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APA Form and Style for Proposals and Dissertations Martha King Senior Dissertation Editor Lansdowne Residency March 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "APA Form and Style for Proposals and Dissertations Martha King Senior Dissertation Editor Lansdowne Residency March 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 APA Form and Style for Proposals and Dissertations Martha King Senior Dissertation Editor Lansdowne Residency March 2010

2 Advanced Citations Remember: You’re trying to show your reader you know what you’re talking about. Every assertion should be backed up by the literature using APA citation style.

3 Advanced Citations: Citing Nonquoted Information One author: (Sinatra, 2007) Two authors: (Sinatra & Garland, 2007) Three to five authors: (Sinatra, Garland, & Fitzgerald, 2007) on first reference with (Sinatra et al., 2007) after that Six or more authors: (Sinatra et al., 2007) on first and all subsequent references Serial comma

4 Citing Nonquoted Information 3.96: An organization: (Wonka, Inc., 2008) 3.97: No author: (“Without Identity,” 2006) 3.98: Same surname: M. King (2005) and W. King (2007) discovered King is a more common last name than typically thought.

5 Citing Nonquoted Information 3.99: Multiple works in same parentheses -Alphabetical order (the order works appear in the reference list) -Authors separated by a semicolon -Multiple years with the same author have older year first, and use a, b, c designation for same years (Poppycock, 2005a, 2005b; Z ounds, 2001)

6 This confirmed the observation that holding the environment constant, rather than letting it vary dynamically, frequently occurred in more than one field of research (Axelrod, 1984; Barnard, 1968, pp. 67, 78; Klyubin et al., 2004, p. 566).

7 Secondary Sources You didn’t read the original study, you read about it in another source: APA 5 th p. 247, APA 6 th p. 178: citation of a work discussed in a secondary source. Use them when original is out of print, unavailable through usual sources, or not available in English. Text citation Walsh and King’s study on the correct use of APA citations in Walden University dissertations (as cited in Zuckerman, Ball, & McIndoo, 2008)... Reference list entry Zuckerman, J., Ball, T., & McIndoo, T. (2008). Correct use of citations among college students: Myth or reality. Citation City, 10(1),

8 Citing Nonquoted Information Personal Communication ( APA ; APA ) -Includes interviews, s, letters, phone conversations—nonrecoverable data -Does not appear in reference list B. A. Superciter (personal communication, August 1, 2008) found.... (M. I. Right, personal communication, March 17, 2008)

9 Citing Quoted Information Citing a quoted piece of information: (Fitzgerald, 2004, p. 62) or Fitzgerald (2004) found “jazz is the lifeblood of the soul” (p. 62). The CDICA (2007) determined that “acronyms can be overused” (para. 3).

10 Formatting Block Quotes I love block quotations because they fill up my paper. However, I am very careful not to use too many of them in order to show my reader what I’m talking about. My professors, seeing many block quotations in my work, might not give me the credit as a writer and researcher that I so clearly deserve. (p. 4) Note. No quotation marks. Double space. Period at the end of quote. because no one actually reads block quotes (Zuckerman, 2008):

11 How often do you cite? Cite anything that includes actual statistics or figures (50% of the population believes...), and cite anything that anyone could pick a fight with you about (that means you do not need to cite that the Earth is round). Picture someone looking over your shoulder asking, “Says who?” See APA 6 th edition manual, section 6.11 for guidelines.

12 Citing the same study in the same paragraph Within a paragraph, when the name of the author is part of the narrative, you need not include the year in subsequent nonparenthetical references to a study. Do include the year in all parenthetical citations.

13 King (2008) found that citing is fun. King took great care in conducting the research, surveying 150 current Walden students. In fact “students really grow to love APA” (King, 2008, p. 23). King also found that students secretly love APA even when first introduced to the style.

14 Children’s role in relation to the maternal illness is a major consideration in understanding the child-mother dyad. If children are parentified, that is, they meet the parent’s emotional needs rather than the reverse, their “age- appropriate dependency needs go unmet” (Teyber, 1997, p. 169). If the child-mother interaction indicates enmeshment or disengagement, children will not have the secure base necessary to develop independence and closeness (Teyber, 1997, p. 172). While enmeshment and disengagement might exist in any family unit, its presence may be directly precipitated by the existence of a maternal mental illness through the mother’s necessity to meet her psychiatric needs while simultaneously meeting her child’s needs. Hence, the illness itself can interfere with child-mother interactions. Teyber’s (1997) theory is valid in the sense that parentification is, indeed, problematic. Example 1: Citing the same study in the same paragraph

15 Children’s roles in relation to the maternal illness is a major consideration in understanding the child-mother dyad. If children are parentified, that is, they meet the parent’s emotional needs rather than the reverse, their “age-appropriate dependency needs go unmet” (Teyber, 1997, p. 169). According to Teyber (1997), if the child-mother interaction indicates enmeshment or disengagement, children will not have the secure base necessary to develop independence and closeness (p. 172). While enmeshment and disengagement might exist in any family unit, its presence may be directly precipitated by the existence of a maternal mental illness through the mother’s necessity to meet her psychiatric needs while simultaneously meeting her child’s needs. Hence, the illness itself can interfere with child-mother interactions. Teyber’s theory is valid in the sense that parentification is, indeed, problematic. Example 2: How to cite the same study in the same paragraph

16 Children’s roles in relation to the maternal illness is a major consideration in understanding the child-mother dyad. If, according to Teyber (1997), children are parentified, that is, they meet the parent’s emotional needs rather than the reverse, their “age-appropriate dependency needs go unmet” (p. 169). Teyber added that if the child-mother interaction indicates enmeshment or disengagement, children will not have the secure base necessary to develop independence and closeness (p. 172). While enmeshment and disengagement might exist in any family unit, its presence may be directly precipitated by the existence of a maternal mental illness through the mother’s necessity to meet her psychiatric needs while simultaneously meeting her child’s needs. Hence, the illness itself can interfere with child-mother interactions. Teyber’s theory is valid in the sense that parentification is, indeed, problematic. Example 3: How to cite the same study in the same paragraph

17 Other researchers have studied how team processes influenced patient care outcomes. For example, Alexander et al. (2005) found that member participation in team processes improved care outcomes. Cunningham, Chelladurai, and Packianathan (2004) examined team decision participation processes and proposed that as perceived team equality in decision making increases, so too did effectiveness. Kozlowski and Bell (2003) suggested that as coordination, collaboration, communication and goal congruency advanced, team effectiveness improved. Successful coordination of team task in conjunction with team process mapping was seen by Kozlowski and Bell as an important variable that supports team effectiveness. Citations followed by assertions

18 Assertions backed by citations Studies on shared mental model commonly conceptualized shared cognition as a process by which members of a team intellectually manage and process information within the team (Cannon-Bowers et al., 1993; Mathieu et al., 2000). Another commonality noted in research on shared mental model is the categorization into task work and team work (Kraiger & Wensel, 1997; Rentsch & Klimoski, 2001). An assortment of terminology has been used to describe socially shared cognition, including, transactive memory (Wegner, Erber, & Raymond, 1991), distributed cognition (Hutchins, 1991), SMM (Cannon-Bower et al., 1993), and collective mind (Weick & Robert, 1993).

19 Repeat the author name rather than using a pronoun. Do not use first names. Susan Larkin in her research presented how “manipulating scaffolded instruction could optimize learning” ( 2001, p. 1). Guidelines spelled out in her research study provided information on how to implement scaffolding in the classroom. She included information on the pros and cons of the uses of the strategy. Larkin (2001) described how “manipulating scaffolded instruction could optimize learning” (p. 1). The guidelines indicate how to implement scaffolding in the classroom, along with the pros and cons of the strategy.

20 A cautionary word about direct quotes Use them judiciously, especially block quotes. Do not begin or end a paragraph with a direct quote. When professors and editors talk about scholarly voice, they mean your voice.

21 Verb Tenses The cardinal principle is that the verb tenses must always make sense. In your proposal, you write about what you intend to do. [future tense] In your dissertation, you write about what you did. [past tense]

22 Verb Tenses The cardinal principle is that the verb tenses must always make sense. There is a shortage of nurses in North Dakota. Air traffic control is among the highest stress jobs in any industry. The United States experienced record budget deficits under the Bush administration.

23 Verb tenses that make sense in the proposal do not necessarily make sense when you’ve done the study and written the last two chapters. A survey will be distributed to 30 longshoremen in Hoboken. A survey was distributed to 30 longshoremen in Hoboken, NJ. Verb Tenses

24 You can tell your readers in present or future tense what they will encounter, depending on what makes sense: [At the end of ch. 2]: The third chapter will provide details of the research method. At the start of ch. 3]: The third chapter provides details of the research method. [At the end of ch. 3]: The third chapter provided details of the research method.

25 Dissertation Templates We have preformatted templates for both APA 5 th and 6 th editions to help you. Basic Dissertation Template

26 Be Aware, Be Very Aware Most of this is in the Proposal and Dissertation Guidebook, which you can download from Don’t assume your faculty members will mark APA mistakes. Get copyright permission EARLY from copyright holders. A good source of information is the ProQuest website at /

27 Margins My Wonderful Research ___________________ 1 in. from the edge of paper for top, bottom, right side margins Left margin is 1.5 in. You must change Word’s default: Go to File, Page Setup, Margins.

28 Preliminary Pages Order and Pagination for APA 6 Abstract title page (no page number) Abstract (no page numbers) Title page (no page number) Dedication (optional; no page number) Acknowledgements (optional; no page number) Table of Contents (i) List of Tables ( ) List of Figures ( )

29 About Fonts Use a serif font (Times New Roman, Palatino, or Book Antiqua, for example. Use the same font throughout. This is not the place to get creative and use lots of different fonts. Per APA, do not use bold underlines. Table text can be in a sans serif font such as Arial.

30 Abstract Guidelines Has its own title page Limited to one page Contains no citations All numbers, except those beginning a sentence) are expressed as numerals Use it to show four things: 1.What you studied, specifically, and why. 2.What you did, specifically (methodology). 3.What you found out about what you studied. 4.Implications for practice, research, social change.

31 Abstract Guidelines Summarize the key research question(s) in the declarative. Describe, briefly, the overall research design and methods. Identify the key results, one or two conclusions, and recommendations that capture the heart of the research Conclude with a statement on the implications for positive social change. Abstract must be one page. Abstract Primer available at

32 Acknowledgments I want to thank my mother and father, who believed in me, and my 11 th grade math teacher, who said I would be lucky to get a job at Wal-Mart. My iguana, Spike, should not go unmentioned. He had a way of staring at me that kept me focused on my writing.  No page number on this optional page. Pagination Guidelines

33 Table of Contents List of Tables…………………………………………v Chapter 1: Introduction………………………….……1 Background of the Study……………………………...2 Author’s Experience With Air Guitar……...…….3 The 20 th Century Shortage of Play Time…… Problem Statement…………………………….……..5 i

34 Having trouble with the dot leader? Use one of the nifty templates, or refer to the “Formatting the Table of Contents” document. Don’t do it with periods. Period.

35 APA 6 Heading Levels Chapter Heading (L0) Centered, Bold, Uppercase and Lowercase Heading (L1) Flush Left, Upper- and Lowercase Heading (L2) Indented, bold, italic, sentence case (L3) Only L0, L1, and L2 headings are in the TOC.

36 36 Chapter 2: Literature Review [L0] Church Basement Supper Food in Minnesota [L1] The hot dish has been a staple at Lutheran Church suppers for decades.... Molds made with jello and fruit are another favorite at these gatherings. Hot Dish [L2] German and Scandinavian families loved to mix bland, white foods into one serving dish.... Ingredients of hot dish through the decades. [L3] Cream of mushroom or celery canned soups feature largely in any self-respecting hot dish... What to serve with hot dish. [L4] A nice salad made with iceberg lettuce goes nicely.... Jello Salad [L2] The origin of Jello molds, also called Jello salads, is unknown....

37 Do’s and Don’ts Tables and Figures Some common APA rules that you’ll hear repeated a million times during your program at Walden.

38 Everything You Wanted To Know About Tables and Figures But Were Afraid To Ask Try to keep tables on one page. If you need to, move a table to the next page rather than having it break across a page. It’s OK to have some white space at the bottom of a page. Yes, you can go landscape if need be. Keep tables and figures within the page margins.

39 Yes, you can switch fonts to a sans serif (e.g., Arial) and go as small as 8 points but don’t go bigger than 12 points. Keep the table number and title the same point size as the narrative text. Tables and figures are numbered consecutively throughout the narrative (Table 1, Table 2, Table 3, etc. or Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3, etc.) Everything You Wanted To Know About Tables and Figures But Were Afraid To Ask

40 Go figure... The information in the manual is great; use the examples to guide you (APA 6 th, pp ). Any graphic is called a figure, not a chart or a graph. Figure captions are more descriptive than table titles.

41 Go figure... Mention the figure in the text before you place the figure. Use the figure number not the figure below or the next figure. Figures are inserted into the narrative as close to the text that introduces them as is practical. Do not place a figure in the middle of a paragraph. Figures are labeled underneath the figure.

42

43

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45 Crosshatch 

46 Figure 2. A model showing the critical elements for successful course development in online education.

47 As for tables... Use the examples in the manual to guide you (APA 6 th ). Tables are inserted right there in text, not in appendices (unless it’s supplemental stuff the reader doesn’t need in the narrative). “An informative table supplements—instead of duplicates— the text.... Discuss only the table’s highlights; if you discuss every item of the table in text, the table is unnecessary” You need written permission to adapt or reprint a table or figure from copyrighted sources not in the public domain. Tables are labeled above; table number is plain type, table title is on next line (double space), title case, italic.

48 There were 39 out of 50 surveys returned from individuals who taught in a Head Start setting; all were female. Head Start participants’ ages ranged from 26 to 65 years with a mean of and a standard deviation of Education levels corresponded to the following categories: (a) 54.8% had bachelor’s degree, (b) 24.3% master’s degree, and (c) 20.9% community college. Ethnic classifications were as follows: (a) (b) 46.2% Hispanic, (c) 28.2% Asian/Pacific Islander, (d) 10.3% African-American, (e) 7.7% Caucasian, and (f) 7.7% other. All this would work better in a table.

49 Too many lines; use only horizontal lines, per APA. Make sure all text fits in the table cells.

50  

51

52 Data from SPSS

53 APA Style

54 Quick APA Review Remember: Normally, numbers 10 and higher are written as numerals. Nine and lower are written out. Main exceptions: (a) units of time or measurement Use a percent sign unless at the start of a sentence. Use a serial comma. It’s a little thing, but you gotta do it.

55 The facility had 150 managers, 75 of whom, or 50%, were unnecessary. The study was conducted over a 3-week period, with two 30-minute sessions each day. In this phenomenological study, five men and four women suffering from toenail fungus were interviewed. The three preferred food choices of State Fair goers are chocolate chip cookies, anything on a stick, and deep-fried cheese curds.

56 The three preferred food choices of State Fair goers are (a) chocolate chip cookies, (b) anything on a stick, and (c) deep-fried cheese curds. The top three preferred food choices of State Fair goers, in order of preference, are: 1. Chocolate chip cookies. 2. Anything on a stick. 3. Deep-fried cheese curds.

57 Little APA Things Italicize statistical abbreviations, like p, t test, n and N, F ratio, and so on. Lowercase for chi-square. Lowercase for job titles. Lower case for theories (theory of learned behavior). Lowercase for disorders or diseases (bipolar disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, multiple sclerosis). Capitalize nouns followed by letters or numbers (Chapter 1, Table 1, Figure 1, Appendix A, Group A, Research Question 1, etc.)

58 A Few Things About Appendices Your committee should tell you what you need there, what goes in the narrative, and what’s not needed at all. Paying for and getting permission to reprint an instrument to use in your study is different from getting permission to include it in the dissertation. Appendices are labeled A, B, C, and so on. Tables in an appendix are numbered A1, B2, B3, C2, and so on, and are listed in the list of tables at the end of the table of contents. All appendices are referred to in the narrative, in the order they appear at the end of the manuscript. Appendices per APA 6th

59 Some Easy APA Mechanics Check the tables in Chapter 4 (section 4.13) for rules on hyphenation. In general, words with prefixes such as non, semi, pre, post, anti, multi, and inter are not hyphenated: pretest, posttest, antibiotic, antisocial, nonprofit, semipro, multiphased, subsample, but self-esteem, self-concept. Possessives of words ending in s add ’s: Rogers’s, Italicize most statistical abbreviations. And it’s t test, like that.

60 Some Easy Mechanics Use italics, not underlining. Use a serif font, like Times Roman, Palatino, Book Antiqua, or Courier. Stick to 12 points except in tables and figures, if necessary. Use first person for self-reference. Avoid contractions (e.g., spell out do not). Use a serial comma.

61 Other Formatting Guidelines Dissertations use double spacing for the table of contents, block quotes, and the reference list. Text in tables may be single-spaced for readability, and table titles or figure captions, if they go over one line, may be single spaced. Numbered or bulleted lists may be formatted using Microsoft Word’s automatic list format.

62 Resources, Resources, and More Resources Writing Center for questions about course papers and KAMs for questions about dissertations or doctoral studies WIRE for appointments to have drafts reviewed. Form and Style checklist and templates Research Center APA Style


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