Presentation on theme: "Co-production of cultural value- Discussion workshop 19 th January 2015."— Presentation transcript:
Co-production of cultural value- Discussion workshop 19 th January 2015
Schedule 1pm: arrival and lunch 1:15pm introduction to research and lit review 1:45pm discussion as a group of one overarching question 2pm: break out groups work on individual questions 3pm: feedback to the group 3:45pm: preview of the next topic 4pm: end of day
Warm up Introduce yourself with ▫Your name, ▫Your organisation, ▫and your favourite film or play
The project Test the value of a co-produced metric set and system of opinion- based data collection Question of how cultural organisations, their peers and the public assess the quality of work University of Manchester and a variety of technology and cultural partners in and around Manchester, inspired by and based on the Australian initiative Culture Counts Task for the researchers: Literature review, critical friends and workshops
Research and lit review What is cultural value? ▫Measures ▫Triangulation Co-producing metrics ▫Collaboration ▫Participatory events Big Data ▫Value of big data ▫Gaps in use
What is cultural value? Types of value: Three types of value: economic value, cultural value- and potentially social value (Klamer, 2003) Different definitions for public, artists and organisations Public: the primary value of culture is quality of the artistic experience, which could ‘be judged by understanding the emotional response of the audience to a piece of work and the impact it has in terms of challenging perceptions and broadening horizons’ (Bunting, 2007, p. 16) Arts Council: Values of quality: ‘Excellence is thriving and celebrated in the arts, museums and libraries’- very vague Wolf Brown (Carnwath & Brown, 2014): The value of art is created in the encounter between the piece and the observer Crossick: ‘The first part of the framework will be an examination of the cultural experience itself and its impact on individuals and its benefit to society.’ (Crossick & Kaszynska, 2014)
Policy and economic measurements Active aim of the funders: trying to save money (Holden, 2006). Little to no guidelines as to how money is distributed. Public: advocates ‘tangible social outcomes’ as a measure- hoping for a lasting benefit to the local community beyond the duration of the production Economic measures: promotion of dualism (Belfiore & Bennett, 2010) and a market-driven economy (Walmsley & Oliver, 2011) Arthur Grimes: economic framework goes beyond just numbers (Value and Culture - An Economic Framework, 2014)
Academic studies People have used a range of tools to measure the impact of arts: Carnwath and Brown (2014) review biometric research, post-event surveying, qualitative post-event research, and longitudinal or retrospective studies Emphasis on social impact of the arts: Case studies: benefits of arts in prison (Peaker & Vincent, 1990) Biggest early study supported by the arts council: ‘The Social Impact of the Arts’ (Landry, Bianchini, & Maguire, 1995): number of detailed case studies Currently there are several project which are trying to come up with metrics to measure the impact of culture (A. S. Brown & Novak- Leonard, 2013; Bunting & Knell, 2014; New Economic Foundation, 2008; Throsby, 2000; Throsby & Bakhshi, Hasan, 2010) Additional new research: longitudinal studies which measure long term impact and leading to notions of extended value (Everett & Barrett, 2011; Walmsley, 2013)
Need for new measures ‘Each word of the phrase ‘measuring cultural value’ is problematic’ (Matarasso, 2012) Intention of much of what has been: to spark discussion and investigate priorities and theories (A. S. Brown, 2006) rather than to ‘provide a comprehensive toolkit for practitioners’ (B Walmsley & Oliver, 2011, p. 8) ‘Excellence is difficult to define, and that it will always be, quite rightly, the subject of debate.’ (Arts Council England, 2013, p. 25) ‘Despite the overwhelming aspiration to devise metrics – for performance management, for evaluation, for measurement of ‘social returns on investment’ and for advocacy purposes, there is also lack of methodology and framework with rigour by which these valuations are conducted (NFER, 2012; Miles, 2009).'
Co production of measures Arts sector ‘has too few examples of collaboration across backgrounds, organisations, disciplines and perspectives’ (Arts Council England, 2013, p. 25) Collaboration between practitioners and funders: ▫First major consultation was the ‘arts debate’ discussion, launched by the Arts Council in 2006 and summarised by Catherine Bunting in the document ‘Public value and the arts in England: Discussion and conclusions of the arts debate’ (2007) Collaboration between practitioners and the public: ▫Members of the public feel that there is a lack of transparency in terms of the decision making process in arts funding (Bunting, 2007). ▫There are two types of collaboration: (1) the public makes the metrics and (2) the public is asked what it values, with the former being much rarer. Collaboration between practitioners? ▫NESTA R&D project
Metrics in other sectors: Education Main indicators are quantitative Five A*-C grades including English and maths at GCSE level (set and controlled by government) and Destination Measure Qualitative ‘oral grade’? Democratic education: against ‘high-stakes standardized testing’ (Institute for Democratic Education in America, 2014), insisting that they narrow the curriculum (Jennings, 2006), are unjust (National Center for Fair and Open Testing, 2010) and that they encourage teachers and students to ‘work to the test’ (Carnegie-Knight Task Force, 2007) Students opinions in HE: National Student Survey and League Tables Ofsted no-notice inspections: ‘a real barrier to good [teaching] candidates going into difficult schools’ (Howse, 2014)
Bibliography Arts Council England. (2013, October). Great art and culture for everyone. Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/Great_art_and_culture_for_everyone.pdf Belfiore, E., & Bennett, O. (2010). The Social Impact of the Arts: An Intellectual History (Reprint edition.). Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Brown, A. S. (2006). An Architecture of Value. GIA Reader, 17(1). Brown, A. S., & Novak-Leonard, J. L. (2013). Measuring the intrinsic impacts of arts attendance. Cultural Trends, 22(3-4), 223–233. doi:10.1080/09548963.2013.817654 Bunting, C. (2007, November). Public value and the arts in England: Discussion and conclusions of the arts debate. Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/media/uploads/documents/publications/phpwumR4F.pdf Bunting, C., & Knell, J. (2014). Measuring quality in the cultural sector: The Manchester Metrics pilot: findings and lessons learned. Arts Council England. Carnegie-Knight Task Force. (2007, January). Mandatory Testing and News in the Schools: Implications for Civic Education. Retrieved from http://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/mandatory_testing_and_news_in_schools_2007.pdf Carnwath, J. D., & Brown, A. S. (2014, July 14). Understanding the value and impacts of cultural experiences. Arts Council England. Retrieved from http://www.artscouncil.org.uk/news/arts-council-news/today-we-publish-understanding-value-and-impacts-c/ Everett, M. C., & Barrett, M. S. (2011). Benefits Visitors Derive from Sustained Engagement with a Single Museum: Benefits Visitors Derive from Sustained Engagement with a Single Museum. Curator: The Museum Journal, 54(4), 431–446. doi:10.1111/j.2151-6952.2011.00108.x Holden, J. (2006). Cultural Value and the Crisis of Legitimacy: Why Culture Needs a Democratic Mandate. London: Demos. Howse, P. (2014, March 21). Ofsted proposes inspections overhaul. BBC. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-26677651 Institute for Democratic Education in America. (2014). Where we stand. Retrieved December 15, 2014, from http://democraticeducation.org/index.php/about- us/where-we-stand/ Jennings, J. (2006, November 1). Ten Big Effects of the No Child Left Behind Act on Public Schools. Diane. Retrieved from http://www.cep- dc.org/displayDocument.cfm?DocumentID=263 Klamer, A. (2003). Social, cultural and economic values of cultural goods. Cultural Economics, Japanese Association for Cultural Economics, 3(3), 17–38. Landry, C., Bianchini, F., & Maguire, M. (1995). The social impact of the arts A discussion document. Matarasso, F. (2012, January 20). On “the very idea of measuring cultural value.” Retrieved from http://parliamentofdreams.com/2012/01/20/on-the-very- idea-of-measuring-cultural-value/ National Center for Fair and Open Testing. (2010, December). Racial Justice and Standardized Educational Testing. Retrieved from http://www.fairtest.org/sites/default/files/racial_justice_and_testing_12-10.pdf New Economic Foundation. (2008). Capturing the audience experience: A handbook for the theatre. Commissioned by Independent Theatre Council, The Society of London Theatre and Theatrical Management Association. Peaker, A., & Vincent, J. (1990). Arts in Prison: Towards a Sense of Achievement. London: Home Office. Throsby, D. (2000). Economics and Culture. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. Throsby, D., & Bakhshi, Hasan. (2010). Culture of Innovation: An Economic Analysis of Innovation in Arts and Cultural Organizations. NESTA. Value and Culture - An Economic Framework. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yy3EE9c_jZU&feature=youtube_gdata_player Walmsley, B. (2013). “A big part of my life”: a qualitative study of the impact of theatre. Arts Marketing: An International Journal, 3(1), 73–87. doi:10.1108/20442081311327174 Walmsley, B., & Oliver, J. (2011). Assessing the value of the arts. In B. Walmsley (Ed.), Key Issues in the Arts and Entertainment Industry. Oxford: Goodfellow.
Group discussion What are the issues and problems with co- producing articulations of cultural value?
Break out groups David Martin, Andrew Mowlah, Anna Hassan, Cimeon Ellerton Sarah Johnston, Edward Cox, Steve Mead, Chad McGitchie Tim Neal, Roddy Gauld, Dave McGillivray Vanessa Walters, Ben Walmsley, Erinma Ochu,
Questions Does your organisation use different kinds of data in order to judge ‘quality’? What are the advantages or disadvantages of working with different sets? Does the public like to give your organisation feedback? Are there ways in which you get more feedback than in others (eg online survey vs paper survey, etc)? Have you changed your data gathering approach in the past 12 months at all? Do you think this might happen in the near future? Why?
Mix groups Let’s mix it up! David Martin, Cimon Ellerton, Steve Mead, Dave McGillivray Erinma Ochu, Roddy Gauld, Edward Cox, Anna Hassan Ben Walmsley, Tim Neal, Sarah Johnston, Andrew Mowlah Vanessa Walters, Chad McGitchie, Sarah Johnston
Critical Friends 1.Do you believe it is possible for post-event surveying to capture the 'value' of an event? 2.Can the ‘value’ of events or organisations be compared by using the same questions across different arts forms and projects? What problems and issues might this approach pose?