can happen in seconds
GRAPHOGAME model In Finland today – at best daily users Ekapeli/Graphogame used under the responsibility and funding of the Ministry of Education Centralized monitoring and feedback from Agora Could work as main model for implementations elsewhere as well
Grapho Learning Initiative Our vision is to help millions of people, who otherwise would not have access to a basic skills, such as reading, and be able to launch themselves to a sustainable learning curve and a road to prosperity.
Compromised reading skill Biological reasons (% of population) » Global > 5% » Finland > 3% (and other transparent languages) Educational reasons » Global - up to 90% (in developing countries) » Finland – 0%
Research Evidence We have gained research evidence on the efficacy of GraphoGame™ training. – from transparent writing environments – to some degree also from more non-transparent orthographies including English. Our partner network is tackling global challenges – Biological factors (dyslexia) – Insufficient teaching – Lack of social support
The basic principles of Graphogame development for a new writing system see, grapholearn.info Careful study of the written language environment with local experts for developing appropriate content Evidence based documentation of the efficiency of the game after a new implementation of content for a new context Distribution and use under the responsibility of the local Ministry of Education after research has shown its efficiency in an orthographic environment
GraphoGame™ Pre-releases, for testing Studies initiated in Europe ( outside Finland ) – Austria, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, France, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, UK Studies running in Africa – Kenya, Namibia, Tanzania and Namibia Elsewhere – Canada, Chile, China, Taiwan and US
Ma Objectives Training literacy skills: basic skill, automatisation and reading comprehension 1.Global distribution and service 2.GraphoGame™ in local language 3.Non-profit business model
Who needs GraphoGame™ and how to get it? Children learning to read – first grade of school – most appropriate age - 7y – all in need of effective help in learning to read Download from our server – Play at school or at home – Access via pc, tablet, mobile Note: language versions are pending.
GraphoWorld Network of Excellence on Research
For more.., please, Call: Have a look of our research: heikki.lyytinen.info Ask for reprint(s): The game pages in Finnish: English: See also grapholearn.info for the whole approach Thank you for attention!