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UNITED STATES CONGRESS The most important deliberative body in the history of the world.

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Presentation on theme: "UNITED STATES CONGRESS The most important deliberative body in the history of the world."— Presentation transcript:

1 UNITED STATES CONGRESS The most important deliberative body in the history of the world

2 HISTORY Two Chambers Two Chambers Senate Senate House of Representatives House of Representatives

3 HISTORY Senate Two Senators from each State Two Senators from each State 26 Senators 26 Senators Now: 100 Senators Now: 100 Senators Originally: Senators Selected by the State Legislatures (U.S. Constitution Article 1 § 3) Originally: Senators Selected by the State Legislatures (U.S. Constitution Article 1 § 3) Changed by 17th Amendment in 1913: The Senate of the United States shall be com- posed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof … Changed by 17th Amendment in 1913: The Senate of the United States shall be com- posed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof …

4 HISTORY House of Representatives Elected by Popular Vote Elected by Popular Vote Each State gets at least one Representative Each State gets at least one Representative One additional Representative for every 30,000 people One additional Representative for every 30,000 people Total of 65 Representatives Total of 65 Representatives

5 WHAT WOULD THE HOUSE LOOK LIKE TODAY? Current US Population: 309,183,463 Current US Population: 1 Representative per 30,000 1 Representative per 30,000 people: Total Representatives: 10,306 Total Representatives: 10,306 What if we gave the least populous state one representative & used that as the ratio for representatives? What if we gave the least populous state one representative & used that as the ratio for representatives? 1789 the least populous State was Delaware (population 30,000) which got 1 representative 1789 the least populous State was Delaware (population 30,000) which got 1 representative 2010 the least populous State was Wyoming (population 568,300) which got 1 representative 2010 the least populous State was Wyoming (population 568,300) which got 1 representative Using the least populous State ratio, Total Representatives: 544 Using the least populous State ratio, Total Representatives: 544

6 WHY ARE THERE 435 REPRESENTATIVES? Number set in 1911 Number set in 1911 Size of the House Chamber Size of the House Chamber How are Representatives Chosen How are Representatives Chosen Apportionment formula: Apportionment formula: State legislatures draw the Districts State legislatures draw the Districts Voters elect Representatives Voters elect Representatives

7 WHY DOESN’T CONGRESS WORK? Apportionment Apportionment High Cost of Campaigns High Cost of Campaigns Low Voter Turnout Low Voter Turnout

8 APPORTIONMENT State Legislature Draws the Lines State Legislature Draws the Lines How? How? Gerrymandering: to manipulate the boundaries of an electoral constituency so as to favor one party or class. Gerrymandering: to manipulate the boundaries of an electoral constituency so as to favor one party or class.

9 APPORTIONMENT 2012 Congressional Districts

10 APPORTIONMENT 2002 Proposed Congressional Districts

11 APPORTIONMENT 2002 Passed

12 APPORTIONMENT 1992 Congressional Districts

13 APPORTIONMENT Why do State Legislatures Gerrymander Legislative Districts? Why do State Legislatures Gerrymander Legislative Districts? Who does Gerrymandering protect? Who does Gerrymandering protect? Does it work? Does it work?

14 2012 CONGRESSIONAL ELECTION RESULTS DISTRICTINCUMBENTCHALLENGER %R37.02%D %D36.22%R %R0.00%D %D26.43%R %D15.61%R %R35.49%D %R27.03%D %R0.00%D 9*(R) 76.18%(D) 23.82% %R0.00%D %R31.45%D %D46.30%R %D28.26%R %R27.03%D

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16 RULE OF UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES Intervention in a complex system tends to create unanticipated and often undesirable outcomes Intervention in a complex system tends to create unanticipated and often undesirable outcomes Why? Why? 1.Ignorance (It is impossible to anticipate everything, thereby leading to incomplete analysis) 2.Error (Incorrect analysis of the problem or following habits that worked in the past but may not apply to the current situation) 3.Immediate interest, which may override long-term interests 4.Basic values may require or prohibit certain actions even if the long-term result might be unfavorable (these long-term consequences may eventually cause changes in basic values) 5.Self-defeating prophecy (Fear of some consequence drives people to find solutions before the problem occurs, thus the non-occurrence of the problem is not anticipated.) Self-defeating prophecySelf-defeating prophecy

17 UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF GERRYMANDERING All incumbents have “safe” seats All incumbents have “safe” seats Consequently Consequently Incumbents have no incentive to serve the people of their home district Incumbents have no incentive to serve the people of their home district Incumbents have no incentive to make Congress “work” Incumbents have no incentive to make Congress “work” Congress becomes a career Congress becomes a career

18 HIGH COST OF CAMPAIGNS Fund raising for the next election begins the day after the last election. Fund raising for the next election begins the day after the last election. Federal Election Commission (FEC) Rules Require All Elected Officials to File Fund Raising Disclosures Every Six Months Federal Election Commission (FEC) Rules Require All Elected Officials to File Fund Raising Disclosures Every Six Months

19 HIGH COST OF CAMPAIGNS John Boehner, (R) Ohio John Boehner, (R) Ohio Raised $9,074,335 Raised $9,074,335 Spent $7,239,533 Spent $7,239, spent $86.04 / vote 2012 spent $86.04 / vote Hank Johnson, (D) Georgia Hank Johnson, (D) Georgia Raised $168,911 Raised $168,911 Spent $133,222 Spent $133, spent $2.08 / vote 2012 spent $2.08 / vote

20 HIGH COST OF CAMPAIGNS 2014 Average Democrat Incumbent has 2014 Average Democrat Incumbent has Raised $546,277 Raised $546,277 Spent $331,280 Spent $331, Average Incumbent Raised $578,311 Average Incumbent Raised $578,311 Average Challenger Raised $117,087 Average Challenger Raised $117, The President spent $16.73 per vote 2012 The President spent $16.73 per vote

21 WHERE DO THE $ GO? Filing Fees & Compiance with Federal & State Laws Filing Fees & Compiance with Federal & State Laws Consultants & Paid Staff Consultants & Paid Staff Direct Mail Direct Mail Internet Internet Radio Radio TV TV “Volunteers” “Volunteers”

22 WHERE DO THE $ COME FROM PACs PACs Individuals Individuals

23 PAC NameTotal Receipts ActBlue$65,358,224 Service Employees International Union$23,365,607 EMILY's List$18,357,593 National Rifle Assn$11,719,160 DGA Action$8,629,385 American Fedn of St/Cnty/Munic Employees$8,564,617 American Federation of Teachers$7,478,275 Senate Conservatives Fund$6,995,208 Teamsters Union$6,989,084 Americans for Responsible Solutions$6,645,722 Intl Brotherhood of Electrical Workers$5,836,145 Plumbers/Pipefitters Union$5,776,515 Independence USA PAC$5,694,701 National Assn of Realtors$5,694,334 United Food & Commercial Workers Union$5,423,114 Laborers Union$4,133,517 AFL-CIO$4,073,817 Communications Workers of America$3,904,730 Honeywell International$3,808,091 Operating Engineers Union$3,678,487 Top 20 PACs by Total Receipts, Totals include subsidiaries and affiliated PACs, if any. Based on data released by the FEC on January 06, Feel free to distribute or cite this material, but please credit the Center for Responsive Politics. For permission to reprint for commercial uses, such as textbooks, contact the Center.contact the Center

24 LOW VOTER TURNOUT

25 EXAMPLE: DEKALB COUNTY Population (2010 Census) Population (2010 Census) 691,893 Total 691,893 Total 526,757 Over ,757 Over 18 Registered Voters Registered Voters 383, ,369 73% of Adults 73% of Adults

26 EXAMPLE: DEKALB COUNTY 2008 Primary — 84,879 Primary — 84,879 22% of Registered Voters 22% of Registered Voters 16% of Adults 16% of Adults General Election — 322,517 General Election — 322,517 84% of Registered Voters 84% of Registered Voters 61% of Adults 61% of Adults

27 EXAMPLE: DEKALB COUNTY 2010 Primary — 83,414 Primary — 83,414 22% of Registered Voters 22% of Registered Voters 16% of Adults 16% of Adults General Election — 212,111 General Election — 212,111 55% of Registered Voters 55% of Registered Voters 40% of Adults 40% of Adults

28 EXAMPLE: DEKALB COUNTY 2012 Primary — 127,316 Primary — 127,316 33% of Registered Voters 33% of Registered Voters 24% of Adults 24% of Adults General Election — 307,228 General Election — 307,228 80% of Registered Voters 80% of Registered Voters 58% of Adults 58% of Adults

29 Bibliography


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