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Illuminating Life: What's New and Noteworthy in Luminescence Spectroscopy and Imaging STEM workshop Illuminating Life: What's New and Noteworthy in Luminescence.

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Presentation on theme: "Illuminating Life: What's New and Noteworthy in Luminescence Spectroscopy and Imaging STEM workshop Illuminating Life: What's New and Noteworthy in Luminescence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Illuminating Life: What's New and Noteworthy in Luminescence Spectroscopy and Imaging STEM workshop Illuminating Life: What's New and Noteworthy in Luminescence Spectroscopy and Imaging Pat O’Hara October 3, 2009

2 Emission of Light Incandescence After heating?YESNO Luminescence After using mechanical forces? Triboluminescence YES After excitation with light? NO chemiluminescencebioluminescencefluorescence NO YES phosphorescence Immediately? YES NO Inanimate? Sonoluminescence YES After excitation with sound?

3 What is fluorescence? What is fluorescence? Fluorescence is the emission of a photon by an excited state molecule.

4 What’s new in fluorescence? Fluorescence of gemstones used to detect fake diamonds Fluorescence is key to spider sex in some species Fireflies chemiluminescence Deep Sea Bioluminescence- Bananas that glow: Fluorescence of ripening fruit is key to cellular processes

5 Beware jewel theives! Real diamonds fluoresce

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8 Fluorescence of Plants Ultraviolet fluorescence of plants is detected by bees, who have photoreceptors in this region of the spectrum and can see what looks to us like landing patterns on the petals directed towards pollen

9 Emission of Light Incandescence After heating?YESNO Luminescence After using mechanical forces? Triboluminescence YES After excitation with light? NO chemiluminescencebioluminescencefluorescence NO YES phosphorescence Immediately? YES NO Inanimate? Sonoluminescence YES After excitation with sound?

10 What is chemiluminescence? Chemical reaction results in an intermediate that is in an excited state. Reaction goes to product after this intermediate releases a photon Energy of the photon comes from chemical energy due to the difference in energy of reactants and products

11 What is Chemiluminescence? Example 1: Chemistry of Lightsticks Phenol + CO 2 + Dye + Light

12 What is Chemiluminescence? Example 2: Chemistry of the Luminol Reaction Oxidants: Peroxide, bleach, hemoglobin Catalysts: sodium perborate, cupric chloride, 3-aminophthalhyrazide light

13 Emission of Light Incandescence After heating?YESNO Luminescence After using mechanical forces? Triboluminescence YES After excitation with light? NO chemiluminescencebioluminescencefluorescence NO YES phosphorescence Immediately? YES NO Inanimate? Sonoluminescence YES After excitation with sound?

14 Firefly Bioluminescence

15 What is Bioluminescence? Chemistry of the Luciferase Reaction In the dark cycle (quiescent) oxygen is consumed by mitochondria (green) and ATP and luciferin are stored up in peroxisomes. In the flash cycle, (NO) is released, and prevents consumption of O 2 by mitocondria. Instead, O 2 diffuses to peroxisome and voila! A flash!!

16 What is Bioluminescence? Chemistry of the Luciferase Reaction The luciferase catalyzes the oxidation of luciferin Resulting in light and an inactive " oxyluciferin "

17 luciferase Luciferase

18 Bioluminescence from surface water Small algae called milky sea Animal------Jellyfish near surface

19 Bioluminescence from mid-water range Let’s see video clip………. Mid-water … ft deep light intensity decreases exponentially 250 ft 10% less than surface 500 ft 1% less than surface Plants can not photosynthesize Why do organisms emit this light? 1. defense against predators 2. camouflage 3. see things and find food 4. communicate

20 Giant Squid- caught in action in 2007

21 Bioluminescence from deep sea jellies

22 Green Fluorescent Protein GFP GFP is a small very fluorescent protein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish, Aequorea victoria. This protein glows or fluoresces green when it absorbs blue light emitted from another protein in the jellyfish, aqueorin.

23 Fluorescent Bomb Throwing Marine Worm “fast, agile swimmers with glistening, translucent bodies sprouting rows of bristles that work like paddles. When disturbed, they eject glowing, green blobs that probably serve as decoys to distract predators’”

24 Pat’s Picks Bizarre deep ocean sea creatures: Deep sea luminescent animals: – – – hments.html hments.html UCSB links:

25 Milky Sea Captured on Satellite Image off coast of East Africa

26 Glowing bananas: photo credit: Zina Deretsky, National Science Foundation

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28 Your Banana Challenge I’ve brought in two dozen bananas of various stages of ripeness, some common solvents, knives, jars, and a black light. I’d like us to explore this phenomenon and put together some discovery lab questions that – with a black light and a ripe banana, might be useful to you in your lab.


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