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 Description and images (1-2 pages): 2 pts.  Context with secondary sources: 5 pts.  Provenance (3-4 pages): 5 pts.  Works cited: 1 pt.  Grammer/flow:

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Presentation on theme: " Description and images (1-2 pages): 2 pts.  Context with secondary sources: 5 pts.  Provenance (3-4 pages): 5 pts.  Works cited: 1 pt.  Grammer/flow:"— Presentation transcript:

1  Description and images (1-2 pages): 2 pts.  Context with secondary sources: 5 pts.  Provenance (3-4 pages): 5 pts.  Works cited: 1 pt.  Grammer/flow: 2 pt.

2 MUSE E-101

3  An annotated bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited. Example from from Abstract Expressionist Women Painters: an Annotated Bibliography (Puniello and Rusak 1996) (http://library.williams.edu/citing/annotated- bibliography.php)

4 An annotated bibliography is a helpful research tool that lists useful resources for a specific research topic or area.  It includes a short commentary for each book, article, Web site, etc. that it lists.  The commentary is descriptive (tells about the content) and evaluative (tells about the author's point of view, clarity and appropriateness of expression, and authority. Annotated bibliographies answer the question: "What would be the most relevant, most useful or most up-to-date sources for this topic?"  Goal: you engage in the work of scholarship, using your knowledge, research, and critical thinking skills.  Teaches you how to conduct research in your discipline and widens your understanding of a topic.  Excellent preparation for research essays.

5  Abstracts are the purely descriptive summaries often found at the beginning of scholarly journal articles or in periodical indexes.  Annotations are descriptive and critical; they expose the topic as well as the author's point of view, clarity and appropriateness of expression, and authority.  Level of Detail : Some AB’s include short description/evaluations, others provide detailed analysis. For your assignment, write 150 words or so of description and evaluation, with your paper topic in mind.  Organization : Bibliographies are usually organized by Author/Date, but AB’s serve a different purpose and can be thematically organized.  For ours, include two main sections: Primary Sources and Secondary Sources  Within these, arrange by Author, Year  Research Process : An AB is the end product of a comprehensive literature review, NOT a list of the first citations you find! You build up an understanding of your subject by research and making bibliographic connections. Only include sources relevant to your topic.  If you're feeling overwhelmed by the prospect of all this research, or don't know where to start, ask a research librarian for assistance!

6 1. SELECT A TOPIC  Pick a topic you can handle within your time and space limitations.  Don't pick anything so broad you can't say anything significant, or so narrow that there is nothing much to say. Try picking one aspect of a broad topic in which you're interested. 2. GET A GOOD OVERVIEW  Use good reference sources to get a handle on your topic, and perhaps identify the "classic" books and articles covering the subject.  Examples of sources are general and topical dictionaries and encyclopedias, handbooks, research guides and bibliographies. 3. FIND OUT WHAT MATERIALS ARE AVAILABLE  Look for primary and secondary sources  When you look at sources determine if they contain information pertinent to your topic

7 4. SELECT THE BEST REPRESENTATIVE MATERIAL  This is more than just mechanical work. Use your own judgment as you review the materials you have selected for your preliminary list.  Select books, articles and media that are informative, helpful, timely, relatively unbiased (or pick opposing views for balance), and which, taken together, provide good coverage of your topic. 5. DIG DEEPER  Review your sources. Is your coverage "lightweight“?  Take a look at footnotes, endnotes, bibliographies, and reference lists included in your sources  Do more than one of them refer to the same source articles or books? Would that article or book be considered important to the subject area?  Take a look at existing bibliographies, which might be a separate book, a periodical article, or posted on the Web (but only if from a credible, identified source). If several cite the same item, and it's relevant to your topic, see if that work is available and would meet your criteria.  If your list of sources seem a little scattered and unrelated to each other, you might want to think about scoping down your topic to something more specific.

8 6. WRITE YOUR ANNOTATION  Include author, date, publisher, city published, date published, pages used, medium type, editors, journal titles, website names and URLs.  For each source, write a summary of what it contains. Review source criticism lecture. Other sources:  Add evaluative comments telling what is or is not covered, what particular viewpoint is represented, any strengths or weaknesses you notice, and where it might fit into an overview of your topic.  Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that a.evaluate the authority or background of the author, b.comment on the intended audience, c.compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or d.explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.  Be sure you have complete bibliographic information for each selection.  Your annotations should be in alphabetical order using the MLA format  You will include two headings: Primary Sources and Secondary Sources

9  original object or document -- the raw material or first-hand information  created during the time period or created at a later date by a participant in the events being studied (as in the case of memoirs)  reflect the individual viewpoint of a participant or observer.  Can include:  Autobiography  Letters  Newspaper accounts of an event  First hand observations  Novels  Official memoranda  Photographs  Speeches

10  something written about a primary source  secondary sources analyze, interpret or comment on the primary source materials.  think of secondary sources as second-hand information – how reliable is it?

11 TYPE OF PRIMARY SOURCESEARCH STRATEGY Books from the periodSeach by topic, date of publication Memoirs, letters, interviews, autobiographies, diaries If you do not have the name of an individual, search and add in the subject search: correspondence diaries interviews personal narratives Newspaper titles by city or by subjectInclude city in search criteria PhotographsYou can search by date and location in VIA, Google Images, University of chicago online sources, Library of Congress, etc.

12 Think about:  author and his/her position in a social hierarchy (i.e. high status elite? ethnic group? religion?)  his/her training as an observer (i.e. missionary, reporter, layperson)  time of observation (special event, time of year  cultural context in which the text was written  the nature of the text (i.e. diary, advertisement)  the method of observation used by the author (direct, interview, third person narrative)  the use of stereotypes  degree to which different observations corroborate with one another

13  artist  context in which image was taken/produced  commercial  private  unique  mass produced  intended audience  style, aesthetics, composition  artistic themes that influenced production

14  What are the author's credentials--institutional affiliation (where he or she works), educational background, past writings, or experience? Is the book or article written on a topic in the author's area of expertise?  Have you seen the author's name cited in other sources or bibliographies? Respected authors are cited frequently by other scholars. For this reason, always note those names that appear in many different sources.  Is the author associated with a reputable institution or organization? What are the basic values or goals of the organization or institution?

15  When was the source published?  This date is often located on the face of the title page below the name of the publisher.  If it is not there, look for the copyright date on the reverse of the title page.  On Web pages, the date of the last revision is usually at the bottom of the home page, sometimes every page.  Is the source current or out-of-date for your topic?  Topic areas of continuing and rapid development, such as the sciences, demand more current information.  On the other hand, topics in the humanities often require material that was written many years ago.  Be aware of the influence of scholarly trends and fashions (i.e., structuralism, post-structuralism, subaltern studies, postcolonialism, etc.)  At the other extreme, some news sources on the Web now note the hour and minute that articles are posted on their site.

16 Reprint? Edition? Revised Edition?  Is this a first edition of this publication or not?  Further editions indicate a source may have been revised and updated to reflect changes in knowledge, include omissions, and harmonize with its intended reader's needs.  Check whether it is REVISED or REPRINTED.  Also, many printings or editions may indicate that the work has become a standard source in the area and is reliable.  If you are using a Web source, do the pages indicate revision dates?

17  Note the publisher. If the source is published by a university press, it is likely to be scholarly. Although the fact that the publisher is reputable does not necessarily guarantee quality, it does show that the publisher may have high regard for the source being published.

18  What kind of Journal is this?  Scholarly or a popular?  Peer reviewed?  These distinctions are important: ▪ it indicates different levels of complexity in conveying ideas ▪ it indicates different levels of oversight and rigor in research and presentation

19  Having made an initial appraisal, you should now examine the body of the source.  Read the preface to determine the author's intentions for the book.  Scan the table of contents and the index to get a broad overview of the material it covers.  Note whether bibliographies are included.  Read the chapters that specifically address your topic.  Scanning the table of contents of a journal or magazine issue is also useful! There may be related articles or a themed issue with an introduction.  As with books, the presence and quality of a bibliography at the end of the article may reflect the care with which the authors have prepared their work.

20  What type of audience is the author addressing? Is the publication aimed at a specialized or a general audience?  the Intellectual Goldilocks test: Is this source too elementary, too technical, too advanced, or just right for your needs?

21  Is the information covered fact, opinion, or propaganda? It is not always easy to separate fact from opinion. Facts can usually be verified; opinions, though they may be based on factual information, evolve from the interpretation of facts. Skilled writers can make you think their interpretations are facts.  Does the information appear to be valid and well-researched, or is it questionable and unsupported by evidence? Assumptions should be reasonable. Note errors or omissions.  Are the ideas and arguments advanced more or less in line with other works you have read on the same topic? The more radically an author departs from the views of others in the same field, the more carefully and critically you should scrutinize his or her ideas.  Is the author's point of view objective and impartial? Is the language free of emotion-arousing words and bias? Bias is in some sense inescapable and is not necessarily bad if it is clear and acknowledged, but it must be taken into account.

22  Does the work update other sources, substantiate other materials you have read, or add new information?  Does it extensively or marginally cover your topic? You should explore enough sources to obtain a variety of viewpoints.

23  Is the publication organized logically?  Are the main points clearly presented?  Do you find the text easy to read, or is it stilted or choppy?  Is the author's argument repetitive?

24  Locate critical reviews of books in sources such as Book Review Index, Book Review Digest, Periodical Abstracts, or in scholarly journals in the field.  Is the review positive?  Is the book under review considered a valuable contribution to the field?  Does the reviewer mention other books that might be better? relevant? that might cover a different aspect of the subject?  If so, locate these sources for more information on your topic.  Do the various reviewers agree on the value or attributes of the book or has it aroused controversy among the critics? Do you agree or disagree?

25  Creating an annotated bibliography calls for the application of a variety of intellectual skills: concise exposition, succinct analysis, and informed library research.  First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.  Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.  Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that a.evaluate the authority or background of the author, b.comment on the intended audience, c.compare or contrast this work with another you have cited, or d.explain how this work illuminates your bibliography topic.

26 An annotated bibliography is a helpful research tool that lists useful resources for a specific research topic or area.  It includes a short commentary for each book, article, Web site, etc. that it lists.  The commentary is descriptive (tells about the content) and evaluative (tells about the author's point of view, clarity and appropriateness of expression, and authority. Annotated bibliographies answer the question: "What would be the most relevant, most useful or most up-to-date sources for this topic?"  Goal: you engage in the work of scholarship, using your knowledge, research, and critical thinking skills.  Teaches you how to conduct research in your discipline and widens your understanding of a topic.  Excellent preparation for research essays.

27 1. SELECT A TOPIC  Pick a topic you can handle within your time and space limitations.  Don't pick anything so broad you can't say anything significant, or so narrow that there is nothing much to say. Try picking one aspect of a broad topic in which you're interested. 2. GET A GOOD OVERVIEW  Use good reference sources to get a handle on your topic, and perhaps identify the "classic" books and articles covering the subject.  Examples of sources are general and topical dictionaries and encyclopedias, handbooks, research guides and bibliographies. 3. FIND OUT WHAT MATERIALS ARE AVAILABLE  Look for primary and secondary sources  When you look at sources determine if they contain information pertinent to your topic

28 4. SELECT THE BEST REPRESENTATIVE MATERIAL  This is more than just mechanical work. Use your own judgment as you review the materials you have selected for your preliminary list.  Select books, articles and media that are informative, helpful, timely, relatively unbiased (or pick opposing views for balance), and which, taken together, provide good coverage of your topic. 5. DIG DEEPER  Review your sources. Is your coverage "lightweight“?  Take a look at footnotes, endnotes, bibliographies, and reference lists included in your sources  Do more than one of them refer to the same source articles or books? Would that article or book be considered important to the subject area?  Take a look at existing bibliographies, which might be a separate book, a periodical article, or posted on the Web (but only if from a credible, identified source). If several cite the same item, and it's relevant to your topic, see if that work is available and would meet your criteria.  If your list of sources seem a little scattered and unrelated to each other, you might want to think about scoping down your topic to something more specific.

29 6. WRITE YOUR ANNOTATION  Include author, date, publisher, city published, date published, pages used, medium type, editors, journal titles, website names and URLs.  For each source, write a summary of what it contains. Review source criticism lecture. Other sources:  Add evaluative comments telling what is or is not covered, what particular viewpoint is represented, any strengths or weaknesses you notice, and where it might fit into an overview of your topic.  Be sure you have complete bibliographic information for each selection.  Your annotations should be in alphabetical order using the MLA format  You will include two headings: Primary Sources and Secondary Sources

30 7. REVIEW YOUR WORK ▪ CONTENT: Does it cover your topic fairly completely? Are all major points of view represented, and/or identified? If not, do you inform your reader in the Introduction or otherwise? ▪ STYLE: Are your comments consistent in voice, tone, level of language? Is the bibliography well organized? ▪ FORM: Are your comments grammatically correct? Spelling? Punctuation? Is the work organized, spaced and punctuated accurately and consistently, according to the style manual you are using? ▪ OVERALL: Would your bibliography be helpful to someone who wanted to find out which materials might give a good representation of the information available on this specific topic?

31 Book: Last, First M. Title. City Published: Publisher, Year Published. Print. Chapter in or whole volume: Last, First M. Section Title. Book/Anthology Title. Ed. First M. Last. Edition. City Published: Publisher, Year Published. Print. Magazine: Last, First M. "Article title." Magazine Day Month Year: Page(s). Print. Scholarly journal: Last, First M. "Article." Journal Name Volume.Issue (Year): Page(s). Print. Website: Last, First M. "Website Article." Website. Publisher, Last Updated Day Month Year. Web. Date Accessed Day Month Year. (Do not include the words "Last Updated" or "Date Accessed" in your citation.) Online database (such as Jstor, Lexis Nexis, and ProQuest): Last, First M. "Article." Journal Volume.Issue (Year): Pages. Database. Web. Date Accessed Day Month Year. TV or Radio: "Episode." Contributors. Program Title. Network. Call Letter, City, Date. Medium. (Italicize the title of the program.) Video: Title. Contributors. Distributor, Year of release. Medium viewed. Recorded sound (CD, mp3, WMA, AAC): Contributors. "Song." Album. Band. Manufacturer, Year. Medium. Images: Last, First M. Title. Year created. Medium of work. Museum/collection, City. (If the image is found online, list the name of the website instead of museum/collection and city.) Museum label: Museum name. Museum label for Artist, Title of Artwork. City, Date viewed.  Museum exhibition: "Title of Exhibit." Name of Museum. Address of Museum. Date of Visit.  Museum files Author. Title (in “quotation marks”, but italicize published titles/artworks) or a description of the material (but do not italicize the description or enclose it within quotation marks). Date (or N.d. if unknown). Medium/format of the material (e.g. Audiotape, MS, TS). Any identifying numbers. Collection name (or indicate if it is a Private Collection). The archive/library and its location.

32 Baumgarten, Linda. What Clothes Reveal: The Language of Clothing in Colonial and Federal America. Williamsburg: The Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Print. Pages 16 – 208. In exploring Colonial Williamsburg’s vast costume collections, Baumgarten highlights the importance of fashion as a form of communication. Through the study of fashion evolution among colonial Americans, she describes the subtle and sometimes drastic changes in clothing trends that defined particular groups of colonists. She also reveals the myths and meanings surrounding colonial fashion that have been perpetuated throughout history. Her ultimate aim is to present the importance of clothing study as a form of understanding generations past.


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